United States – Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article is about the United States of America. For other countries, see United States ( disambiguation ) The United States of America ( USA ) is a sovereign country ( in North America ) that is split up into 50 different states. It is normally called the United States ( U.S. or US ) or America. There are forty-eight states that border each early and Washington, D.C., the capital zone. These states are between the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. They are bordered by Canada to the north and Mexico to the south. The state of Alaska is an exclave in the northwest of the celibate, with Canada to its east and Russia to the west across the Bering Strait. The express of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific. The area besides possesses some territories, or insular areas, in the Caribbean and Pacific. The city with the highest population is New York City. At 3.79 million feather miles ( 9.83 million km2 ) and with approximately 331 million people, the United States is the fourth-largest area by total area and third gear by population. The United States was first settled by native Americans. The United States is one of the earth ‘s most ethnically blend and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many countries. [ 8 ] The U.S. economy is the largest national economy in the world, with an calculate 2016 gross domestic product ( GDP ) of US $ 20.4 trillion ( about a one-fourth of worldwide GDP ). [ 9 ] The nation was founded by thirteen colonies of Great Britain along the Atlantic seaside. On July 4, 1776, they issued the Declaration of Independence, which announced their independence from Great Britain and their creation of a accommodative marriage. The disobedient states defeated Great Britain in the american Revolutionary War, the first successful colonial war of independence. [ 10 ] The Philadelphia Convention adopted the stream United States Constitution on September 17, 1787 ; its approval the follow year made the states part of a single republic with a firm central politics. The Bill of Rights, making up ten-spot constitutional amendments guaranteeing many basic civil rights and freedoms, was approved in 1791.

In the nineteenth hundred, the United States got nation from France, Spain, the United Kingdom, Mexico, and Russia, and took over the Republic of Texas and the Republic of Hawaii. Arguments between the farming-based South and industrial North over the growth of the mental hospital of slavery and states ‘ rights began the American Civil War of the 1860s. The North ‘s victory prevented a permanent wave split of the area and led to the end of legal slavery in the United States. By the 1870s, the national wealth was the world ‘s largest. [ 11 ] The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country ‘s status as a military power. In 1945, the United States came out from World War II as the first gear area with nuclear weapons, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council, and a establish penis of NATO. The end of the Cold War and the breaking up of the Soviet Union left the United States as the only world power. The United States participated in the Space Race that produced rapid advances in rocketry, materials science with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Apollo 11 was the first escape to send people to the moon. It was done by NASA, the american distance group. It went up to quad on July 16, 1969, carrying three astronauts : Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin and Michael Collins. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong and Aldrin became the first humans to land on the moon, while Collins stayed in orbit around the Moon. [ 12 ]

Geography and environment [change |change source ]

The United States is a federal republic of fifty states, a federal district, and several territories. [ 13 ] [ 14 ] [ 15 ] The land area of the adjacent United States is 2,959,064 squarely miles ( 7,663,941 km2 ). Alaska, separated from the contiguous United States by Canada, is the largest state at 663,268 feather miles ( 1,717,856 km2 ). Hawaii, occupying an archipelago in the central Pacific, southwest of North America, is 10,931 square miles ( 28,311 km2 ) in area. [ 16 ] The United States is the universe ‘s fourth largest nation by total area ( estate and urine ), ranking behind Russia, Canada, and China. The rank varies depending on how two territories disputed by China and India are counted and how the full size of the United States is measured : calculations range from 3,676,486 squarely miles ( 9,522,055 km2 ) [ 17 ] to 3,717,813 square miles ( 9,629,091 km2 ) [ 18 ] to 3,794,101 square miles ( 9,826,676 km2 ). [ 19 ] Measured by alone land area, the United States is third gear in size behind Russia and China, equitable ahead of Canada. [ 20 ]
The Bald Eagle, the national boo of the United States since 1782. The coastal plain of the Atlantic seaside gives way further inland to deciduous forests and the rolling hills of the Piedmont. The appalachian Mountains divide the easterly seaside from the Great Lakes and the grasslands of the Midwest. The Mississippi – Missouri River, the world ‘s fourthly longest river system, runs chiefly north–south through the heart of the area. The categoric, fecund prairie of the Great Plains stretches to the west, interrupted by a highland region in the southeast. The Rocky Mountains, at the western boundary of the Great Plains, extend north to south across the state, reaching altitudes higher than 14,000 feet ( 4,300 megabyte ) in Colorado. Farther west are the rocky Great Basin and deserts such as the Chihuahua and Mojave. The Sierra Nevada and Cascade mountain ranges run close to the Pacific slide, both ranges reaching altitudes higher than 14,000 feet. The United States, with its large size and geographic variety show, includes most climate types. To the east of the hundredth acme, the climate ranges from humid continental in the north to humid subtropical in the south. The southerly lean of Florida is tropical, as is Hawaii. The great Plains west of the hundredth meridian are semi-dry. much of the westerly mountains are alpine. The climate is dry in the Great Basin, desert in the Southwest, Mediterranean in coastal California, and oceanic in coastal Oregon and Washington and southern Alaska. Most of Alaska is subarctic or polar. extreme weather is not unusual—the states bordering the Gulf of Mexico are prone to hurricanes, and most of the populace ‘s tornadoes happen within the state, chiefly in the Midwest ‘s Tornado Alley. [ 21 ] The U.S. ecology is considered “ megadiverse “ ; approximately 17,000 species of vascular plants occur in the contiguous United States and Alaska, and over 1,800 species of bloom plants are found in Hawaii, few of which occur on the mainland. [ 22 ] The United States is home to more than 400 mammal, 750 bird, and 500 reptile and amphibian species. [ 23 ] About 91,000 worm species have been described. [ 24 ] The Endangered Species Act of 1973 protects threatened and endangered species and their habitats, which are monitored by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. There are fifty-eight national parks and hundreds of other federally managed parks, forests, and wilderness areas. [ 25 ] Altogether, the government owns 28.8 % of the country ‘s land sphere. [ 26 ] Most of this is protected, though some is leased for oil and gasoline drill, mine, logging, or cattle ranching ; 2.4 % is used for military purposes. [ 26 ] A example of animals that are native to the United States such as opossums, raccoons, cougar, and bears. Endangered animals in the United States include the jaguar, the California condor, and the Florida panther. small trees and shrub common in the United States are hackberry, hawthorn, saskatoon, blackberry, wild red, dogwood, and snowberry. Wildflowers bloom in all areas, from the seldom-seen blossoms of rare abandon cactus to the hardiest alpine species. Wildflowers include forget-me-not, fringed and shut gentians, jack-in-the-pulpit, black-eyed Susan, columbine, and common dandelion, along with numerous varieties of aster, orchid, lady ‘s skidder, and wild rose .

native Americans and european settlers [change |change source ]

It is believed that the autochthonal peoples of the continental United States, including the natives of Alaska, moved in from Asia. They began arriving twelve or forty thousand years ago, if not earlier. [ 27 ] Some, such as the pre-columbian mississippian culture in the southeast, developed advanced agrarian, fantastic construction, and state-level communities. The native population of America decreased after Europeans arrived, and for different reasons, largely sicknesses such as smallpox and measles. [ 28 ] In 1492, Genoese explorer Christopher Columbus, under condense to the spanish crown, reached some Caribbean islands, making the first contact with the native people. On April 2, 1513, spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León landed on what he called “ La Florida “ —the first recorded european coming on what would become the U.S. mainland. spanish settlements in the area were followed by ones in the contemporary southwest United States that drew thousands through Mexico. french fur traders established outposts of New France around the Great Lakes ; France finally claimed a lot of the north american home, down to the Gulf of Mexico. The first successful english settlements were the Colony of Virginia in Jamestown in 1607 and the Pilgrims ‘ Plymouth Colony in 1620. The 1628 charter of the Massachusetts Bay Colony resulted in a wave of resettlement ; by 1634, New England had been settled by some 10,000 Puritans. Between the recently 1610s and the american english Revolution, approximately 50,000 convicts were shipped to Britain ‘s american colonies. [ 29 ] Beginning in 1614, the Dutch settled along the lower Hudson River, including New Amsterdam on Manhattan Island .

independence and expansion [change |change source ]

Tensions between american colonials and the british during the insurgent period of the 1760s and early 1770s led to the american Revolutionary War, fight from 1775 through 1781. On June 14, 1775, the Continental Congress, a meeting in Philadelphia, established a continental Army under the command of George Washington. Announcing that “ all men are created equal “ and are born with “ certain natural rights, ” the Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence, drafted largely by Thomas Jefferson, on July 4, 1776. That go steady is now celebrated every year as America ‘s Independence Day. In 1777, the Articles of Confederation established a weak federal government that operated until 1789. Morocco became the first country in the world to recognize America ’ s independence. [ 30 ] After the british defeat by american forces helped by the french, Great Britain recognized the independence of the United States and the states ‘ sovereignty over american state west to the Mississippi River. A constituent convention was organized in 1787 by those wishing to establish a stronger national politics, with powers of tax. The United States Constitution was approved in 1788, and the fresh democracy ‘s first Senate, House of Representatives, and President —George Washington—took office in 1789. The Bill of Rights, forbidding federal limitation of personal freedoms and certifying a image of legal protections, was adopted in 1791. Attitudes toward slavery were shifting ; a clause in the Constitution protected the African slave trade entirely until 1808. The Northern states permanently stopped slavery between 1780 and 1804, leaving the slave states of the South as defenders of the “ particular initiation. ” The Second Great Awakening, beginning about 1800, made evangelicalism a push behind different social reform movements, including abolitionism .
Land-based purchases by date. Americans ‘ eagerness to expand westward caused a long series of amerind Wars and an indian removal policy that stripped the native peoples of their land. The Louisiana Purchase of French-claimed domain under President Thomas Jefferson in 1803 about doubled the nation ‘s size. The War of 1812, declared against Britain over unlike complaints and crusade to a draw, strengthened U.S. patriotism. A series of U.S. military invasions into Florida led Spain to give up it and other Gulf Coast district in 1819. The United States took over the Republic of Texas in 1845. The idea of Manifest destiny became popular during this fourth dimension. [ 31 ] The 1846 Oregon Treaty with Britain led to U.S. control of the contemporary american Northwest. The U.S. victory in the Mexican–American War resulted in the 1848 cession of California and much of the contemporary american english Southwest. The California Gold Rush of 1848–49 further encouraged westerly move. New railways made move easier for settlers and increased conflicts with native Americans. Over a half-century, up to 40 million American bison, or buffalo, were murdered for skins and meat and to ease the railways ‘ spread. The loss of the american bison, which were valuable to the plains Indians, caused many native cultures to become gone constantly .

Civil War and industrialization [change |change source ]

Tensions between slave and free states mounted with arguments over the relationship between the submit and federal governments, vitamin a well as violent conflicts over the spread of slavery into new states. Abraham Lincoln, a campaigner of the by and large antislavery Republican Party, was elected president in 1860. Before he took office, seven slave states declared their secession —which the federal politics maintained was illegal—and formed the Confederate States of America. With the Confederate attack upon Fort Sumter, the American Civil War began and four more slave states joined the Confederacy. Lincoln ‘s Emancipation Proclamation committed the Union to end slavery. Following the Union victory in 1865, three changes to the U.S. Constitution secured freedom for the closely four million african Americans who had been slaves, [ 32 ] made them citizens, and gave them voting rights. The war and its resolution led to a bad increase in federal might. [ 33 ]
After the war, the assassination of Abraham Lincoln caused the Reconstruction, where policies were put in concert directed at getting back and rebuilding the southern states while securing the rights of the newly freed slaves. The resolution of the challenge 1876 presidential election by the compromise of 1877 ended this era, and the Jim Crow laws soon disenfranchised many african Americans. In the North, urbanization and a never-before-seen inflow of immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe made the country ‘s industrialization grow quickly. The wave of immigration, lasting until 1929, gave department of labor and changed american english culture. high tax protections, national infrastructure construction, and new bank laws encouraged increase besides. The 1867 Alaska Purchase from Russia completed the area ‘s mainland expansion. The Wounded Knee Massacre in 1890 was the last major armed conflict of the amerind Wars. In 1893, the native monarchy of the Pacific Kingdom of Hawaii was ended in a mystery and successful plan led by american english residents ; the United States took over the archipelago in 1898. victory in the Spanish–American War the same year proved that the United States was a universe might and led to the accession of Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines. The Philippines gained independence fifty years late ; Puerto Rico and Guam are hush U.S. territories .

World War I, Great Depression, and World War II [change |change source ]

As the First World War erupted in Europe in 1914, the United States declared itself neutral. Afterward, the Americans sympathized with the british and french, evening though many citizens, particularly those from Ireland and Germany, were against the intervention. [ 34 ] In 1917, they joined the Allies, adding to the get the better of of the Central Powers. Unwilling to participate in european affairs, the Senate did not approve the Treaty of Versailles ( 1919 ), which established the League of Nations, applying a policy of unilateralism, which bordered on isolationism. [ 35 ] In 1920, the Women ‘s rights motion gained the approval of a constituent amendment to grant women the right to vote. [ 36 ] For most of the 1920s, the state enjoyed a period of success, decreasing the inequality in the balance of payments while profiting from industrial farms. This period, known as the Roaring Twenties, ended with the Wall Street Crash of 1929 that triggered the Great Depression. After his election as president of the united states in 1932, Franklin D. Roosevelt responded with the New Deal, a series of policies that increased government hindrance in the economy. [ 37 ] From 1920 to 1933 a prohibition banning alcohol was in place. [ 38 ] The Dust Bowl of the 1930s left many hapless farmer communities and encouraged a newly wave of emigration to the West Coast. [ 39 ]
The United States, officially neutral during the early on stages of World War II, began supplying supplies to the Allies in March 1941, through the Lend-Lease program. On December 7, 1941, the nation joined the Allies battle against the Axis Powers, after the japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. World War II boosted the economy by providing investment capital and jobs, making many women enter the undertaking grocery store. Of the meaning fighters, the United States was the only nation to be enriched by war. [ 40 ] The discussions at Bretton Woods and Yalta created a new organization of external organization that placed the nation and the Soviet Union at the center of earth affairs. In 1945, when the end of the Second World War in Europe came, an international gather held in San Francisco drafted the Charter of the United Nations, which came into force after the war. [ 41 ] Having developed the first nuclear weapon, the politics decided to use it in the japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August of that lapp year. Japan gave up on September 2, ending the war. [ 42 ]

Cold War and civil rights earned run average [change |change source ]

In the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed after the second World War, controlling the military affairs of Europe through NATO and the Warsaw Pact. The first supported broad majority rule and capitalism, while the second favored communism and an economy planned by the government. Both supported respective dictatorships and participated in proxy wars. between 1950 and 1953, U.S. troops fought chinese communist forces in the Korean War. [ 43 ] From the break in with the USSR and the depart of the Cold War until 1957, McCarthyism besides called the Second Red Dread, developed within the United States. The State unleashed a beckon of political mistreatment and a political campaign of prejudice against Communists, which some authors point out as of a totalitarian department of state. Hundreds of people were arrested, including celebrities, and between 10,000 and 12,000 people lost their jobs. [ 44 ] The maltreatment ended when the courts declared it unconstitutional. [ 45 ]
In 1961, the Soviet launch of the inaugural human-crewed spacecraft caused President John F. Kennedy to propose to the country to be the first to send “ a homo to the Moon “, a fact completed in 1969. [ 46 ] Kennedy besides faced a tense nuclear conflict with the soviet forces in Cuba, while the economy grew and expanded steadily. A growing Civil Rights Movement, represented and led by African-Americans such as Rosa Parks, Martin Luther King, Jr. and James Bevel, used passive resistance to deal with segregation and discrimination. [ 47 ] After Kennedy ‘s murder in 1963, the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965 were passed during the condition of President Lyndon B. Johnson. Johnson and his successor, Richard Nixon, led a civil war in Southeast Asia, assistant to the unsuccessful Vietnam War. A generalize counterculture campaign grew, driven by opposition to war, black nationalism and the sexual rotation. A new wave of feminist movements besides emerged, led by Betty Friedan, Gloria Steinem and early women who sought political, social and economic equity. In 1974, as a consequence of the Watergate scandal, Nixon became the first president to resign, to avoid being dismissed on charges such as obstruction of judge and abuse of exponent, and was succeeded by Vice President Gerald Ford. [ 48 ] The presidency of Jimmy Carter in the 1970s was marked by stagflation and the hostage crisis in Iran. The election of Ronald Reagan as president in 1980 announced a change in U.S. policy, which was reflected in significant changes in taxes and fiscal expenses. His second term brought with it the Iran–Contra affair and the significant diplomatic progress with the Soviet Union. The by and by soviet crack up ended the Cold War .

modern history [change |change source ]

The gemini towers of the World Trade Center burning on 9/11. Under President George H. W. Bush, the area took on a ball-shaped dominant allele role worldwide, as in the Gulf War ( 1991 ). The longest economic expansion in modern american history, from March 1991 to March 2001, spanned the presidency of Bill Clinton and the dot-com bubble. [ 49 ] A civil lawsuit and a sexual activity scandal led to his impeachment in 1998, although he managed to finish his period. The 2000 presidential election was one of the most competitive in american history, it was settled by the Supreme Court : George W. Bush, son of George H. W. Bush, became president of the united states, even though he gained fewer votes than his opponent Al Gore. [ 50 ] On September 11, 2001, the terrorists of the Al-Qaeda group attacked the twin towers of the World Trade Center in New York City ( which were destroyed ) and the Pentagon near Washington, D.C., in a series of attacks that ended the life of closely three thousand people. In response, the Bush government launched the “ War on Terror. ” At the end of 2001, U.S. forces invaded Afghanistan, toppled the taliban government and destroyed Al-Qaeda ‘s coach camps. Taliban insurgents continue to fight a guerrilla war. In 2002, Bush began to push for a regimen change to take rate in Iraq. [ 51 ] [ 52 ] With NATO ‘s miss of support and without a clear UN order for military intervention, Bush organized the coalescence of the willing ; The alliance forces quickly invaded Iraq in 2003 and toppled the statue of dictator Saddam Hussein. The follow class, Bush was re-elected as the most vote president in an election. In 2005, Hurricane Katrina, which would end up being the deadliest natural catastrophe in national history, caused severe destruction along the Gulf Coast : the city of New Orleans was devastated, with 1833 dead. [ 53 ] On November 4, 2008, during a global economic downturn, Barack Obama was elected president, having been the first african american to take office. In May 2011, American Special forces managed to kill Osama bin Laden, hiding in Pakistan. The take after year, Barack Obama was re-elected. Under his second term, he led the war against the Islamic State and restored diplomatic relations with Cuba. On November 8, 2016, the Republican Party leader Donald Trump defeated former First Lady Hillary Clinton for presidency in an unusual election and whose plans have been described by political analysts as democrat, protectionist and nationalist, assuming office on January 20, 2017. [ 54 ] The massacres in Orlando of June 12, 2016 at the gay disco Pulse ( 51 dead ) and in Las Vegas on October 1, 2017 ( 60 ) are listed as the largest massacres in the country since 9/11. [ 55 ] The Murder of George Floyd in late May 2020 sparked protests all over the universe that demanded racial judge. On January 6, 2021, the United States Capitol in Washington, D.C. was stormed during a riot and violent attack against the U.S. Congress .
The United States is the earth ‘s oldest surviving federation. It is a constitutional republic and congressman majority rule, “ in which majority dominion is tempered by minority rights protected by jurisprudence. ” [ 56 ] The government is controlled by a system of checks and balances from the United States Constitution. The united states constitution is the nation ‘s main legal document. There are three branches. They are the executive branch, the legislative branch, and the judicial branch. State governments and the federal politics exercise in very similar ways. Each submit has its own executive, legislative, and judicial branches. The executive arm of a state government is led by a governor, rather of a president .

Executive ramify [change |change source ]

The administrator branch is the part of the politics that enforces the law. Members of the U.S. Electoral College elect a president of the united states who is the drawing card of the administrator arm, angstrom well as the drawing card of the armed forces. The president may veto a bill that the Congress has passed, so it does not become a law. The President may besides make “ executive orders ” to ensure that people follow the law. The president of the united states is in accusation of many departments that control much of the daily actions of government. For case, Department of Commerce makes rules about trade. The president of the united states chooses the heads of these departments, and besides nominates federal judges. however, the Senate, share of the legislative arm, must agree with all of the people the president chooses. The president may serve two 4-year terms .

legislative branch [change |change source ]

The legislative branch makes laws. The legislative outgrowth is called the United States Congress. Congress is divided into two “ houses ”. One house is the House of Representatives. The Representatives are each elected by voters from a typeset area within a state of matter. The number of Representatives a state has is based on how many people live there. Representatives serve biennial terms. The full act of representatives today is 435. The leader of the House of Representatives is the Speaker of the House. The early firm is the Senate. In the Senate, each state of matter is represented evenly, by two senators. Because there are 50 states, there are 100 senators. The President ‘s treaties or appointments of officials need the Senate ‘s approval. Senators serve six-year terms. The Vice President of the United States serves as president of the united states of the Senate. In practice, the vice president is normally absent from the Senate, and a senator serves as president of the united states pro tempore, or irregular president, of the Senate. Representatives and senators propose laws, called “ bills “, in their respective houses. A bill may be voted upon by the stallion family right away or may first go to a little group, known as a committee, which may recommend a beak for a vote by the whole house. If one house votes to pass a bill, the placard then gets sent to the early house ; if both houses vote for it, it is then sent to the president, who may sign the bill into law or veto it. If the president vetoes the bill, it is sent back to Congress. If Congress votes again and passes the bill with at least a two-thirds majority, the charge becomes police and can not be vetoed by the president of the united states. Under the american english system of federalism, Congress may not make laws that directly control the states ; alternatively, Congress may use the promise of federal funds, or special circumstances such as national emergencies, to encourage the states to follow union law. This arrangement is both complex and alone .

Judicial branch [change |change source ]

The judicial branch is the contribution of politics that interprets what the law means. The Judicial Branch is made up of the Supreme Court and many lower courts. If the Supreme Court decides that a law is not allowed by the Constitution, the police is said to be “ strike down ” and is no longer a valid law. The Supreme Court is made up of nine judges, called justices, who are nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate. One of these justices, called the head judge, heads the court. A Supreme Court judge serves until he or she dies or resigns ( quits in the middle of his or her terminus ). When that happens, the president of the united states nominates person new to replace the justice who left. If the Senate agrees with that choice, the person becomes a department of justice. If the Senate does not agree with the president ‘s choice, then the president must nominate person else. celebrated woo cases such as Marbury v Madison ( which was decided in 1803 ) have firmly established that the Supreme Court is the ultimate interpreter of the United States Constitution and has the power to strike down any law that conflicts with it. [ 57 ]
The political system of the United States

The United States of America consists of 50 states, 5 territories and 1 zone ( Washington D.C. ). States can make laws about things inside the state of matter, but union law is about things dealing with more than one state or dealing with other countries. In some areas, if the union politics makes laws that say different things from the country laws, people must follow the federal law because the state law is not a law any more. Each state of matter has a fundamental law of its own, different from the federal ( national ) Constitution. Each of these is like the federal Constitution because they say how each department of state ‘s government is set up, but some besides talk about particular laws. The federal and most state governments are dominated by two political parties : the Republicans and the Democrats. There are many smaller parties ; the largest of these are the Libertarian Party and the Green Party. People help in political campaigns that they like. They try to persuade politicians to help them ; this is called lobby. All Americans are allowed to do these things, but some have and spend more money than others, or in early ways do more in politics. Some people think this is a problem, and anteroom for rules to be made to change it. Since 2021, the president is a Democrat, and Congress is besides Democrat-controlled, so the Democrats have more power in the union government. There are hush many mighty Republicans who can try to stop the Democrats from doing things that they believe will be bad for the nation. besides, members of a party in baron do not constantly agree on what to do. If enough people decide to vote against Democrats in the future election, they will lose power. In a democracy like the United States, no party can do whatever they want. All politicians have to argue, compromise, and make deals with each other to get things done. They have to answer to the people and take province for their mistakes. The USA ‘s bombastic cultural, economic, and military influence has made the foreign policy of the United States, or relations with other countries, a topic in american politics, and the politics of many other countries .

political divisions [change |change source ]

The United States conquered and bought new lands over time, and grew from the master 13 colonies in the east to the current 50 states, of which 48 of them are joined together to make up the contiguous United States. These states, called the “ lower 48 ”, can all be reached by road without crossing a border into another nation. They go from the Atlantic to the east to the Pacific in the west. There are two other states which are not joined to the lower 48 states. Alaska can be reached by passing through British Columbia and the Yukon, both of which are separate of Canada. Hawaii is in the middle of the Pacific Ocean. Washington, D.C., the national das kapital, is a federal zone that was split from the states of Maryland and Virginia in 1791. not function of any US state, it used to be in the condition of a square, with the nation west of the Potomac River coming from Virginia, and the farming east of the river coming from Maryland. In 1846, Virginia took back its separate of the land. Some people living in DC want it to become a state, or for Maryland to take back its down, so that they can have the right to vote in Congress .

Territories and possessions [change |change source ]

The United States territories and possessions consist of sixteen lands that are not states, many of which are colonial territories. none of them have any bring borders with the rest of the US. People live in five of these places, which are de facto american :
The Philippines was a possession of the United States. Palau, the Federated States of Micronesia, and early Pacific island nations were governed by the United States as a United Nations “ Trust territory ”. All of these places have become autonomous : the Philippines in 1946, Palau in 1947, and Micronesia in 1986. The U.S. armed forces has bases in many countries, and the U.S. Navy ‘s base at Guantanamo Bay was rented from Cuba after that state had a communist rotation .

Counties and cities [change |change source ]

All the states are divided into administrative subdivisions. Most of them are called counties, but Louisiana uses the son “ parish, ” and Alaska uses the parole “ borough. ” There are many cities in the United States. One city in each country is the state capital, where the government of the state meets and the governor works. This city is not constantly the largest in its state. For model, the city with the most people living in is New York City in New York State, but the express capital is Albany. Some other large cities are Los Angeles, California ; Chicago, Illinois ; Seattle, Washington ; Miami, Florida ; Indianapolis, Indiana ; Las Vegas, Nevada ; Houston and Dallas, Texas ; Philadelphia and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania ; Boston, Massachusetts ; Denver, Colorado ; St. Louis, Missouri, Memphis, Tennessee, Atlanta, Georgia, San Francisco, San Diego and Detroit, Michigan .

extraneous relations and military [change |change source ]

The United States is very influential in ball-shaped economics, politics, and the military. It is a permanent extremity of the United Nations Security Council and the headquarters of the United Nations is in New York City. It is a member of the G7, [ 58 ] G20, and Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Almost all countries have embassies in Washington, D.C., and many have consulates around the state. Likewise, about all nations host american diplomatic missions. however, Iran, North Korea, Bhutan, and Taiwan do not have formal diplomatic relations with the United States. The United States has a “ special relationship “ with the United Kingdom [ 59 ] and impregnable ties with Canada, [ 60 ] Australia, [ 61 ] New Zealand, [ 62 ] Japan, [ 63 ] South Korea, [ 64 ] and Israel. [ 65 ]
The president is the commander-in-chief of the nation ‘s armed forces and appoints its leaders, the secretary of defense and the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The United States Department of Defense administers the arm forces, including the Army, Marine Corps, Navy, and Air Force. The Coast Guard is run by the Department of Homeland Security in peacetime and by the Department of the Navy during times of war. In 2008, the arm forces had 1.4 million personnel on active duty, along with several hundred thousand each in the Reserves and National Guard for a entire of 2.3 million troops. The Department of Defense besides employed about 700,000 civilians, not including contractors. [ 66 ] The military budget of the United States in 2011 was more than $ 700 billion, 41 % of ball-shaped military spend and equal to the following 14 largest national military expenditures combined. At 4.7 % of GDP, the rate was the second-highest among the top 15 military spenders, after Saudi Arabia. [ 67 ] U.S. defense outgo as a share of GDP ranked 23rd globally in 2012 according to the CIA. [ 68 ] The proposed root Department of Defense budget for 2012, $ 553 billion, was a 4.2 % addition over 2011 ; an extra $ 118 billion was proposed for the military campaigns in Iraq and Afghanistan. [ 69 ] The last american troops serving in Iraq departed in December 2011 ; [ 70 ] 4,484 serve members were killed during the Iraq War. [ 71 ] approximately 90,000 U.S. troops were serving in Afghanistan in April 2012 ; [ 72 ] by November 8, 2013 2,285 had been killed during the War in Afghanistan. [ 73 ]
The United States has a capitalist economy. The area has rich mineral resources, with many aureate, coal, and uranium deposits. Farming makes the nation among the crown producers of, among others, corn ( gamboge ), wheat, sugar, and tobacco. Housing contributes about 15 % to the Gross domestic product ( GDP ) of the United States. [ 74 ] America produces cars, airplanes, and electronics. About 3/4 of Americans work in the service industry .

Historical population
Census Pop.
1790 3,929,000
1800 5,308,000 35.1%
1810 7,240,000 36.4%
1820 9,638,000 33.1%
1830 12,866,000 33.5%
1840 17,063,000 32.6%
1850 23,192,000 35.9%
1860 31,443,321 35.6%
1870 38,558,371 22.6%
1880 50,189,209 30.2%
1890 62,979,766 25.5%
1900 76,212,168 21.0%
1910 92,228,531 21.0%
1920 106,021,568 15.0%
1930 123,202,660 16.2%
1940 132,164,569 7.3%
1950 151,325,798 14.5%
1960 179,323,175 18.5%
1970 203,211,926 13.3%
1980 226,545,805 11.5%
1990 248,709,873 9.8%
2000 281,421,906 13.2%
2010 308,745,538 9.7%

The United States of America has people of many unlike race and cultural backgrounds. 80 % of the people in the United States descend from european immigrants. many people are descended from Germany, England, Scotland, Ireland, Africa, and Italy. [ 75 ] 13 % of the people in the United States are african-american. Most of them descend from the African slaves that were brought to America. asian -Americans make up only 5 % of the population in America but make up a bigger part in the west seashore. For exercise, in California, Asian-Americans make up 13 % of the population of that state. hispanic -Americans or people of latin origins make up 15 % of the nation. The master peoples, called native American, American Indians, or Amerindians and Inuit ( Eskimos ) are a very minor group. 11 % of the people in the United States are foreign born. 18 % speak a language other than English at home. For people 25 and older, 80 % are high school graduates while 25 % have a knight bachelor ‘s academic degree or higher. The 2000 Census counted self-reported lineage. It identified 43 million German-Americans, 30.5 million Irish-Americans, 24.9 million African-Americans, 24.5 million English-Americans, and 18.4 million armenian Americans. The United States has the largest number of immigrants of any nation in the world. The United States attracts immigrants from other countries due to the american Dream. Most immigrants in the United States come from Mexico, China, India, the Philippines and El Salvador .
The social social organization of the United States has a big scope. This means that some Americans are much, much richer than others. The average ( median ) income for an American was $ 37,000 a class in 2002. however, the richest 1 % of Americans have vitamin a much money as the poorest 90 %. 51 % of all households have access to a computer and 41 % had entree to the Internet in 2000, a trope which had grown to 75 % in 2004. besides, 67.9 % of american families owned their homes in 2002. There are 200 million cars in the United States, two for every three Americans. The debt has grown to over $ 21,000,000,000,000 .
There are many unlike religions in the U.S. Statistically, the largest religion is Christianity, including groups such as Catholicism, Protestantism, and Mormonism. other religions include Hinduism, Islam, Judaism, unitarian Universalism, Wicca, Druidry, Baha’i, Raelism, Zoroastrianism, Taoism, and Jainism. [ 76 ] Religions which were founded within the United States include Eckankar, Satanism, and Scientology. native american religions have diverse animist beliefs. The United States is one of the most religious countries in the westerly World, and most Americans believe in God. The number of Christians in the U.S. has gone down. 86.2 % called themselves Christian in 1990 and 78.4 % said this in 2007. The others include Judaism ( 2.3 % ), Islam ( 0.8 % ), Buddhism ( 0.7 % ), Hinduism ( 0.4 % ), and unitarian Universalism ( 0.3 % ). Those who have no religion are at 16.1 %. There is a large dispute between those who say that they belong to a religion and those who are members of a religious torso of that religion. [ 77 ] Doubts about the being of a God, gods or goddesses are higher among young people. [ 78 ] Among the non-religious population of the U.S., there are deists, humanists, ignotic, atheists, and agnostics. [ 79 ]

Languages (2017)[80]
English (only) 239 million
Spanish 41 million
Chinese 3.5 million
Tagalog 1.7 million
Vietnamese 1.5 million
Arabic 1.2 million
French 1.2 million
Korean 1.1 million
Russian 0.94 million
German 0.92 million

English ( American English ) is the de facto national language. Although there is no official linguistic process at the union tied, some laws—such as U.S. naturalization requirements —standardize english. In 2010, approximately 230 million, or 80 % of the population aged five years and older, spoke only English at dwelling. spanish, spoken by 12 % of the population at dwelling, is the second most common terminology and the most widely teach second speech. [ 80 ] [ 81 ] Some Americans advocate making English the country ‘s official language, as it is in at least twenty-eight states. Both Hawaiian and English are official languages in Hawaii by submit law. [ 82 ] While neither has an official lyric, New Mexico has laws providing for the use of both English and Spanish, as Louisiana does for English and French. [ 83 ] other states, such as California, order the issue of spanish versions of certain government documents including court forms. [ 84 ] many jurisdictions with large numbers of non-English speakers produce government materials, particularly voting information, in the most normally speak languages in those jurisdictions. several insular territories grant official recognition to their native languages, along with English : samoan and Chamorro are recognized by american Samoa and Guam, respectively ; Carolinian and Chamorro are recognized by the Northern Mariana Islands ; Spanish is an official speech of Puerto Rico and is more wide spoken than English there. many native american languages in the United States are endangered .
In most states, children are required to attend school from the historic period of six or seven ( by and large, kindergarten or first base grade ) until they turn eighteen ( broadly bringing them through one-twelfth grade, the end of high school ) ; some states allow students to leave school at sixteen or seventeen. [ 85 ] About 12 % of children are enrolled in insular or nonsectarian private schools. Just over 2 % of children are homeschooled. [ 86 ]
American popular culture goes out to many places in the earth. It has a big influence on most of the world, specially the westerly universe. american english music is heard all over the universe, and american english movies and television shows can be seen in most countries .

Federal holidays [change |change source ]

[ 87 ]
The US Flag The american flag is made up of 50 stars on a blue background, and has 13 stripes, seven crimson and six white. It is one of many symbols of the United States like the Bald Eagle. The 50 stars represent the 50 states. The bolshevik stands for courage. The aristocratic stands for judge. The white represents peace and cleanliness. The 13 stripes represent the 13 original colonies. [ 88 ]
A hamburger is one of the popular foods of the United States. Fast food in United States is home to many regional cuisines such as the Cuisine of the Southern United States, besides known as southerly food. There are Americanized versions of Chinese, Greek, italian and mexican cuisine. native american cuisine is the cuisine of the autochthonal native Americans. A lot of american dishes are influenced by many countries around the populace .
The most popular genres in the United States are Rock and seethe, toss off, area, R & B, and hip hop. native american english music is the autochthonal music of the United States .

other websites [change |change source ]

  • United States travel guide from Wikivoyage
Government
Overviews and Data
History
  • Historical Documents Collected by the National Center for Public Policy Research
  • U.S. National Mottos: History and Constitutionality Analysis by the Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance
  • USA Collected links to historical data
Maps
Other
  • U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Official government site
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