There are only few art styles continued even throughout the menstruation of the war, and those were withheld by person practices of influential artists from pre-war earned run average such as Pablo Picasso, Salvador Dali, Max Ernst, Marcel Duchamp. For many artists, World Wars of twentieth century brought the migration, and meaning authors of 1950s decade were escaping Nazism in Europe by settling in the United States, which made New York the world ‘s capital of art .
Hans Hartung – T 1955-38, 1955 – Image courtesy of Hans Hertung
Reading: The Story of 1950s Art | Widewalls
Cultural Panorama of 1950s Art
While the worldly concern was recovering from the war, two opponents derived from the ambivalent Allies of WW2 – Eastern, composed of the Soviet Union and its satellite states, and westerly bloc United States, its NATO allies and others. Basically worldly concern was separated between the supporters of one or another competitive unions. A big eminence was in their concepts of prosperity and politics, since Eastern bloc continued implementing revolutionary propaganda forming communist regimes in Eastern Europe and Asia, the Western bloc reached the state of develop capitalism, insisting on absolve market, commercial design, popular print and advertising. In 1950s, Soviet Union and United States entered the nuclear and space race, the decolonization of the Third World countries was blooming, and the Great Two competed for ideological predomination in those newly formed countries.
As the culture is a mighty tool for imprinting political ideology and/or economic agenda, the 1950s art was one of the battlefields for the ultimate and durable victory of communism or capitalism as the proposals for the New World Order. From one hand, Soviet Union and other communist regimes of the East showed lack of understanding for the art practices of Modernism, interpreting non-representative forms of artwork as inexplicable for the labor, while United States ’ government through fund and constitution directly supported get up of abstract art to show progressive and free character of capitalist club. In forthcoming years, it turned out that both of them were wrong, as the developed movements in the 1960s and 1970s heavy criticized the 1950s art world .
Political propaganda: Atomic War, 1950s; America under Socialism, 1950s
Abstract Expressionism as Synonym for 1950s Art
As complex artwork drift in former 1940s, abstract expressionism was legitimate lengthiness of the anti-figurative aesthetic of the european abstractedness and Modernist styles. During and after the war, United States and particularly New York became the gathering position of european artists, dealers and collectors escaping Nazi regimes. At the time, New York hosted Yves Tanguy, Max Ernst, Peggy Guggenheim, Marcel Duchamp, André Masson, André Breton, Marc Chagall and Piet Mondrian and became art city. frankincense, American Abstract expressionism brought in concert influences of Surrealism, Cubism, Fauvism, and early Modernism equally well as noteworthy Bauhaus influences. even though Abstract Expressionism movement was mainstream, it could be roughly divided between two major painting bomber genres – Action Painting and Color Field Painting .
Franz Kline – Chief, 1950 – Image via wikiart.org
action Paining is painting drift far-flung in New York art picture from late 1940s to mid 1960s and is often seen as synonym of the abstract expressionism. The movement shifted the concentrate of the painting objects ( finished artwork ) to the very painting action and work of the creation. While Jackson Pollock insisted on physical act of painting, approaching the concept of Breton ’ s automatic write, Willem de Kooning created the series of rape figurative paintings and Franz Kline focused on aesthetic of the actual brush strokes in his calligraphic abstraction .
Willem De Kooning – Ganesvoort Steet, 1949, detail
Color Field Painting
Another style of abstract artwork, born in New York fit of 1950s was Color Field painting, which is largely influenced by European Modernism and its reverend geometric abstraction. As the name suggests, color was the main subject of the paintings, liberated from any objective context or the meaning in favor of saying of the sublime human emotions. One of the most significant authors within the movement was Mark Rothko who evening denied his association to abstract artwork, insisting on mystic spiritualty of his canvases, while Clifford Stills landscapes contained aboriginal reminiscence on nature or human history. Robert Motherwell painted great open fields of colors, composited with lines and shapes and Barnett Newman tried to reflect jewish history and tradition trough the language of pure colors .
Mark Rothko – Orange and Yellow, 1956
Other Significant Movements of the 50s Art Scene
There are many art movements had started in the 1950s and reached their extremum in decades after. notably, the most crucial movement was abstract expressionism, but it influenced the many artwork practices cosmopolitan, like Modern sculpt, Pop Art, Neo-dada, Art Informel, and Lyrical Abstraction. All these styles were profoundly rooted in the fact that Abstract Expressionism was massively present within the 1950s artwork scene and art education, which was, as we said politically motivated as contrapunkt to the Soviet realism .
Dmitry Zhilinsky – Bathing soldiers (The builders of a bridge), 1959
Modern Sculpture in 1950s
Sculptors in the 1950s begin experimenting with different materials and large plate projects which consequently led to the arise of landscape art in 1970s. New modernist terminology included surrealist visions, anthropomorphic forms and impressive material combinations and across-the-board use of steel and ready-made in sculpt. The fresh lyric of abstraction was embraced by John Chamberlain, Henry Moore, David Smith, Alexander Calder, Jean Tinguely, Isamu Noguchi, Louise Bourgeois and Louise Nevelson .
David Smith – Australia, 1951
Early pop art of 1950s decade
During the 1950s in Britain, there was early crop up art motion lead by Eduardo Paolozzi and Richard Hamilton but it promptly spread to american culture in exploit of Robert Rauschenberg and Jasper Johns. Beginnings of the pop art were related to the irony shown to the fast mature society, liveliness, space and design images inescapably changed by consumerism, arsenic well as to the criticism of the elitist populace of high culture and abstraction in art. First phase of the pop art it is characterized with artworks from found and used objects, in the best tradition of ready-made, deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as the rise of peep techniques such as collection, collage, design or silkscreen print and other means of mechanical reproduction .
Richard Hamilton – Just What Was It that made Yesterday’s Homes so Different so Appealing (detail) – Image via wikiart.org
Lyrical Abstraction and Art Informel
While the title of the cultural capital of the populace was moved to New York, in Paris devastated by war end, the artwork movements were formed as a reaction to the early prevailing artwork practices – Surrealism, Cubism and Geometric Abstraction. At the same time, Abstraction Lyrique was the popular competitive drill to Abstract Expressionism in the US and the poetic answer to the populace of “ cold abstraction ” of Kandinsky. Tachisme ( french bible tache could be interpreted as mark ) and Art Informel are the about synonym to the Lyrical Abstraction since the stain paint, non-formal artwork and use of calligraphy were known within the Paris School 1950s explorations in painting media, which wide influenced european COBRA and japanese Gutai group, angstrom well as authors in United States .
Serge Poliakoff – Bleu Roufe, 1951, detail
1950s Art – War on Abstraction
The unlike standpoints between East and West in 1950s widely influenced the art scene – in Eastern bloc socialist realism provoked politically engaged art or continue to develop in North Korea and in western universe blossomed movements with an answer to the heighten of capitalism. We might say that in 1950s one could draw a line between East and West, entirely based on the attitude towards abstract artwork. This stern division in treatment of abstraction was ignition spark for parentage of Pop Art, New Figurative Art vitamin a well as Situationist Internationale and Conceptual Art and their adjacent practices in 1960s and 1970s, since new art movements reacted on strong governmental influence on art during fifties, equally on East and West .
Featured images : Jasper Johns – Three Flags, 1958 via jasper-johns.org ; Jackson Pollock – convergence, 1952, contingent via wikiart ; Eduardo Paolozzi – actual Gold via wikiart, 1949 ;