Death Row ( once Future Shock [ 6 ] and Tha Row ) was an american english record pronounce founded in 1992 by Dr. Dre, Suge Knight, The D.O.C. and Dick Griffey. [ 1 ] The label became a sensation by releasing multi-platinum hip-hop albums by West Coast -based artists such as Dr. Dre ( The Chronic ), Snoop Dogg ( Doggystyle ), Tha Dogg Pound ( Dogg Food ), and Tupac Shakur ( All Eyez on Me ) during the 1990s. At its extremum, Death Row was making over US $ 100 million a class. [ 7 ] By the late 1990s, the tag began to decline after the death of its star topology artist, Tupac Shakur, captivity of Suge Knight, and the departures of Dr. Dre and Snoop Dogg. Although Death Row was enjoying fiscal achiever, it was embroiled in controversies, lawsuits, and violence by its artists and associates. Death Row Records filed for bankruptcy in 2006 and was auctioned to WIDEawake Entertainment for $ 18 million on January 15, 2009. [ 8 ] [ 9 ] The owner of WIDEawake bankrupted in 2012 and the label was then sold to Entertainment One, then became a division of Hasbro until April 2021 when eOne Music was sold to The Blackstone Group. [ 10 ]
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history [edit ]
In the late-1980s, N.W.A ‘s manufacturer Dr. Dre signed to Eazy-E ‘s Ruthless. As fountainhead of production at the label, Dr. Dre produced a large number of Ruthless projects, many of them successful ; feeling the pressures of having to produce indeed many acts and feeling he was underpay, Dr. Dre became frustrated with Ruthless. [ 11 ] After the deviation of Ice Cube in 1989 over fiscal disagreements with Jerry Heller, [ 12 ] Suge Knight and The D.O.C. went over the books with a lawyer. Convinced that Jerry Heller was dishonest, they approached Dr. Dre about forming a label with them, away from Heller. [ 13 ] allegedly using strong-arm tactics, Suge Knight was able to procure contracts from Eazy-E for The D.O.C., Dr. Dre and Michel’le. [ 14 ] Dr. Dre and Suge Knight along with partners The D.O.C. and Dick Griffey began the work of starting a record label and music partnership in prediction of Dre ‘s passing from Ruthless. Although the name of their new music venture was in the first place called Future Shock, The D.O.C. claimed to have suggested changing the name of the newly label to ‘ Def Row’ [ 15 ] ( a play on the Def Jam ), [ 16 ] but rights to the name were already owned by The Unknown DJ, who besides happened to be one of Dre ‘s erstwhile music associates in the 1980s. Unknown stated in an interview that he created the name “ Def Row ” for a potential manage to start another record label under Morgan Creek. [ 17 ] however he late sold the name rights to Dr. Dre and his partners in July 1991 and by 1992 the mention changed to its eventual entitle of Death Row. [ 18 ] Knight approached Michael “ Harry-O ” Harris, a businessman imprisoned on drug and attempted murder charges. Through David Kenner, an lawyer handling Harris ‘s invoke, Harry-O set up Godfather, a parent company for the newly christened Death Row. [ 19 ] Knight approached Vanilla Ice ( Robert Van Winkle ), using management connections with Mario “ Chocolate ” Johnson, claiming Johnson had produced the sung “ Ice Ice Baby “, and had not received royalties for it. [ 20 ] After consulting with Alex Roberts, Knight and two bodyguards arrived at The Palm in West Hollywood, Los Angeles, California, where Van Winkle was eating. After shoving Van Winkle ‘s bodyguards away, Knight sat down in movement of Van Winkle, staring at him before asking “ How you doin ‘ ? ” [ 20 ] similar incidents were repeated on respective occasions, including alleged attempts to lure Vanilla Ice into a van filled with Bloods and Crips, before Knight showed up at Vanilla Ice ‘s hotel suite on the fifteenth floor of the Bel Age Hotel, accompanied by Johnson and a member of the Los Angeles Raiders. According to Vanilla Ice, Knight took him out on the balcony by himself, and implied he would throw Vanilla Ice off unless he signed the rights to the song over to Knight ; Van Winkle ‘s money helped fund Death Row. [ 20 ] Death Row was initially located at the overlap of Westwood Blvd and Wilshire Blvd, late to be relocated to the intersection of Wilshire Blvd. and San Vicente Blvd. [ 21 ]
The Chronic [edit ]
With the aid of Kenner, Knight began signing young, inner-city California -based artists and arranged for Death Row Records to handle the soundtrack for the 1992 film, Deep Cover. The single, “ cryptic Cover “, established Dr. Dre as a solo artist and a young Snoop Dogg ( then known as Snoop Doggy Dogg ) as his protégé. Work soon began on The Chronic, Dr. Dre ‘s debut solo album, which heavily featured Snoop and the respite of the pronounce ‘s core roll. The album went on to sell 5.7 million records in the US, [ 22 ] establishing the West Coast in the rap industry and popularizing the classifiable vogue of G-Funk. [ 23 ] The Death Row roll consisted of Dre, Snoop, Kurupt, Nate Dogg, Lady of Rage, The D.O.C., RBX, and many more. Later on, Death Row artist Lil 1/2 Dead ‘s contract was late sold to Priority Records where he released his introduction album The Dead Has Arisen .
Doggystyle [edit ]
After finding solo success, Dr. Dre began crafting Snoop Dogg ‘s debut album Doggystyle ; the summons took two years. Snoop ‘s debut was released in 1993 ascribable to populace demand and high pressure from retailers. Though bare, [ 24 ] it outperformed The Chronic at Quadruple Platinum, [ 25 ] and garnered similarly glowing reviews. [ 26 ] Soon after the release of the album, Snoop Dogg was charged with murder, [ 27 ] fueling the debate that politicians C. Delores Tucker and Vice Presidential campaigner Dan Quayle sparked [ citation needed ] by criticizing gangsta knock for being against American values, degrading to total darkness women, and encouraging ferocity towards patrol officers .
Death Row Thanksgiving [edit ]
On November 22, 1994, at the offices of The Brotherhood Crusade in Los Angeles, Suge Knight and several artists from Death Row such as Tha Dogg Pound and DJ Quik ( was n’t signed to the label ) distributed closely 2,000 turkeys to the public. [ 28 ] Death Row besides donated turkeys the follow year ampere well. [ 29 ]
Signing Tupac Shakur, Bad Boy Records feud and Dr. Dre ‘s passing [edit ]
After an August visit to see Tupac Shakur at Clinton Correctional Facility in northerly New York department of state, Suge traveled south to New York City to join Death Row ‘s cortege to the 2nd Annual Source Awards ceremony. [ 30 ] already reputed for strongarm tactics on the Los Angeles rap view, Suge used his brief phase time chiefly to disparage Sean “ Puff Daddy ” Combs, boss of Bad Boy Entertainment, the pronounce then leading New York rap scene, who routinely performed with his own artists. [ 31 ] [ 32 ] Before closing with a brief gossip of support for Shakur, [ 33 ] Suge invited artists seeking the spotlight for themselves to join Death Row. [ 31 ] [ 32 ] Eventually, Puff recalled that to preempt severe retaliation from his Bad Boy eye socket, he had promptly confronted Suge, whose reply—that he had meant Jermaine Dupri, of So So Def Recordings, in Atlanta—was politic adequate to deescalate the conflict. [ 34 ] distillery, among the fans, the previously diffuse competition between America ‘s two mainstream blame scenes had instantaneously flared already. [ 31 ] [ 33 ] [ 32 ] And while in New York, Suge visited Uptown Records, where Puff, under its collapse Andre Harrell, had started in the music business through an internship. [ 35 ] apparently without paying Uptown, Suge obtained the releases of Puff ‘s prime Uptown recruits Jodeci, its producer DeVante Swing, and Mary J. Blige, all then signing with Suge ‘s management company. [ 35 ] On September 24, 1995, at a party for Dupri in Atlanta at the Platinum House cabaret, a Bad Boy circle entered a heat quarrel with Suge and Suge ‘s ally Jai Hassan-Jamal “ Big Jake ” Robles, a Bloods crowd member and Death Row bodyguard. [ 31 ] [ 36 ] According to eyewitnesses, including a Fulton County sheriff, working there as a cabaret bouncer, Puff had heatedly disputed with Suge inside the club, [ 31 ] whereas respective minutes later, outside the club, it was Puff ‘s childhood supporter and own bodyguard, Anthony “ Wolf ” Jones, who aimed a grease-gun at Big Jake who was fatally shot while entering Suge ‘s car. [ 31 ] [ 37 ] [ 38 ] The attorneys of Puff and his bodyguard both denied any participation by their clients, while Puff ‘s lawyer added that Puff had not even been with his bodyguard that night. [ 39 ] Over 20 years late, the case remains officially unresolved. Yet immediately and persistently, Suge blamed Puff, cementing the hostility between the two bosses, whose two record labels dominated the tap genre ‘s two mainstream centers. [ 31 ] [ 40 ] In October 1995, Knight visited Shakur in prison again and posted $ 1.4 million attachment. Shakur began exercise on his Death Row album, kicking off his tenure by insulting The ill-famed B.I.G., Junior M.A.F.I.A. and Puff Daddy ( the collapse of Bad Boy Records ), whom he accused of setting him up to be robbed and shot at Quad Studios on November 30, 1994, adenine well as Mobb Deep, Jay-Z, A Tribe Called Quest, De La Soul, The Fugees and Nas. Tha Dogg Pound ‘s debut album, Dogg Food, continued the label ‘s streak of commercial successes ; its members – rappers Kurupt and Daz Dillinger – then joined Snoop in ridiculing New York rappers with their single “ New York, New York “, featuring Snoop Dogg. The television, set in New York City, New York, was besides heightened when the set was fired upon in a drive-by. After the shooting, Snoop Dogg and Tha Dogg Pound filmed scenes kicking down a build in New York. The one provoked a response called ‘ ” L.A., L.A. “ by East Coast rappers Capone-N-Noreaga, Tragedy Khadafi, and Mobb Deep. Another report was that Sam Sneed was beaten in one of the label ‘s meetings by a group of Death Row affiliates, led by Suge Knight and 2Pac. According to Daz Dillinger, the reason this happened was that Sam Sneed had excessively many East Coast rappers in his dame Heroin music video recording. [ 41 ] Disillusioned with the commission of Death Row, artists RBX and The D.O.C. chose to leave, after which Suge Knight exercised tighter control over the rest of the roll. [ 19 ] Dogg Food was not produced by Dr. Dre but was mix by Dr. Dre, a further will to Dre ‘s dwindling engagement with his own read label. Dr. Dre besides grew tired of Knight ‘s ferocity within the label, although he contributed toward two tracks on 2Pac ‘s All Eyez on Me. The rest of the tracks on the album, however, were largely produced by Daz Dillinger and Johnny J, despite Dr. Dre being nominally titled as Executive Producer. Shakur ‘s demeanor reportedly became erratic as he continued his verbal wars with The Notorious B.I.G., Bad Boy Records, Puff Daddy, Mobb Deep, and Prodigy, including many fierce confrontations with many of those rappers at some points. On March 22, 1996, due to the infighting, Dr. Dre formally left Death Row Records to found Aftermath, which provoked 2Pac to turn against Dr. Dre .
M.C. Hammer ‘s interest and departure [edit ]
Suge Knight ‘s kinship with MC Hammer dates back to 1988. With the achiever of Hammer ‘s 1994 album, The Funky Headhunter ( featuring Tha Dogg Pound ), Hammer signed with Death Row in 1995, along with his finale supporter, 2Pac. [ 42 ] The label did not release the album of M.C. Hammer ‘s music ( titled Too Tight ), although he did release versions of some tracks on his next album. [ 43 ] [ 44 ] however, Hammer did record tracks with Shakur and others, most notably the sung “ Too Late Playa “ ( along with Big Daddy Kane and Danny Boy ). [ 45 ] After the death of 2Pac in 1996, MC Hammer left Death Row Records. [ 46 ] [ 47 ]
Tupac Shakur ‘s murder and Suge Knight ‘s captivity [edit ]
once a unite front man of artists, Death Row ‘s roll fractured into separate camps. Daz, now lead producer, worked on Snoop Dogg ‘s second album Tha Doggfather, which featured Bad Azz and Techniec of his LBC Crew, Warren G and Nate Dogg of his group 213 and Tha Dogg Pound. 2Pac shut himself into the studio with Hurt-M-Badd and Big “ D ”, crafting The Don Killuminati: The 7 Day Theory – unlike All Eyez on Me, it was barren of high-profile Death Row guest appearances, rather showcasing The Outlawz and Bad Azz. Suge Knight was now barely approachable by his staff, and employees were assaulted as punishment for not following orders. [ 24 ] During a trip to Las Vegas, Nevada, for a Mike Tyson boxing pit, 2Pac was interviewed on the possibility of Death Row East, an East Coast branch of Death Row. It was besides during this prison term that Alex Roberts and David Kenner had been seen at Suge Knight ‘s Vegas Club 662, in discussion about the possibility of having Roberts ‘ New York hell connections help pave the way for Death Row East. Though name from Big Daddy Kane and The Wu-Tang Clan to Eric B. and K-Solo were mentioned, the label would never be formed ; On September 7, 1996, Suge Knight and 2Pac were caught on surveillance television camera at the MGM Grand Hotel in Las Vegas attacking gang penis Orlando Anderson, who was a member of the Southside Compton Crips street gang. late that nox, 2Pac was shot four times in a drive-by inject in the front seat of Suge Knight ‘s BMW 750iL waiting at a crimson traffic light at crossroads ; en route to Knight ‘s Las Vegas Club 662 ; [ 48 ] [ 49 ] despite living six days in critical condition, 2Pac died September 13, 1996. Shakur ‘s “ The Don Killuminati : 7 Day Theory “ was released in November 1996, equitable one week before Snoop Dogg ‘s “ Tha Doggfather “. Both albums achieved Platinum sales. On February 28, 1997, Suge Knight was convicted of parole irreverence and sentenced to nine years in prison, [ 50 ] causing Interscope to drop their distribution cover with the label. [ 51 ] Suge Knight ‘s control over the label diminished, as Nate Dogg was able to leave, followed by Snoop Dogg and Kurupt. After the release of her solo album, The Lady of Rage left. Daz Dillinger departed in 1999 but produced for Big C-Style, he former formed Dogg Pound Records. Kurupt returned to the label in early 2002 upon Suge Knight ‘s handout from prison on August 6, 2001. [ 52 ] [ 53 ]
second generation exodus ( Tha Row Records ) [edit ]
Maintaining aesthetic control from behind bars, Suge Knight launched smear campaigns against his former artists, most notably Snoop Dogg, death threats were exchanged, and Snoop Dogg responded by publicly dissing Suge Knight, leaving the label, and by and by releasing a dis track named “ Pimp Slapp ‘d “, critically acclaimed by music magazine Complex. [ 54 ] [ 55 ] [ 56 ] [ 57 ] The label supported itself with releases pulled from vaults—most successfully versatile posthumous 2Pac albums, along with Dr. Dre and Snoop Dogg re-releases and then-unreleased compilation records such as Suge Knight Represents: Chronic 2000. He signed new talent, including Crooked I who had been lighting up the californian underground with his rhyming ability, particularly the Wake Up Show with Sway & King Tech. Suge Knight besides signed Left Eye. Despite bad lineage, Kurupt would again sign with Suge Knight in rally for the position of Vice President, which sparked a feud between himself and Daz Dillinger and Snoop Dogg. He began work on Against tha Grain ; his verbal feud with his former partners continued from 2002 to 2005. [ 58 ] Left Eye signed with Death Row after finishing her solo hand with Arista who released her foremost album Supernova in 2001. At this time, Death Row changed into Tha Row Records. Lopes joined to record a second solo album under the pseudonym N.I.N.A. ( New Identity not Applicable ), while besides working on TLC ‘s raw album 3D. N.I.N.A. was cancelled after her death in April 2002. The album was leaked on-line in 2011. After promoting his newfangled talent from prison, directing a campaign against his former artists and exacerbating the conflict between Daz Dillinger and Kurupt, [ 59 ] Suge had inactive yet to release any albums by his new artists. After Kurupt ‘s second base deviation, Against tha Grain was released ; soon after, citing dissatisfaction with serving five years on the label and seeing no let go of, [ 60 ] Rapper Crooked I left Death Row, finally filing a gag order on Knight to prevent him from interfering with him finding a new deal. [ 61 ] Petey Pablo, who had signed in 2005 and started the never-released album Same Eyez on Me, [ 62 ] left along with rapper Tha Realest [ 63 ] in 2006 .
bankruptcy [edit ]
On April 4, 2006 both Death Row Records and Suge Knight simultaneously filed for chapter 11 bankruptcy protection following the appointee of a Receiver to acquire and auction off assets of both Death Row Records and Suge Knight in the civil case filed by Lydia Harris against Suge Knight. Among those listed as unbarred creditors to Death Row include the Harrises, the Internal Revenue Service ( $ 6.9 million ), Koch Records ( $ 3.4 million ), Interscope Records ( $ 2.5 million ) and a number of artists previously signed to the label. Suge Knight finally lost operate of Death Row Records and his personal assets when chapter 11 Trustees took over both cases .
From WIDEawake skill to E1 [edit ]
WIDEawake Entertainment Group was created in 2006 by Lara Lavi. On January 15, 2009, Death Row Records was successfully auctioned to entertainment development company WIDEawake for US $ 18 million. WIDEawake Entertainment made a leverage purchase of Deathrow Records in part thanks to finance provided by New Solutions Financial Corporation. [ 64 ] On January 25, 2009, an auction was held for everything found in Death Row ‘s office after it filed for bankruptcy. Both WIDEawake and New Solutions Financial were based in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. New Solutions by the end of 2009 began to squeeze Lara Lavi out of WIDEawake Entertainment by restricting her ability to access funds they had lend her for Deathrow. By November 2009 Lara Lavi was removed from WIDEawake entertainment and Robert Thomson of New Solution Financial had taken over daily operations. Lavi then sued her early company, Ontario-based WIDEawake Entertainment Group, New Solutions Financial Corporation and New Solutions Managing Director Robert Thompson in New York County Court on November 19, 2009. [ 65 ] New Solutions Financial Corporation was finally exposed as a Ponzi scheme. Of notice was the Death Row electric chair which went for US $ 2,500. [ 66 ] Since the skill, the ship’s company has continued to release material from its huge archives of materials acquired in the sale. noteworthy releases include previously unreleased substantial from such artists as Snoop Dogg, Kurupt, Danny Boy, Crooked I, Sam Sneed, LBC Crew and O.F.T.B. Since the acquisition of the corporeal, Death Row, under the management of WIDEawake, has made many positive steps towards improving the double of Death Row by making good on its predict to make royalty payments to many of the artists, producers, and songwriters with commercially released material under the label. On criminal record Store Day, April 18, 2012, the pronounce issued a free Death Row “ Record Store Day ” four hundred sampling station which included music from Petey Pablo and Danny Boy. The Chronic Re-Lit was released on September 1, 2009. The album contained The Chronic re-mastered with seven bonus songs from the vault by Snoop Doggy Dogg, CPO, Kurupt, Jewell, plus a DVD containing music video, a Dr. Dre interview, a Dr. Dre and Snoop Dogg mini movie, and 1992 television receiver commercials for the original The Chronic publish. [ 67 ] Snoop Doggy Dogg – Death Row The Lost Sessions Vol 1 [ 68 ] was released October 13, 2009 and contains 15 previously unreleased tracks with four being produced by Dr. Dre. Death Row The Ultimate Collection [ 69 ] was released on November 24 and was a special box set containing three audio CDs ( one greatest hits disk and two magnetic disk of unreleased subject ), one DVD of music video which includes the unreleased Dr. Dre music video recording “ Puffin ‘ On Blunts ” and a limited edition Death Row T-shirt. The laid boasts over 20 unreleased tracks by Snoop Doggy Dogg, Tha Dogg Pound, The Lady of Rage, Lord Autopz and Petey Pablo. During this menstruation, there was a distribution venture between Entertainment One, WIDEawake, and Death Row. On December 10, 2012, New Solutions Financial Corp., the canadian caller that owned WIDEawake Death Row, had gone bankrupt and sold both the label and catalogue to a publicly held company. [ 70 ] In 2013, Entertainment One purchased the rights to the Death Row catalog. The Group invested £175 million in content rights and television programmes in the class ( 2012 : £135.8 million ) and £4.2 million ( $ 6 million ) to purchase the music library assets of Death Row. [ 71 ] Death Row had a pop fly event in Los Angeles on April 10, 2019. [ 72 ] On August 23, 2019, American play party Hasbro announced a $ 4 billion leverage of eOne, making them the owners of Death Row Records. [ 73 ] In April 2021, Hasbro and Entertainment One announced it would sell-off eOne Music to The Blackstone Group. [ 74 ] The acquisition was completed in recently June 2021, making eOne Music the sole owner of Death Row. [ 75 ] In Septemper 2021, eOne Music was rebranded as MNRK Music Group .
Death Row Records UK [edit ]
In 2001, Knight decided to enter the UK commercialize with Death Row Records operating as an freelancer record label in conjunction with the Ritz Music Group, [ 76 ] a company known for its success with irish area music artists such as Daniel O’Donnell [ 77 ] The joint-venture signed British R & B singer Mark Morrison [ 78 ] to a five-year deal with Death Row Records UK, with a one called “ Thank God It ‘s Friday ” and an album called Innocent Man scheduled for a 2002 secrete. however, the one did not chart in the UK and the album ended up being released by football player Kevin Campbell ‘s record label 2 Wikid, before being re-issued in 2006 by Mona Records .
former artists [edit ]
discography [edit ]
See besides [edit ]
Notes [edit ]
- Morrison was signed to Death Row Records U.K
References [edit ]
foster reading [edit ]
- Have Gun Will Travel: The Spectacular Rise and Violent Fall of Death Row Records, Ronin Ro, Doubleday, 1998, 384 pages, ISBN 0-385-49134-4
- Labyrinth: A Detective Investigates the Murders of Tupac Shakur and Notorious B.I.G., the Implications of Death Row Records’ Suge by Randall Sullivan, Atlantic Monthly Press, April 2, 2002, 384 pages, ISBN 0-87113-838-7
- The Killing of Tupac Shakur, by Cathy Scott, Huntington Press, 2002 (2nd ed), 235 pages, ISBN 0-929712-20-X
- Welcome to Death Row, Director: S. Leigh Savidge & Jeff Scheftel, (Video) 2001