Rhythm and blues – Wikipedia

music genre that originated in african-american communities in the 1940s
“ R & B ” and “ RnB ” redirect here. For the modern vogue of R & B music, see Contemporary R & B. For the japanese television receiver station that uses the abbreviation RNB, see Nankai Broadcasting
Rhythm and blues, frequently abbreviated as R&B or R’n’B, [ 1 ] is a writing style of popular music that originated in african-american communities in the 1940s. [ 2 ] The term was originally used by record companies to describe recordings marketed predominantly to urban african Americans, at a time when “ polished, rocking, jazz based music with a heavy, clamant beat ” was becoming more democratic. [ 3 ] In the commercial rhythm method of birth control and blues music distinctive of the 1950s through the 1970s, the bands normally consisted of piano, one or two guitars, bass, drums, one or more saxophones, and sometimes setting vocalists. R & B lyrical themes much encapsulate the african-american experience of pain and the quest for exemption and joy, [ 4 ] equally well as gloat and failures in terms of relationships, economics, and aspirations.

The term “ rhythm method of birth control and blues ” has undergo a number of shifts in entail. In the early 1950s, it was frequently applied to blues records. [ 5 ] Starting in the mid-1950s, after this style of music contributed to the development of rock and roll, the term “ R & B ” became used to refer to music styles that developed from and incorporated electric blues, a well as religious doctrine and soul music. From 1960s to 1970s, respective British R & B musicians such as Jimmy James and the Vagabonds, Geno Washington, Carl Douglas, and Hot Chocolate gained hits. [ 6 ] Rock bands such as the Rolling Stones, the Who and the Animals were referred to and promoted as being R & B bands ; posters for the Who ‘s residency at the Marquee Club in 1964 contained the motto, “ Maximum R & B ”. [ 7 ] By the conclusion of the 1970s, the term “ rhythm and blues ” had changed again and was used as a blanket term for soul and funk. In the late 1980s, a newer dash of R & B developed, becoming known as “ contemporary R & B “. It combines rhythm and blues with elements of pop, soul, funk, disco, hip hop, and electronic music .

Etymology, definitions and description [edit ]

Although Jerry Wexler of Billboard magazine is credited with coining the term “ rhythm and blues ” as a musical term in the United States in 1948, [ 8 ] the term was used in Billboard adenine early on as 1943. [ 9 ] [ 10 ] It replaced the term “ race music “, which originally came from within the black community, but was deemed offensive in the postwar world. [ 11 ] [ 12 ] The term “ rhythm and blues ” was used by Billboard in its graph listings from June 1949 until August 1969, when its “ Hot Rhythm & Blues Singles ” chart was renamed as “ Best Selling Soul Singles ”. [ 13 ] Before the “ Rhythm and Blues ” list was instated, versatile record companies had already begun replacing the condition “ raceway music ” with “ reddish brown series ”. [ 14 ] Writer and manufacturer Robert Palmer defined rhythm & blues as “ a catchall condition referring to any music that was made by and for black Americans ”. [ 15 ] He has used the term “ R & B ” as a synonym for startle blues. [ 16 ] however, AllMusic separates it from jump blues because of R & B ‘s stronger gospel influences. [ 17 ] Lawrence Cohn, generator of Nothing but the Blues, writes that “ rhythm and blues ” was an umbrella term invented for industry public toilet. According to him, the condition embraced all black music except classical music music and religious music, unless a gospel song sold enough to break into the charts. [ 11 ] Well into the twenty-first hundred, the term R & B continues in use ( in some context ) to categorize music made by black musicians, as clear-cut from styles of music made by other musicians. In the commercial rhythm method of birth control and blues music distinctive of the 1950s through the 1970s, the bands normally consisted of piano, one or two guitars, bass, drums, and sax. Arrangements were rehearsed to the point of effortlessness and were sometimes accompanied by background vocalists. Simple insistent parts net, creating momentum and rhythmical interplay producing mellow, lilt, and frequently soporific textures while calling attention to no individual sound. While singers are emotionally engaged with the lyrics, often intensely so, they remain cool, slack, and in control. The bands dressed in suits, and even uniforms, a practice associated with the modern popular music that rhythm and blues performers aspired to dominate. Lyrics often seemed fatalist, and the music typically followed predictable patterns of chords and social organization. [ 18 ] One publication of the Smithsonian Institution provided this drumhead of the origins of the genre in 2016 .

“ A distinctly african american music drawing from the deep tributaries of african American expressive culture, it is an amalgam of startle blues, big band swing, gospel, boogie, and blues that was initially developed during a thirty-year period that bridges the earned run average of legally sanctioned racial segregation, international conflicts, and the struggle for civil rights ”. [ 19 ]

The terminus “ rock and roll ” had a solid intimate intension in alternate blues and R & B, but when DJ Alan Freed referred to rock and roll on mainstream radio receiver in the mid-1950s, “ the intimate component had been dialled down adequate that it merely became an satisfactory term for dancing ”. [ 20 ]

history [edit ]

Precursors [edit ]

The great migration of Black Americans to the urban industrial centers of Chicago, Detroit, New York City, Los Angeles and elsewhere in the 1920s and 1930s created a new market for wind, blues, and relate genres of music. These genres of music were frequently performed by full-time musicians, either working alone or in small groups. The precursors of rhythm and blues came from jazz and blues, which overlapped in the late-1920s and 1930s through the work of musicians such as the Harlem Hamfats, with their 1936 hit “ Oh Red ”, angstrom well as Lonnie Johnson, Leroy Carr, Cab Calloway, Count Basie, and T-Bone Walker. There was besides increasing emphasis on the electric guitar as a lead instrument, vitamin a well as the piano and sax. [ 21 ]

late 1940s [edit ]

In 1948, RCA Victor was marketing black music under the name “ Blues and Rhythm ”. In that year, Louis Jordan dominated the lead five listings of the R & B charts with three songs, and two of the top five songs were based on the boogie cycle that had come to prominence during the 1940s. [ 22 ] Jordan ‘s band, the Tympany Five ( formed in 1938 ), consisted of him on sax and vocals, along with musicians on cornet, tenor sax, piano, freshwater bass and drums. [ 23 ] [ 24 ] Lawrence Cohn described the music as “ grittier than his boogie-era jazz-tinged blues ”. [ 11 ] : 173 Robert Palmer described it as “ polished, rocking, jazz-based music with a heavy, insistent beat ”. [ 3 ] Jordan ‘s music, along with that of Big Joe Turner, Roy Brown, Billy Wright, and Wynonie Harris, is now besides referred to as leap blues. already Paul Gayten, Roy Brown, and others had had hits in the stylus now referred to as rhythm and blues. In 1948, Wynonie Harris ‘s remake of Brown ‘s 1947 recording “ good Rockin ‘ Tonight “ reached count two on the charts, following band drawing card Sonny Thompson ‘s “ Long travel ” at number one. [ 25 ] [ 26 ] In 1949, the terminus “ Rhythm and Blues ” ( R & B ) replaced the Billboard class Harlem Hit Parade. [ 11 ] besides in that year, “ The Huckle-Buck “, recorded by set leader and saxophonist Paul Williams, was the number one R & B tune, remaining on clear of the charts for closely the entire year. Written by musician and arranger Andy Gibson, the sung was described as a “ dirty boogie ” because it was blue and begrimed. [ 27 ] Paul Williams and His Hucklebuckers ‘ concerts were sweaty debauched affairs that got closed down on more than one occasion. Their lyrics, by Roy Alfred ( who late co-wrote the 1955 reach “ ( The ) Rock and Roll Waltz “ ), were mildly sexually indicative, and one adolescent from Philadelphia said “ That Hucklebuck was a very cruddy dance ”. [ 28 ] [ 29 ] besides in 1949, a new version of a 1920s blues birdcall, “ Ai n’t Nobody ‘s Business “ was a numeral four hit for Jimmy Witherspoon, and Louis Jordan and the Tympany Five once again made the top five with “ Saturday Night Fish Fry “. [ 30 ] Many of these hit records were issued on new independent record labels, such as Savoy ( establish 1942 ), King ( establish 1943 ), Imperial ( establish 1945 ), Specialty ( establish 1946 ), Chess ( establish 1947 ), and Atlantic ( establish 1948 ). [ 21 ]

Afro-Cuban rhythmical influence [edit ]

african American music began incorporating Afro-Cuban rhythmical motifs in the 1800s with the popularity of the Cuban contradanza ( known outside of Cuba as the habanera ). [ 31 ] The habanera rhythm can be thought of as a combination of tresillo and the backbeat .
The habanera rhythm shown as tresillo ( lower notes ) with the backbeat ( upper berth bill ). For the more than a quarter-century in which the cakewalk, ragtime and proto-jazz were forming and developing, the Cuban genre habanera exerted a changeless presence in african american popular music. [ 32 ] Jazz pioneer Jelly Roll Morton considered the tresillo/habanera cycle ( which he called the spanish tinge ) to be an essential component of jazz. [ 33 ] There are examples of tresillo-like rhythm in some african american family music such as the hand-clapping and foot-stomping patterns in ring exclaim, post-Civil War drum and fife music, and New Orleans second trace music. [ 34 ] Wynton Marsalis considers tresillo to be the New Orleans “ clave ” ( although technically, the radiation pattern is alone half a clave ). [ 35 ] Tresillo is the most basic duple-pulse rhythmical cell in sub-saharan african music traditions, and its use in african american music is one of the clearest examples of african rhythmical retentiveness in the United States. [ 36 ] The practice of tresillo was endlessly reinforced by the consecutive waves of Cuban music, which were adopted into north american popular culture. In 1940 Bob Zurke released “ Rhumboogie, ” a boogie with a tresillo bass course, and lyrics proudly declaring the adoption of Cuban rhythm method of birth control :

Harlem ‘s got a raw rhythm method of birth control, man it ‘s burning up the dance floors because it ‘s so hot ! They took a little rumba rhythm and added boogie and now look what they got ! Rhumboogie, it ‘s Harlem ‘s new initiation with the Cuban syncope, it ‘s the killer ! Just plant your both feet on each side. Let both your hips and shoulder glide. then throw your body back and drive. There ‘s nothing like rhumbaoogie, rhumboogie, boogie. In Harlem or Havana, you can kiss the old Savannah. It ‘s a cause of death ! [ 37 ]

Although originating in the city at the mouth of the Mississippi River, New Orleans blues, with its Afro-Caribbean rhythmical traits, is distinct from the sound of the Mississippi Delta blues. [ 38 ] In the late 1940s, New Orleans musicians were specially centripetal to Cuban influences precisely at the time when R & B was beginning shape. [ 39 ] The first habit of tresillo in R & B occurred in New Orleans. Robert Palmer recalls :

New Orleans producer-bandleader Dave Bartholomew first employed this figure ( as a saxophone-section riff ) on his own 1949 disc “ Country Boy ” and subsequently helped make it the most over-used rhythmical pattern in 1950s rock ‘n ‘ roll. On numerous recordings by Fats Domino, Little Richard and others, Bartholomew assigned this repeating three-note pattern not equitable to the chain bass, but besides to electric guitars and flush baritone sax, making for a very heavy penetrate. He recalls beginning hearing the figure – as a bass form on a Cuban magnetic disk. [ 40 ]

In a 1988 interview with Palmer, Bartholomew ( who had the first R & B studio ring ), [ 41 ] revealed how he initially superimposed tresillo over swing rhythm method of birth control :

I heard the bass play that share on a ‘rumba ‘ record. On ‘Country Boy ‘ I had my bass and drums playing a straight swing rhythm and wrote out that ‘rumba ‘ bass depart for the saxes to play on top of the swing rhythm. Later, particularly after rock ‘n’ roll ‘n ‘ roll came along, I made the ‘rumba ‘ bass function heavy and heavier. I ‘d have the string bass, an electric guitar and a baritone all in unison. [ 42 ]

Bartholomew referred to the Cuban son by the misnomer rumba, a common practice of that time. Fats Domino ‘s “ Blue Monday, ” produced by Bartholomew, is another exercise of this now classic use of tresillo in R & B. Bartholomew ‘s 1949 tresillo-based “ Oh Cubanas ” is an attempt to blend african american and Afro-Cuban music. The discussion mambo, larger than any of the other text, is placed prominently on the phonograph record pronounce. In his typography “ Misery, ” New Orleans pianist Professor Longhair plays a habanera-like figure in his left bridge player. [ citation needed ] The deft use of triplets is a characteristic of Longhair ‘s style .

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” height=”116″ src=”http://upload.wikimedia.org/score/m/z/mzdnmhsoqpzdvv5a9hy6j6x6mbefxhz/mzdnmhso.png” width=”718″/> Audio playback is not supported in your browser. You can download the audio file   Gerhard Kubik notes that with the exception of New Orleans, early blues lacked complex polyrhythms, and there was a “ identical specific absence of asymmetrical time-line patterns ( key patterns ) in about all early-twentieth-century african american music … only in some New Orleans genres does a touch of simple time line patterns occasionally appear in the phase of transeunt alleged ‘stomp ‘ patterns or stop-time chorus. These do not function in the lapp way as african timelines. ” [ 43 ] In the late 1940s, this changed reasonably when the two-celled fourth dimension line social organization was brought into the blues. New Orleans musicians such as Bartholomew and Longhair incorporated Cuban instruments, ampere well as the clave convention and associate two-celled figures in songs such as “ Carnival Day, ” ( Bartholomew 1949 ) and “ Mardi Gras In New Orleans ” ( Longhair 1949 ). While some of these early experiments were awkward fusions, the Afro-Cuban elements were finally integrated amply into the New Orleans sound. Robert Palmer reports that, in the 1940s, Professor Longhair listened to and played with musicians from the islands and “ fell under the spell of Perez Prado ‘s mambo records. ” [ 44 ] He was particularly enamored with Afro-Cuban music. Michael Campbell states : “ Professor Longhair ‘s charm was … far-reaching. In several of his early recordings, Professor Longhair blended Afro-Cuban rhythm with rhythm method of birth control and blues. The most denotative is ‘Longhair ‘s Blues Rhumba, ‘ where he overlays a square blues with a clave rhythm. ” [ 45 ] Longhair ‘s especial vogue was known locally as <i>rumba-boogie</i>. [ 46 ] In his “ Mardi Gras in New Orleans, ” the pianist employs the 2–3 clave onbeat/offbeat motif in a rumba boogie “ guajeo “. [ 47 ]<br />
<img loading= Piano excerpt from the rumba boogie “ Mardi Gras in New Orleans ” ( 1949 ) by Professor Longhair. 2–3 claves are written above for rhythmical reference. The syncopated, but straight subsection feel of Cuban music ( as opposed to swung subdivisions ) took rout in New Orleans R & B during this fourth dimension. Alexander Stewart states that the democratic feel was passed along from “ New Orleans—through James Brown ‘s music, to the popular music of the 1970s, ” adding : “ The singular style of rhythm & blues that emerged from New Orleans in the years after World War II played an important function in the development of flinch. In a relate development, the underlying rhythm method of birth control of american popular music undergo a basic, yet the by and large unacknowledged transition from triplet or shuffle palpate to evening or straight eighth notes. [ 48 ] Concerning the versatile funk motifs, Stewart states that this model “ … is different from a clock time line ( such as clave and tresillo ) in that it is not an accurate design, but more of a loosen organizing rationale. ” [ 49 ] Johnny Otis released the R & B mambo “ Mambo Boogie ” in January 1951, featuring conga, maraca, claves, and mambo sax guajeos in a blues progress. [ 50 ] Ike Turner recorded “ Cubano Jump ” ( 1954 ) an electric guitar implemental, which is built around respective 2–3 clave figures, adopted from the mambo. The Hawketts, in “ Mardi Gras Mambo “ ( 1955 ) ( featuring the vocals of a youthful Art Neville ), make a well-defined reference point to Perez Prado in their habit of his brand “ Unhh ! ” in the break after the presentation. [ 51 ] Ned Sublette states : “ The electric blues cats were identical well mindful of Latin music, and there was decidedly such a thing as rhumba blues ; you can hear Muddy Waters and Howlin ‘ Wolf playing it. ” [ 52 ] He besides cites Otis Rush, Ike Turner and Ray Charles, as R & B artists who employed this feel. [ 52 ] The use of clave in R & B coincided with the growing dominance of the backbeat, and the rising popularity of Cuban music in the U.S. In a sense, clave can be distilled polish to tresillo ( three-side ) answered by the backbeat ( two-side ). [ 53 ]
3–2 clave written in two measures in cut-time.

Tresillo answered by the backbeat, the perfume of clave in african american music. The “ Bo Diddley perplex “ ( 1955 ) is possibly the first true fusion of 3–2 clave and R & B/rock ‘n ‘ roll. Bo Diddley has given different accounts of the flick ‘s origins. Sublette asserts : “ In the context of the time, and specially those maraca [ hear on the record ], ‘Bo Diddley ‘ has to be understood as a Latin-tinged record. A refuse cut recorded at the same school term was titled entirely ‘Rhumba ‘ on the cut sheets. ” [ 52 ] Johnny Otis ‘s “ Willie and the Hand Jive ” ( 1958 ) is another case of this successful blend of 3–2 claves and R & B. otis used the Cuban instruments claves and maraca on the song .
Afro-Cuban music was the conduit by which african American music was “ re-Africanized, ” through the borrowing of two-celled figures like clave and Afro-Cuban instruments like the conga barrel, bongo, maraca and claves. According to John Storm Roberts, R & B became the fomite for the refund of Cuban elements into mass popular music. [ 54 ] Ahmet Ertegun, producer for Atlantic Records, is reported to have said that “ Afro-Cuban rhythm method of birth control added color and excitement to the basic drive of R & B. ” [ 55 ] As Ned Sublette points out though : “ By the 1960s, with Cuba the object of a United States embargo that still remains in effect today, the island nation had been forgotten as a beginning of music. By the time people began to talk about rock and roll as having a history, Cuban music had vanished from union american awareness. ”

early to mid-1950s [edit ]

At first, only african Americans were buying R & B disk. According to Jerry Wexler of Atlantic Records, sales were localized in african-american markets ; there were no white sales or white radio fun. During the early 1950s, more flannel teenagers started to become aware of R & B and began purchasing the music. For exercise, 40 % of 1952 sales at Dolphin ‘s of Hollywood phonograph record shop, located in an african-american area of Los Angeles, were to whites. finally, whiten teens across the country turned their musical preference toward rhythm method of birth control and blues. [ 57 ] Johnny Otis, who had signed with the Newark, New Jersey-based Savoy Records, produced many R & B hits in 1951, including “ bivalent Crossing Blues “, “ Mistrustin ‘ Blues ” and “ Cupid ‘s Boogie “, all of which hit count one that year. Otis scored ten top ten hits that class. other hits include “ Gee Baby “, “ Mambo Boogie ” and “ All Nite Long ”. [ 58 ] The Clovers, a quintet dwell of a vocal quartet with accompanying guitarist, sang a distinctive-sounding combination of blues and gospel, had the number five hit of the year with “ Do n’t You Know I Love You “ on Atlantic. [ 58 ] [ 60 ] [ 61 ] besides in July 1951, Cleveland, Ohio DJ Alan Freed started a late-night radio show called “ The Moondog Rock Roll House Party ” on WJW ( 850 AM ). [ 62 ] [ 63 ] Freed ‘s show was sponsored by Fred Mintz, whose R & B record store had a primarily african American clientele. Freed began referring to the rhythm and blues music he played as “ rock ‘n’ roll and roll ”. In 1951, Little Richard Penniman began recording for RCA Records in the derail blues style of former 1940s stars Roy Brown and Billy Wright. however, it was not until he recorded a show in 1954 that caught the attention of peculiarity Records that the world would start to hear his fresh uptempo funky rhythm and blues that would catapult him to fame in 1955 and help define the audio of rock ‘n ‘ roll. A rapid sequence of rhythm and blues hits followed, beginning with “ Tutti Frutti “ and “ Long Tall Sally “, which would influence performers such as James Brown, [ 65 ] Elvis Presley, [ 66 ] and Otis Redding. [ 67 ]
Ruth Brown, performing on the Atlantic label, placed hits in the peak five every class from 1951 through 1954 : “ Teardrops from My Eyes “, “ Five, Ten, Fifteen Hours ”, “ ( Mama ) He Treats Your Daughter Mean “ and “ What a dream “. Faye Adams ‘s “ Shake a Hand “ made it to issue two in 1952. In 1953, the R & B record-buying public made Willie Mae Thornton ‘s master record of Leiber and Stoller ‘s “ Hound Dog “ the class ‘s number three hit. Ruth Brown was very big among female R & B stars ; her popularity most likely came from “ her profoundly root outspoken delivery in african american tradition ” [ 70 ] [ 71 ] That same year The Orioles, a doo-wop group, had the number four murder of the class with “ Crying in the Chapel “. [ 72 ] Fats Domino made the top 30 of the pop charts in 1952 and 1953, then the crown 10 with “ Ai n’t That a Shame “. [ 74 ] Ray Charles came to national prominence in 1955 with “ I Got a Woman “. large Bill Broonzy said of Charles ‘s music : “ He ‘s mixing the blues with the spirituals … I know that ‘s wrong. ” [ 11 ] : 173 In 1954 the Chords ‘ “ Sh-Boom “ became the foremost murder to cross over from the R & B chart to hit the top 10 early in the year. Late in the year, and into 1955, “ Hearts of Stone “ by the Charms made the peak 20. [ 77 ] At Chess Records in the form of 1955, Bo Diddley ‘s debut criminal record “ Bo Diddley “ / ” I ‘m a world “ climbed to number two on the R & B charts and popularized Bo Diddley ‘s own original rhythm and blues clave-based vamp that would become a anchor in rock and scroll. At the urge of Leonard Chess at Chess Records, Chuck Berry reworked a country fiddle tune with a long history, entitled “ Ida Red “. The resulting “ Maybellene “ was not merely a number three hit on the R & B charts in 1955, but besides reached into the top 30 on the pop charts. Alan Freed, who had moved to the much larger grocery store of New York City in 1954, helped the record become popular with white teenagers. Freed had been given part of the writing citation by Chess in return key for his promotional activities, a common exercise at the time. [ 80 ] R & B was besides a potent influence on rock and roll according to many sources, including an article in the Wall Street Journal in 1985 titled, “ rock ! It ‘s even Rhythm and Blues ”. In fact, the author stated that the “ two terms were used interchangeably ” until about 1957. The other sources quoted in the article said that rock and roll combined R & B with pop and nation music. [ 81 ] Fats Domino was not convinced that there was any new genre. In 1957, he said, “ What they call rock ‘n ‘ roll out now is rhythm method of birth control and blues. I ’ ve been playing it for 15 years in New Orleans ”. [ 82 ] According to Rolling Stone, “ this is a valid statement … all Fifties rockers, black and white, area born and city bred, were basically influenced by R & B, the blacken popular music of the late Forties and early Fifties ”. [ 83 ]

late 1950s [edit ]

In 1956, an R & B “ Top Stars of ’56 ” go took set, with headliners Al Hibbler, Frankie Lymon and the Teenagers, and Carl Perkins, whose “ Blue Suede Shoes “ was very popular with R & B music buyers. [ 84 ] Some of the performers completing the placard were Chuck Berry, Cathy Carr, Shirley & Lee, Della Reese, Sam “ T-Bird ” Jensen, the Cleftones, and the Spaniels with Illinois Jacquet ‘s adult Rockin ‘ Rhythm Band. [ 85 ] Cities visited by the tour included Columbia, South Carolina ; Annapolis, Maryland ; Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania ; Syracuse, Rochester and Buffalo, New York ; and other cities. [ citation needed ] In Columbia, the concert ended with a near orgy as Perkins began his first song as the close act. Perkins is quoted as saying, “ It was dangerous. Lot of kids got hurt ”. In Annapolis, 50,000 to 70,000 people tried to attend a sold-out performance with 8,000 seats. Roads were clogged for seven hours. [ 86 ] Filmmakers took advantage of the popularity of “ rhythm and blues ” musicians as “ rock north bankroll ” musicians beginning in 1956. small Richard, Chuck Berry, Fats Domino, Big Joe Turner, the Treniers, the Platters, and the Flamingos all made it onto the bad screen. [ 87 ] Two Elvis Presley records made the R & B top five in 1957 : “ Jailhouse Rock “ / ” Treat Me Nice “ at act one, and “ All Shook Up “ at number five, an unprecedented acceptance of a non-African american artist into a music category known for being created by blacks. [ 88 ] Nat King Cole, besides a wind pianist who had two hits on the dad charts in the early 1950s ( “ Mona Lisa “ at number two in 1950 and “ Too Young “ at phone number one in 1951 ), had a criminal record in the top five in the R & B charts in 1958, “ Looking Back “ / ” Do I Like It ”. In 1959, two black-owned criminal record labels, one of which would become enormously successful, made their debut : Sam Cooke ‘s Sar and Berry Gordy ‘s Motown Records. [ 90 ] Brook Benton was at the top of the R & B charts in 1959 and 1960 with one number one and two number two hits. [ 91 ] Benton had a certain warmth in his voice that attracted a wide assortment of listeners, and his ballads led to comparisons with performers such as Nat King Cole, Frank Sinatra and Tony Bennett. [ 92 ] Lloyd Price, who in 1952 had a number one hit with “ Lawdy Miss Clawdy “, regained predomination with a version of “ Stagger Lee “ at number one and “ Personality “ at issue five in 1959. [ 93 ] [ 94 ] The white bandleader of the Bill Black Combo, Bill Black, who had helped start Elvis Presley ‘s career and was Elvis ‘s bassist in the 1950s, was popular with black listeners. [ citation needed ] Ninety percentage of his criminal record sales were from blacken people, and his “ Smokie, Part 2 “ ( 1959 ) rose to the act one position on black music charts. [ citation needed ] He was once told that “ a batch of those stations still think you ‘re a black group because the sound feels funky and black. “ [ citation needed ] Hi Records did not sport pictures of the Combo on early records. [ 95 ]
Sam Cooke ‘s count five hit “ Chain Gang “ is indicative mood of R & B in 1960, as is pop rocker Chubby Checker ‘s number five hit “ The Twist “. [ 96 ] [ 97 ] By the early 1960s, the music industry category previously known as rhythm and blues was being called person music, and alike music by white artists was labeled blue-eyed soul. [ 99 ] Motown Records had its first million-selling single in 1960 with the Miracles ‘ “ Shop Around “, and in 1961, Stax Records had its first gear hit with Carla Thomas ‘s “ Gee Whiz ( Look at His Eyes ) “. [ 101 ] [ 102 ] Stax ‘s next major hit, The Mar-Keys ‘ implemental “ stopping point Night “ ( besides released in 1961 ), introduced the raw Memphis soul heavy for which Stax became known. [ 103 ] In Jamaica, R & B influenced the development of ska. [ 104 ] [ 105 ] In 1969, black culture and rhythm and blues reached another capital accomplishment when the Grammys added the Rhythm and Blues category, giving academic recognition to the category. [ citation needed ] By the 1970s, the term “ cycle and blues ” was being used as a blanket terminus for soul, funk, and disco. [ 106 ]

1980s to present [edit ]

In the recently 1980s and early 1990s, hip-hop started to capture the resource of America ‘s young. R & B started to become homogenized, with a group of high-profile producers responsible for most R & B hits. It was hard for R & B artists of the earned run average to sell their music or even have their music hear because of the rise of hip-hop, but some adopted a “ hip-hop ” double, were marketed as such, and much featured rappers on their songs. Newer artists such as Usher, R. Kelly, Janet Jackson, TLC, Aaliyah, Destiny ‘s Child, Tevin Campbell and Mary J. Blige enjoyed success. L.A. Reid, the CEO of LaFace Records, was creditworthy for some of R & B ‘s greatest successes in the 1990s in the form of Usher, TLC and Toni Braxton. Later, Reid successfully marketed Boyz II Men. [ 107 ] In 2004, 80 % of the songs that topped the R & B charts were besides at the top of the Hot 100. That period was the all-time peak for R & B and hip hop on the Billboard Hot 100 and on exceed 40 Radio. [ 108 ] From about 2005 to 2013, R & B sales declined. [ 109 ] however, since 2010, rap has started to take cues from the R & B sound, choosing to adopt a softer, smoother phone that incorporates traditional R & B with rappers such as Drake, who has opened an entire new doorway for the music genre. This good has gained in popularity and created great controversy for both hip-hop and R & B as to how to identify it. [ 110 ]

Jews in the business end of rhythm and blues [edit ]

According to the jewish writer, music publish executive, and songwriter Arnold Shaw, during the 1940s in the US, there was by and large little opportunity for Jews in the WASP -controlled kingdom of multitude communications, but the music business was “ broad open for Jews as it was for blacks. ” [ 111 ] Jews played a identify function in developing and popularizing african american music, including rhythm method of birth control and blues, and the independent phonograph record business was dominated by young jewish men who promoted the sounds of black music. [ 112 ]

british rhythm and blues [edit ]

british rhythm method of birth control and blues and blues rock developed in the early 1960s, largely as a response to the recordings of american artists, much brought over by african american servicemen stationed in Britain or seamen visiting ports such as London, Liverpool, Newcastle and Belfast. [ 113 ] many bands, peculiarly in the break London club setting, tried to emulate black rhythm and blues performers, resulting in a “ natural ” or “ grittier ” sound than the more popular “ beat groups “. [ 115 ] During the 1960s, Geno Washington, the Foundations, and the Equals gained toss off hits. [ 116 ] Many British black musicians helped form the british R & B scene. These included Geno Washington, an american singer stationed in England with the Air Force. He was invited to join what became Geno Washington & the Ram Jam Band by guitarist Pete Gage in 1965 and enjoyed top 40 strike singles and two top 10 albums before the band split up in 1969. [ 117 ] Another american english GI, Jimmy James, born in Jamaica, moved to London after two local anesthetic count one hits in 1960 with The Vagabonds, who built a strong reputation as a alive act. They released a survive album and their studio debut, The New Religion, in 1966 and achieved moderate success with a few singles before the original Vagabonds broke up in 1970. [ 118 ] White blues rock musician Alexis Korner formed fresh wind rock ‘n’ roll band CCS in 1970. [ 119 ] matter to in the blues would influence major british rock musicians, including Eric Clapton, Mick Taylor, Peter Green, and John Mayall, the groups Free and Cream adopted an interest in a wide-eyed crop of rhythm and blues styles. [ 115 ] The Rolling Stones became the second most popular UK band ( after The Beatles ) and led the “ british Invasion “ of the US pop charts. [ 115 ] The Rolling Stones covered Bobby Womack & the Valentinos ‘ [ 121 ] song It ‘s All over now “, giving them their first UK number one in 1964. [ 122 ] Under the charm of blues and R & B, bands such as the Rolling Stones, the Yardbirds, and the Animals, and more jazz-influenced bands like the Graham Bond Organisation and Zoot Money, had blue-eyed person albums. [ 115 ] White R & B musicians popular in the UK included Steve Winwood, Frankie Miller, Scott Walker & the Walker Brothers, the Animals from Newcastle, the Spencer Davis Group, and Van Morrison & Them from Belfast. [ 115 ] none of these bands entirely played rhythm and blues, but it remained at the core of their early albums. [ 115 ] Champion Jack Dupree was a New Orleans blues and boogie woogie pianist who toured Europe and settled there from 1960, living in Switzerland and Denmark, then in Halifax, England in the 1970s and 1980s, before finally settling in Germany. [ 124 ] From the ’70s to ’80s, Carl Douglas, Hot Chocolate, Delegation, Junior, Central Line, Princess, Jacki Graham, David Grant, the Loose Ends, the Pasadenas and Soul II Soul gained hits on pop or R & B chart. [ 125 ] The music of the british mod subculture grew out of rhythm and blues and by and by soul performed by artists who were not available to the small London clubs where the scene originated. [ 126 ] In the late ’60s, The Who performed American R & B songs such as the Motown hit “ Heat Wave ”, a song which reflected the young mod life style. [ 126 ] Many of these bands enjoyed national success in the UK, but found it difficult to break into the american music market. [ 126 ] The british White R & B bands produced music which was identical different in tone from that of african-american artists. [ 115 ]

See besides [edit ]

References [edit ]

far learn and heed [edit ]

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