|sixteen Principal Odu|
Reading: Ifá – Wikipedia
Ifá is a Yoruba religion and arrangement of prophecy. Its literary corpus is the Odu Ifá. Orunmila is identified as the Grand Priest, as he is who revealed theology and prophecy to the global. Babalawos or Iyanifas use either the divine chain known as Opele, or the hallowed palm or kola nuts called Ikin, on the wooden divination tray called Opon Ifá. Ifá is practiced throughout the Americas, West Africa, and the Canary Islands, in the form of a complex religious system, and plays a critical character in the traditions of Santería, Candomblé, Palo, Umbanda, Vodou, and other african-american faiths, equally well as in some traditional african religions .
history [edit ]
The 16-principle system have its earliest history in West Africa. Each Niger–Congo -speaking cultural group that practices it has its own myths of lineage ; Yoruba religion suggests that it was founded by Orunmila in Ilé-Ifẹ̀ when he initiated himself and then he initiated his students, Akoda and Aseda. other myth suggest that it was brought to Ilé-Ifẹ̀ by Setiu, a Nupe homo who settled in Ilé-Ifẹ̀. According to the book The History of the Yorubas from the Earliest of Times to the British Protectorate ( 1921 ) by nigerian historian Samuel Johnson and Obadiah Johnson, it was Arugba, the mother of Onibogi, the 8th Alaafin of Oyo who introduced Oyo to Ifá in the belated 1400s. [ 1 ] She initiated the Alado of Ato and conferred on him the rites to initiate others. The Alado, in turn, initiated the priests of Oyo and that was how Ifá came to be in the Oyo empire. Odinani suggests that Dahomey Kings noted that the system of Afá was brought by a divine known as Gogo from the Yoruba town of Ketu in eastern Benin. [ 2 ] Orunmila came to establish an oral literary principal incorporating stories and experiences of priests and their clients along with the results. This odu corpus emerges as the leading documentation on the Ifá custom to become a historical bequest .
Yoruba canon [edit ]
In Yorubaland, prophecy gives priests unreserved access to the teachings of Orunmila. [ 3 ] Eshu is the one said to lend ashe to the oracle during provision of steering and or clearing of rede. Eshu is besides the one that holds the keys to one ‘s ire ( luck or benediction ) [ 4 ] and thus acts as Oluwinni ( one ‘s creditor ) : he can grant ire or remove it. [ 5 ] Ifá prophecy rites provide an avenue of communication to the religious kingdom and the captive of one ‘s destiny. [ 6 ]
Igbo canon [edit ]
In Igboland, Ifá is known as Afá, and is performed by specialists called Dibia. The Dibia is considered a doctor and specializes in the habit of herb for healing and transformation. [ 7 ]
Ewe canon [edit ]
Among the Ewe people of southerly Togo and southeast Ghana, Ifá is besides known as Afá, where the Vodun spirits come through and speak. In many of their Egbes, it is Alaundje who is honored as the first Bokono to have been teach how to divine the destiny of humans using the holy organization of Afá. The Amengansi are the populate oracles who are higher than a bokono. A priest who is not a bokono is known as Hounan, similar to Houngan, a male priest in haitian Vodou, a derivative religion of Vodun, the religion of the Ewe .
Odù Ifá [edit ]
prophecy tray There are sixteen major books in the Odu Ifá [ 8 ] literary corpus. When combined, there are a total of 256 Odu ( a solicitation of sixteen, each of which has sixteen alternatives ⇔ 162, or 44 ) that are believed to reference all situations, circumstances, actions and consequences in life based on the uncountable ese ( or “ poetic tutorials ” ) relative to the 256 Odu cryptography. These form the basis of traditional Yoruba spiritual cognition and are the foundation of all Yoruba divination systems. Ifá proverb, stories, and poetry are not written down. quite, they are passed down orally from one babalawo to another. Yoruba people consult Ifá for divine interposition and spiritual guidance. [ 9 ]
International recognition [edit ]
The Ifá divination system was added in 2005 by UNESCO to its number of the “ Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity “. [ 10 ]
Ifá in Santería [edit ]
Ifá is used in the Afro-Cuban religion of Santería ; it is the most complex and prestigious conjectural system used in the religion. The two are closely linked, sharing the same mythology and conception of the population, although Ifá besides has a disjoined being from Santería. high gear priests of Ifá are known as babalawos and although their presence is not necessity to Santería ceremonies, they frequently attend in their capacity as diviners. many santeros are besides babalawos, although it is not rare for babalawos to perceive themselves as being superior to most santeros. traditionally, lone heterosexual men are allowed to become babalawos, although homosexual male babalawos now exist due to the more unfold policy for Santería initiates. Women are typically prohibited from taking on this role, a restriction explained through the fib that the òrìṣà ( pronounced “ orisha ” or “ oricha ” in spanish ) Orula was angry that Yemayá, his wife, had used his tabla divining board and subsequently decided to ban women from ever touching it again. In cattiness of this legend, by the early twenty-first century, a little total of women have since been initiated as babalawos. Initiation as a babalawo requires a payment to the instigator and is typically regarded as highly expensive. The òrìṣà of Ifá, Orula or Ọ̀rúnmila, besides has a big place within Santería. He is believed to oversee divination ; once an person is initiated as a babalawo they are given a pot containing diverse items, including palm nuts, which is believed to be the misprint shape of Orula. Babalawos provide offerings to Orula, including animal sacrifices and gifts of money. In Cuba, Ifá typically involves the draw of consecrated palm nuts to answer a motion. The babalawo then interprets the message of the nuts depending on how they have fallen ; there are 256 possible configurations in the Ifá organization, which the babalawo is expected to have memorised. Individuals approach the babalawo seeking steering, much on fiscal matters, at which the divine will consult Orula through the established divinatory method. In become, those visiting the babalawos pay them for their services.
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celebrated followers [edit ]
See besides [edit ]
References [edit ]
Sources [edit ]
- Clark, Mary Ann (2005). Where Men Are Wives And Mothers Rule: Santería Ritual Practices and their Gender Implications. Gainesville: University Press of Florida. ISBN 978-0813028347.
- Fernández Olmos, Margarite; Paravisini-Gebert, Lizabeth (2011). Creole Religions of the Caribbean: An Introduction from Vodou and Santería to Obeah and Espiritismo (second ed.). New York and London: New York University Press. ISBN 978-0-8147-6228-8.
- Hagedorn, Katherine J. (2001). Divine Utterances: The Performance of Afro-Cuban Santería. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Books. ISBN 978-1560989479.
- Holbraad, Martin (2005). “Expending Multiplicity: Money in Cuban Ifá Cults”. The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute. 11 (2): 231–254. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9655.2005.00234.x. JSTOR 3804208.
- Holbraad, Martin (2012). “Truth Beyond Doubt: Ifá Oracles in Havana”. HAU: Journal of Ethnographic Theory. 2 (1): 81–109. doi:10.14318/hau2.1.006. S2CID 143785826.
- Pérez y Mena, Andrés I. (1998). “Cuban Santería, Haitian Vodun, Puerto Rican Spiritualism: A Multiculturalist Inquiry into Syncretism”. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion. 37 (1): 15–27. doi:10.2307/1388026. JSTOR 1388026.
- Wedel, Johan (2004). Santería Healing: A Journey into the Afro-Cuban World of Divinities, Spirits, and Sorcery. Gainesville: University Press of Florida. ISBN 978-0-8130-2694-7.
- Wirtz, Kristina (2007). Ritual, Discourse, and Community in Cuban Santería: Speaking a Sacred World. Gainesville: University Press of Florida. ISBN 978-0-8130-3064-7.
further read [edit ]
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