England is a state that is separate of the United Kingdom. [ 6 ] [ 7 ] [ 8 ] It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the confederacy. The nation covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, and includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Paleolithic menstruation, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unite express in the tenth century and has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wide worldly concern since the Age of Discovery, which began during the fifteenth century. [ 9 ] The english linguistic process, the Anglican Church, and English law —the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world—developed in England, and the area ‘s parliamentary system of government has been wide adopted by early nations. [ 10 ] The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the worldly concern ‘s first industrialized state. [ 11 ]
Reading: England – Wikipedia
England ‘s terrain is chiefly low hills and plains, specially in cardinal and southern England. however, there is highland and mountainous terrain in the north ( for exercise, the Lake District and Pennines ) and in the west ( for example, Dartmoor and the Shropshire Hills ). The das kapital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom. England ‘s population of 56.3 million comprises 84 % of the population of the United Kingdom, [ 4 ] largely concentrated around London, the South East, and conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, and Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the nineteenth hundred. [ 12 ] The Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the former year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. [ 13 ] [ 14 ] In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland ( through another Act of Union ) to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. [ 15 ]
The list “ England ” is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means “ bring of the Angles “. [ 16 ] The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area ( contemporary German department of state of Schleswig–Holstein ) of the Baltic Sea. [ 17 ] The earliest recorded use of the term, as “ Engla londe ”, is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede ‘s Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was then used in a different sense to the advanced one, meaning “ the land inhabited by the English ”, and it included english people in what is now southeast Scotland but was then character of the English kingdom of Northumbria. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the english kingdom, but a few years late the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went “ out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland ”, frankincense using it in the more ancient sense. The earliest attest mention to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century exploit by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used. [ 19 ] The etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars ; it has been suggested that it derives from the form of the Angeln peninsula, an angular form. [ 20 ] How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe that was less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the stallion nation and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or english Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons ( Eald-Seaxe ) of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. [ 21 ] In scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their identify to the word for England ( Sasunn ) ; [ 22 ] similarly, the Welsh name for the english language is “ Saesneg “. A romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh bible for England, Lloegr, and made democratic by its use in arthurian legend. Albion is besides applied to England in a more poetic capacity, [ 23 ] though its master meaning is the island of Britain as a whole .
prehistory and antiquity
view of the ramparts of the explicate hillfort of Maiden Castle, Dorset, as they look today The earliest know testify of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximately 780,000 years ago. The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from 500,000 years ago. [ 24 ] Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic menstruation, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6,000 years. [ 25 ] [ 26 ] After the last frost age only large mammals such as mammoths, bison and lanate rhinoceros remained. roughly 11,000 years ago, when the internal-combustion engine sheets began to recede, humans repopulated the area ; genetic inquiry suggests they came from the northern part of the iberian Peninsula. [ 27 ] The sea level was lower than now and Britain was connected by land bridge to Ireland and Eurasia. [ 28 ] As the seas rose, it was separated from Ireland 10,000 years ago and from Eurasia two millennium former. The Beaker polish arrived around 2,500 BC, introducing drink in and food vessels constructed from clay, american samoa well as vessels used as decrease pots to smelt copper ores. [ 29 ] It was during this fourth dimension that major neolithic monuments such as Stonehenge and Avebury were constructed. By heating together canister and copper, which were in abundance in the sphere, the Beaker culture people made bronze, and late cast-iron from iron ores. The development of iron smelt allowed the construction of better plow, advancing agribusiness ( for exemplify, with Celtic fields ), vitamin a well as the production of more effective weapons. [ 30 ] During the Iron Age, celtic culture, deriving from the Hallstatt and La Tène cultures, arrived from Central Europe. Brythonic was the speak lyric during this clock. society was tribal ; according to Ptolemy ‘s Geographia there were about 20 tribes in the area. Earlier divisions are unknown because the Britons were not literate. Like other regions on the boundary of the Empire, Britain had long enjoy trade links with the Romans. Julius Caesar of the Roman Republic attempted to invade doubly in 55 BC ; although largely abortive, he managed to set up a client king from the Trinovantes .
The Romans invaded Britain in 43 AD during the reign of Emperor Claudius, subsequently conquering much of Britain, and the area was incorporated into the Roman Empire as Britannia state. [ 31 ] The best-known of the native tribes who attempted to resist were the Catuvellauni led by Caratacus. Later, an get up led by Boudica, Queen of the Iceni, ended with Boudica ‘s suicide following her frustration at the Battle of Watling Street. [ 32 ] The author of one study of Roman Britain suggested that from 43 AD to 84 AD, the Roman invaders killed somewhere between 100,000 and 250,000 people from a population of possibly 2,000,000. [ 33 ] This era saw a classical culture prevail with the initiation of Roman jurisprudence, Roman architecture, aqueducts, sewers, many agricultural items and silk. [ 34 ] [ 35 ] [ 36 ] In the third hundred, Emperor Septimius Severus died at Eboracum ( immediately York ), where Constantine was subsequently proclaimed emperor a century belated. [ 37 ] There is debate about when Christianity was first base introduced ; it was no by and by than the fourth century, credibly much earlier. According to Bede, missionaries were sent from Rome by Eleutherius at the request of the headman Lucius of Britain in 180 AD, to settle differences as to Eastern and western ceremonials, which were disturbing the church. There are traditions linked to Glastonbury claiming an insertion through Joseph of Arimathea, while others claim through Lucius of Britain. [ 38 ] By 410, during the Decline of the Roman Empire, Britain was left exposed by the end of Roman rule in Britain and the withdrawal of Roman army units, to defend the frontiers in continental Europe and partake in civil wars. [ 39 ] Celtic Christian monk and missionary movements flourished : Patrick ( 5th-century Ireland ) and in the sixth hundred Brendan ( Clonfert ), Comgall ( Bangor ), David ( Wales ), Aiden ( Lindisfarne ) and Columba ( Iona ). This time period of Christianity was influenced by ancient celtic culture in its sensibilities, polity, practices and theology. local “ congregations ” were centred in the monk community and cloistered leaders were more like chieftains, as peers, preferably than in the more hierarchical system of the Roman-dominated church. [ 40 ]
Roman military withdrawals left Britain open to invasion by pagan, seafaring warriors from north-western continental Europe, chiefly the Saxons, Angles, Jutes and Frisians who had long raided the coasts of the Roman province. These groups then began to settle in increasing numbers over the course of the one-fifth and sixth centuries, initially in the eastern character of the state. [ 39 ] Their promote was contained for some decades after the Britons ‘ victory at the Battle of Mount Badon, but subsequently resumed, overrunning the fat lowlands of Britain and reducing the area under Brittonic operate to a series of classify enclaves in the more rugged country to the west by the end of the sixth hundred. contemporary text describing this period are extremely barely, giving lift to its description as a Dark Age. The nature and progress of the Anglo-Saxon village of Britain is consequently subject to considerable discrepancy ; the emerging consensus is that it occurred on a big scale in the south and east but was less significant to the north and west, where celtic languages continued to be spoken even in areas under Anglo-Saxon control. [ 41 ] [ 42 ] [ 43 ] [ 44 ] [ 45 ] [ 46 ] Roman-dominated Christianity had, in general, disappeared from the appropriate territories, but was reintroduced by missionaries from Rome led by Augustine from 597 onwards. [ 47 ] Disputes between the Roman- and Celtic-dominated forms of Christianity ended in victory for the Roman tradition at the Council of Whitby ( 664 ), which was apparently about tonsures ( clerical haircuts ) and the date of Easter, but more significantly, about the differences in Roman and Celtic forms of authority, theology, and practice. [ 40 ] During the village period the lands ruled by the incomers seem to have been fragmented into numerous tribal territories, but by the seventh hundred, when substantial attest of the site again become available, these had coalesced into roughly a twelve kingdoms including Northumbria, Mercia, Wessex, East Anglia, Essex, Kent and Sussex. Over the pursuit centuries, this process of political consolidation continued. [ 48 ] The seventh hundred saw a contend for hegemony between Northumbria and Mercia, which in the eighth century gave way to Mercian eminence. [ 49 ] In the early ninth century Mercia was displaced as the first kingdom by Wessex. Later in that century escalating attacks by the Danes culminated in the conquest of the north and east of England, overthrowing the kingdoms of Northumbria, Mercia and East Anglia. Wessex under Alfred the Great was left as the only surviving english kingdom, and under his successors, it steadily expanded at the expense of the kingdoms of the Danelaw. This brought about the political fusion of England, first gear accomplished under Æthelstan in 927 and definitively established after farther conflicts by Eadred in 953. A fresh wave of scandinavian attacks from the late tenth century ended with the conquest of this unify kingdom by Sweyn Forkbeard in 1013 and again by his son Cnut in 1016, turning it into the center of a ephemeral North Sea Empire that besides included Denmark and Norway. however, the native royal dynasty was restored with the accession of Edward the Confessor in 1042 .
A challenge over the succession to Edward led to the Norman Conquest in 1066, accomplished by an united states army led by Duke William of Normandy. [ 50 ] The Normans themselves originated from Scandinavia and had settled in Normandy in the late 9th and early tenth centuries. [ 51 ] This seduction led to the about total eviction of the English elect and its substitution by a newfangled french-speaking gentry, whose address had a profound and permanent wave effect on the english language. [ 52 ] subsequently, the House of Plantagenet from Anjou inherited the English throne under Henry II, adding England to the bud Angevin Empire of fiefs the kin had inherited in France including Aquitaine. [ 53 ] They reigned for three centuries, some noted monarchs being Richard I, Edward I, Edward III and Henry V. [ 53 ] The period saw changes in trade and legislation, including the sign of the Magna Carta, an english legal charter used to limit the sovereign ‘s powers by law and protect the privileges of freemen. catholic monasticism flourished, providing philosophers, and the universities of Oxford and Cambridge were founded with royal clientele. The Principality of Wales became a Plantagenet fief during the thirteenth hundred [ 54 ] and the Lordship of Ireland was given to the English monarchy by the Pope. During the fourteenth hundred, the Plantagenets and the House of Valois both claimed to be legalize claimants to the House of Capet and with it France ; the two powers clashed in the Hundred Years ‘ War. [ 55 ] The Black Death epidemic hit England ; starting in 1348, it finally killed up to half of England ‘s inhabitants. [ 56 ] [ 57 ] From 1453 to 1487 civil war occurred between two branches of the imperial family – the Yorkists and Lancastrians – known as the Wars of the Roses. [ 58 ] finally it led to the Yorkists losing the throne entirely to a Welsh noble family the Tudors, a arm of the Lancastrians headed by Henry Tudor who invaded with Welsh and Breton mercenaries, gaining victory at the Battle of Bosworth Field where the Yorkist king Richard III was killed. [ 59 ]
early on modern
King Henry VIII ( 1491–1547 ) queen Elizabeth I ( 1558–1603 ) During the Tudor period, the Renaissance reached England through italian courtiers, who reintroduced artistic, educational and scholarly consider from classical ancientness. [ 60 ] England began to develop naval skills, and exploration to the West intensified. [ 61 ] [ 62 ] Henry VIII broke from communion with the Catholic Church, over issues relating to his divorce, under the Acts of Supremacy in 1534 which proclaimed the sovereign head of the Church of England. In contrast with much of european Protestantism, the roots of the split were more political than theological. [ nota bene 1 ] He besides legally incorporated his ancestral land Wales into the Kingdom of England with the 1535–1542 acts. There were internal religious conflicts during the reigns of Henry ‘s daughters, Mary I and Elizabeth I. The former took the area back to Catholicism while the latter break from it again, forcefully asserting the domination of Anglicanism. The Elizabethan era is the epoch in the Tudor age of the reign of Queen Elizabeth I ( “ the Virgin Queen ” ). Historians frequently depict it as the aureate long time in English history. Elizabethan England represented the apogee of the English Renaissance and saw the unfolding of art, poetry, music and literature. [ 64 ] The era is most celebrated for its drama, theater and playwrights. England during this period had a centralised, well-organised, and effective government as a solution of huge Tudor reforms. [ 65 ] Competing with Spain, the first english colony in the Americas was founded in 1585 by internet explorer Walter Raleigh in Virginia and named Roanoke. The Roanoke colony failed and is known as the fall back colony after it was found abandoned on the hark back of the late-arriving add ship. [ 66 ] With the East India Company, England besides competed with the Dutch and French in the East. During the Elizabethan time period, England was at war with Spain. An armada sailed from Spain in 1588 as part of a broad plan to invade England and re-establish a Catholic monarchy. The plan was thwarted by bad coordination, stormy weather and successful harry attacks by an english fleet under Lord Howard of Effingham. This failure did not end the threat : Spain launched two far armadas, in 1596 and 1597, but both were driven back by storms. The political structure of the island changed in 1603, when the King of Scots, James VI, a kingdom which had been a long-time equal to English interests, inherited the throne of England as James I, thereby creating a personal union. [ 67 ] [ 68 ] He styled himself King of Great Britain, although this had no basis in English law. [ 69 ] Under the auspices of King James VI and I the authoritative King James Version of the Holy Bible was published in 1611. It was the standard version of the Bible read by most protestant church Christians for four hundred years until modern revisions were produced in the twentieth century .
Based on conflicting political, religious and social positions, the English Civil War was fought between the supporters of Parliament and those of King Charles I, known colloquially as Roundheads and Cavaliers respectively. This was an weave depart of the broad multifaceted Wars of the Three Kingdoms, involving Scotland and Ireland. The Parliamentarians were triumphant, Charles I was executed and the kingdom replaced by the Commonwealth. Leader of the Parliament forces, Oliver Cromwell declared himself Lord Protector in 1653 ; a time period of personal rule followed. [ 70 ] After Cromwell ‘s death and the resignation of his son Richard as Lord Protector, Charles II was invited to return as sovereign in 1660, in a motion called the Restoration. With the reopen of theatres, fine arts, literature and performing arts flourished throughout the Restoration of ”the Merry Monarch ” Charles II. [ 71 ] After the glorious Revolution of 1688, it was constitutionally established that King and Parliament should rule together, though Parliament would have the real power. This was established with the Bill of Rights in 1689. Among the statutes set down were that the law could merely be made by Parliament and could not be suspended by the King, besides that the King could not impose taxes or raise an united states army without the anterior approval of Parliament. [ 72 ] besides since that meter, no british monarch has entered the House of Commons when it is sitting, which is annually commemorated at the State Opening of Parliament by the british monarch when the doors of the House of Commons are slammed in the face of the sovereign ‘s messenger, symbolising the rights of Parliament and its independence from the sovereign. [ 73 ] [ 74 ] With the establish of the Royal Society in 1660, skill was greatly encouraged. In 1666 the Great Fire of London gutted the City of London but it was rebuilt shortly afterwards [ 75 ] with many significant buildings designed by Sir Christopher Wren. In Parliament two factions had emerged – the Tories and Whigs. Though the Tories initially supported Catholic king James II, some of them, along with the Whigs, during the Revolution of 1688 receive Dutch prince William of Orange to defeat James and ultimately to become William III of England. Some english people, particularly in the north, were Jacobites and continued to support James and his sons. Under the Stuart dynasty England expanded in craft, finance and prosperity. Britain developed Europe ‘s largest merchant fleet. [ 76 ] After the parliaments of England and Scotland agreed, [ 77 ] the two countries joined in political union, to create the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707. [ 67 ] To accommodate the union, institutions such as the law and national churches of each remained discriminate. [ 78 ]
belated modern and contemporaneous
Under the newly formed Kingdom of Great Britain, output from the Royal Society and other english initiatives combined with the scottish Enlightenment to create innovations in science and technology, while the enormous growth in British overseas craft protected by the Royal Navy paved the way for the establishment of the british Empire. Domestically it drove the Industrial Revolution, a period of profound change in the socioeconomic and cultural conditions of England, resulting in industrialize agribusiness, fabrication, engineering and mine, american samoa well as new and pioneer road, track and water networks to facilitate their expansion and development. [ 79 ] The first step of Northwest England ‘s Bridgewater Canal in 1761 usher in the canal historic period in Britain. [ 80 ] [ 81 ] In 1825 the world ‘s first base permanent steam locomotive-hauled passenger railroad track – the Stockton and Darlington Railway – opened to the public. [ 80 ]
During the Industrial Revolution, many workers moved from England ‘s countryside to new and expanding urban industrial areas to work in factories, for example at Birmingham and Manchester, dubbed “ Workshop of the World ” and “ Warehouse City ” respectively. [ 83 ] [ 84 ] Manchester was the universe ‘s first gear industrial city. [ 85 ] England maintained relative stability throughout the french Revolution ; William Pitt the Younger was british Prime Minister for the reign of George III. The Regency of George IV is noted for its elegance and achievements in the fine arts and architecture. [ 86 ] During the Napoleonic Wars, Napoleon planned to invade from the southeast. however this failed to manifest and the napoleonic forces were defeated by the british : at ocean by Lord Nelson, and on nation by the Duke of Wellington. The major victory at the Battle of Trafalgar confirmed the naval domination Britain had established during the course of the eighteenth century. [ 87 ] The Napoleonic Wars fostered a concept of Britishness and a unify national british people, shared with the English, Scots and Welsh. [ 88 ]
London became the largest and most populous metropolitan area in the populace during the victorian era, and trade within the british Empire – angstrom well as the standing of the british military and united states navy – was prestigious. [ 89 ] technologically, this era saw many innovations that proved key to the United Kingdom ‘s power and prosperity. [ 90 ] political agitation at home from radicals such as the Chartists and the suffragettes enabled legislative reform and universal right to vote. [ 91 ] Samuel Hynes described the edwardian era as a “ at leisure clock when women wore photograph hats and did not vote, when the rich were not ashamed to live conspicuously, and the sunday very never set on the british masthead. ” [ 92 ] Power shifts in east-central Europe led to World War I ; hundreds of thousands of English soldiers died fighting for the United Kingdom as character of the Allies. [ nota bene 2 ] Two decades later, in World War II, the United Kingdom was again one of the Allies. At the end of the Phoney War, Winston Churchill became the wartime Prime Minister. Developments in war technology saw many cities damaged by air-raids during the Blitz. Following the war, the british Empire experienced rapid decolonization, and there was a speeding-up of technological innovations ; automobiles became the primary means of transmit and Frank Whittle ‘s development of the jet engine led to wider air travel. [ 94 ] Residential patterns were altered in England by secret drive, and by the universe of the National Health Service ( NHS ) in 1948. The UK ‘s NHS provided publicly funded health concern to all UK permanent residents free at the point of necessitate, being paid for from general tax income. Combined, these prompted the reform of local government in England in the mid-20th century. [ 95 ] [ 96 ] Since the twentieth hundred there has been significant population movement to England, by and large from other parts of the british Isles, but besides from the Commonwealth, peculiarly the amerind subcontinent. [ 97 ] Since the 1970s there has been a large move away from fabricate and an increasing emphasis on the service industry. [ 98 ] As function of the United Kingdom, the sphere joined a common grocery store inaugural called the european Economic Community which became the European Union. Since the late twentieth century the administration of the United Kingdom has moved towards devolved administration in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. [ 99 ] England and Wales continues to exist as a legal power within the United Kingdom. [ 100 ] Devolution has stimulated a greater stress on a more English-specific identity and patriotism. [ 101 ] [ 102 ] There is no devolve english politics, but an attempt to create a similar organization on a sub-regional basis was rejected by referendum. [ 103 ]
England is partially of the United Kingdom, a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary organization. [ 104 ] There has not been a government of England since 1707, when the Acts of Union 1707, putting into consequence the terms of the Treaty of Union, joined England and Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain. [ 77 ] Before the union England was ruled by its sovereign and the Parliament of England. Today England is governed directly by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, although other countries of the United Kingdom have devolved governments. [ 105 ] In the House of Commons which is the lower house of the british Parliament based at the Palace of Westminster, there are 532 Members of Parliament ( MPs ) for constituencies in England, out of the 650 full. [ 106 ] As of the 2019 United Kingdom general election, England is represented by 345 MPs from the Conservative Party, 179 from the Labour Party, seven from the Liberal Democrats, one from the Green Party, and the Speaker of the House, Lindsay Hoyle. Since devolution, in which other countries of the United Kingdom – Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland – each have their own devolved parliament or assemblies for local issues, there has been consider about how to counterbalance this in England. Originally it was planned that diverse regions of England would be devolved, but following the marriage proposal ‘s rejection by the North East in a 2004 referendum, this has not been carried out. [ 103 ] One major issue is the West Lothian wonder, in which MPs from Scotland and Wales are able to vote on legislation affecting only England, while english MPs have no equivalent right to legislate on fall matters. [ 107 ] This when placed in the context of England being the only state of the United Kingdom not to have free cancer discussion, prescriptions, residential caution for the aged and unblock top-up university fees, [ 108 ] has led to a firm ascend in english nationalism. [ 109 ] Some have suggested the creation of a fall English fantan, [ 110 ] while others have proposed just limiting voting on legislation which only affects England to English MPs. [ 111 ]
The English police legal system, developed over the centuries, is the basis of common law [ 112 ] legal systems used in most Commonwealth countries [ 113 ] and the United States ( except Louisiana ). Despite nowadays being part of the United Kingdom, the legal system of the Courts of England and Wales continued, under the Treaty of Union, as a freestanding legal system from the one used in Scotland. The general kernel of English law is that it is made by judges sitting in courts, applying their common sense and cognition of legal common law – stare decisis – to the facts before them. [ 114 ] The court system is headed by the Senior Courts of England and Wales, consisting of the Court of Appeal, the High Court of Justice for civil cases, and the Crown Court for criminal cases. [ 115 ] The Supreme Court of the United Kingdom is the highest motor hotel for criminal and civil cases in England and Wales. It was created in 2009 after constitutional changes, taking over the judicial functions of the House of Lords. [ 116 ] A decision of the Supreme Court is binding on every other court in the hierarchy, which must follow its directions. [ 117 ] The Secretary of State for Justice is the minister responsible to Parliament for the judiciary, the court system and prisons and probation in England. [ 118 ] Crime increased between 1981 and 1995 but fell by 42 % in the period 1995–2006. [ 119 ] The prison population doubled over the like period, giving it one of highest captivity rate in Western Europe at 147 per 100,000. [ 120 ] Her Majesty ‘s Prison Service, reporting to the Ministry of Justice, manages most prisons, caparison over 85,000 convicts. [ 121 ]
Regions, counties, and districts
The subdivisions of England consist of up to four levels of subnational class controlled through a variety show of types of administrative entities created for the purposes of local politics. The highest tier of local government were the nine regions of England : North East, North West, Yorkshire and the Humber, East Midlands, West Midlands, East, South East, South West, and London. These were created in 1994 as Government Offices, used by the united kingdom government to deliver a wide stove of policies and programmes regionally, but there are no elect bodies at this level, except in London, and in 2011 the regional government offices were abolished. [ 122 ] After degeneration began to take place in other parts of the United Kingdom it was planned that referendum for the regions of England would take put for their own elected regional assemblies as a counterweight. London accepted in 1998 : the London Assembly was created two years later. however, when the marriage proposal was rejected by the 2004 North East England degeneration referendum in the North East, further referendums were cancelled. [ 103 ] The regional assemblies outside London were abolished in 2010, and their functions transferred to respective Regional Development Agencies and a modern organization of Local authority leaders ‘ boards. [ 123 ] Below the regional flat, all of England is divided into 48 ceremonial counties. [ 124 ] These are used primarily as a geographic frame of reference of reference and have developed gradually since the Middle Ages, with some established ampere recently as 1974. [ 125 ] Each has a Lord Lieutenant and High Sheriff ; these posts are used to represent the british monarch locally. [ 124 ] Outside Greater London and the Isles of Scilly, England is besides divided into 83 metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties ; these match to areas used for the purposes of local government [ 126 ] and may consist of a single zone or be divided into several. There are six metropolitan counties based on the most heavily urbanize areas, which do not have county councils. [ 126 ] In these areas the principal authorities are the councils of the subdivisions, the metropolitan borough. elsewhere, 27 non-metropolitan “ shire ” counties have a county council and are divided into districts, each with a zone council. They are typically, though not always, found in more rural areas. The remaining non-metropolitan counties are of a single district and normally correspond to big towns or sparsely populated counties ; they are known as unitary authorities. Greater London has a unlike system for local politics, with 32 London boroughs, plus the City of London covering a little sphere at the core governed by the City of London Corporation. [ 127 ] At the most set level, much of England is divided into civil parishes with councils ; in Greater London entirely one, Queen ‘s Park, exists as of 2014 after they were abolished in 1965 until legislation allowed their diversion in 2007 .
landscape and rivers
geographically England includes the central and southern two-thirds of the island of Great Britain, plus such offshore islands as the Isle of Wight and the Isles of Scilly. It is bordered by two other countries of the United Kingdom : to the north by Scotland and to the west by Wales. England is closer than any other part of mainland Britain to the european celibate. It is separated from France ( Hauts-de-France ) by a 21-mile ( 34 kilometer ) [ 128 ] sea col, though the two countries are connected by the Channel Tunnel near Folkestone. [ 129 ] England besides has shores on the Irish Sea, North Sea and Atlantic Ocean. The ports of London, Liverpool, and Newcastle lie on the tidal rivers Thames, Mersey and Tyne respectively. At 220 miles ( 350 kilometer ), the Severn is the longest river flowing through England. [ 130 ] It empties into the Bristol Channel and is celebrated for its Severn Bore ( a tidal yield ), which can reach 2 metres ( 6.6 foot ) in altitude. [ 131 ] however, the longest river entirely in England is the Thames, which is 215 miles ( 346 kilometer ) in distance. [ 132 ]
There are many lakes in England ; the largest is Windermere, within the competently named Lake District. [ 133 ] Most of England ‘s landscape consists of low hills and plains, with upland and cragged terrain in the union and west of the country. The northern uplands include the Pennines, a chain of highland dividing east and west, the Lake District mountains in Cumbria, and the Cheviot Hills, straddling the molding between England and Scotland. The highest point in England, at 978 metres ( 3,209 foot ), is Scafell Pike in the Lake District. [ 133 ] The Shropshire Hills are approach Wales while Dartmoor and Exmoor are two highland areas in the southwest of the nation. The estimate separate line between terrain types is much indicated by the Tees-Exe tune. [ 134 ] In geological terms, the Pennines, known as the “ spine of England ”, are the oldest range of mountains in the country, originating from the end of the Paleozoic Era around 300 million years ago. [ 135 ] Their geological constitution includes, among others, sandstone and limestone, and besides ember. There are karst landscapes in calcite areas such as parts of Yorkshire and Derbyshire. The Pennine landscape is high moor in upland areas, indented by fat valleys of the region ‘s rivers. They contain two national parks, the Yorkshire Dales and the Peak District. In the West Country, Dartmoor and Exmoor of the Southwest Peninsula include highland moor supported by granite, and enjoy a balmy climate ; both are national parks. [ 136 ] The English Lowlands are in the central and southerly regions of the country, consisting of green rolling hills, including the Cotswold Hills, Chiltern Hills, North and South Downs ; where they meet the ocean they form white rock exposures such as the cliffs of Dover. This besides includes relatively flat plains such as the Salisbury Plain, Somerset Levels, South Coast Plain and The Fens .
England has a temperate nautical climate : it is mild with temperatures not much lower than 0 °C ( 32 °F ) in winter and not a lot higher than 32 °C ( 90 °F ) in summer. [ 137 ] The weather is damp relatively frequently and is changeable. The coldest months are January and February, the latter particularly on the English seashore, while July is normally the warmest calendar month. Months with mild to warm upwind are May, June, September and October. [ 137 ] Rainfall is scatter fairly evenly throughout the year. crucial influences on the climate of England are its proximity to the Atlantic Ocean, its northern latitude and the warm of the sea by the Gulf Stream. [ 137 ] Rainfall is higher in the west, and parts of the Lake District receive more rain than anywhere else in the country. [ 137 ] Since weather records began, the highest temperature recorded was 38.7 °C ( 101.7 °F ) on 25 July 2019 at the Botanic Garden in Cambridge, [ 138 ] while the lowest was −26.1 °C ( −15.0 °F ) on 10 January 1982 in Edgmond, Shropshire. [ 139 ]
nature and wildlife
The fauna of England is alike to that of early areas in the british Isles with a across-the-board rate of vertebrate and invertebrate life in a diverse stove of habitats. [ 141 ] National nature reserves in England are designated by Natural England as key places for wildlife and natural features in England. They were established to protect the most significant areas of habitat and of geological formations. NNRs are managed on behalf of the nation, many by natural England themselves, but besides by non-governmental organisations, including the members of The Wildlife Trusts partnership, the National Trust, and the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds. There are 229 NNRs in England covering 939 square kilometres ( 363 square miles ). Often they contain rare species or nationally important species of plants and animals. [ 142 ] The Environment Agency is a non-departmental populace body, established in 1995 and sponsored by the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs with responsibilities relating to the protection and enhancement of the environment in England. [ 143 ] The Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs is the curate creditworthy for environmental security, farming, fisheries and rural communities in England. [ 144 ] England has a moderate oceanic climate in most areas, lacking extremes of cold or heat, but does have a few minor areas of subarctic and affectionate areas in the South West. Towards the North of England the climate becomes colder and most of England ‘s mountains and high hills are located here and have a major impingement on the climate and therefore the local animal of the areas. deciduous woodlands are common across all of England and provide a bang-up habitat for much of England ‘s wildlife, but these give way in northerly and upland areas of England to coniferous forests ( chiefly plantations ) which besides benefit certain forms of wildlife. Some species have adapted to the expanded urban environment, particularly the red fox, which is the most successful urban mammal after the brown university rat, and early animals such as common woodwind pigeon, both of which thrive in urban and suburban areas. [ 145 ] Grey squirrels introduced from easterly America have forced the decline of the native red squirrel due to rival. Red squirrels are now confined to upland and coniferous-forested areas of England, chiefly in the north, south west and Isle of Wight. England ‘s climate is identical desirable for lagomorph and the nation has rabbits and brown hares which were introduced in Roman times. [ 146 ] [ 147 ] Mountain hares which are autochthonal have nowadays been re-introduced in Derbyshire. The fauna of England has to cope with deviate temperatures and conditions, although not extreme they do pose potential challenges and adaptational measures. English animal has however had to cope with industrialization, human population densities amongst the highest in Europe and intensive farming, but as England is a develop nation, wildlife and the countryside have entered the english mentality more and the state is identical conscientious about preserving its wildlife, environment and countryside. [ 148 ]
The Greater London Built-up Area is by far the largest urban area in England [ 149 ] and one of the busiest cities in the global. It is considered a ball-shaped city and has a population larger than any other nation in the United Kingdom besides England itself. [ 149 ] other urban areas of considerable size and charm tend to be in northern England or the english Midlands. [ 149 ] There are 50 settlements which have designated city condition in England, while the wide United Kingdom has 66. While many cities in England are quite large, such as Birmingham, Sheffield, Manchester, Liverpool, Leeds, Newcastle, Bradford, Nottingham, population size is not a prerequisite for city condition. [ 150 ] traditionally the status was given to towns with diocesan cathedrals, so there are smaller cities like Wells, Ely, Ripon, Truro and Chichester .
 The City of London is the fiscal capital of the United Kingdom and one of the largest fiscal centres in the earth. England ‘s economy is one of the largest and most moral force in the global, with an average GDP per head of £28,100. Her Majesty ‘s Treasury, led by the Chancellor of the Exchequer, is creditworthy for developing and executing the government ‘s populace finance policy and economic policy. [ 153 ] normally regarded as a blend marketplace economy, it has adopted many absolve market principles, even maintains an advance social wellbeing infrastructure. [ 154 ] The official currency in England is the thump sterling, whose ISO 4217 code is GBP. tax income in England is quite competitive when compared to much of the rest of Europe – as of 2014 the basic rate of personal tax is 20 % on taxable income up to £31,865 above the personal tax-exempt allowance ( normally £10,000 ), and 40 % on any extra earnings above that measure. [ 155 ] The economy of England is the largest share of the UK ‘s economy, [ 156 ] which has the 18th highest GDP PPP per caput in the universe. England is a leader in the chemical [ 157 ] and pharmaceutical sectors and in key technical industries, peculiarly aerospace, the arms diligence, and the manufacturing side of the software industry. London, family to the London Stock Exchange, the United Kingdom ‘s chief stock substitution and the largest in Europe, is England ‘s fiscal center, with 100 of Europe ‘s 500 largest corporations being based there. [ 158 ] London is the largest fiscal center in Europe, and as of 2014 is the second largest in the world. [ 159 ] Manchester is the largest fiscal and professional services sector outside London and is the mid grade secret equity capital of Europe adenine well as one of the growing engineering hubs of Europe. [ 160 ] The Bank of England, founded in 1694 by scots banker William Paterson, is the United Kingdom ‘s central bank. primitively established as secret banker to the government of England, since 1946 it has been a state-owned institution. [ 161 ] The bank has a monopoly on the issue of banknotes in England and Wales, although not in other parts of the United Kingdom. The government has devolved duty to the bank ‘s monetary Policy Committee for managing the monetary policy of the country and setting interest rates. [ 162 ] England is highly industrialize, but since the 1970s there has been a descent in traditional dense and manufacturing industries, and an increasing emphasis on a more service industry oriented economy. [ 98 ] Tourism has become a significant industry, attracting millions of visitors to England each year. The export part of the economy is dominated by pharmaceuticals, cars ( although many english marques are now foreign-owned, such as Land Rover, Lotus, Jaguar and Bentley ), crude vegetable oil and petroleum from the English parts of North Sea oil along with Wytch Farm, aircraft engines and alcoholic beverages. [ 163 ] The creative industries accounted for 7 per cent GVA in 2005 and grew at an average of 6 per cent per annum between 1997 and 2005. [ 164 ] Most of the UK ‘s £30 billion [ 165 ] aerospace industry is primarily based in England. The global commercialize opportunity for UK aerospace manufacturers over the future two decades is estimated at £3.5 trillion. [ 166 ] GKN Aerospace – an technical in metallic and composite aerostructures is involved in about every civil and military fix and rotary flank aircraft in production is based in Redditch. [ 167 ] BAE Systems makes big sections of the Typhoon Eurofighter at its sub-assembly plant in Salmesbury and assembles the aircraft for the RAF at its Warton plant, near Preston. It is besides a star subcontractor on the F35 Joint Strike Fighter – the universe ‘s largest individual refutation project – for which it designs and manufactures a compass of components including the aft fuselage, vertical and horizontal tail and wing tips and fuel arrangement. It besides manufactures the Hawk, the world ‘s most successful jet prepare aircraft. [ 167 ] Rolls-Royce PLC is the world ‘s second-largest aero-engine manufacturer. Its engine power more than 30 types of commercial aircraft, and it has more 30,000 engines presently in service across both the civil and defense sectors. With a work force of over 12,000 people, Derby has the largest concentration of Rolls-Royce employees in the UK. Rolls-Royce besides produces low-emission baron systems for ships ; makes critical equipment and safety systems for the nuclear industry and powers offshore platforms and major pipelines for the petroleum and flatulence industry. [ 167 ] [ 168 ] The pharmaceutical industry plays an significant character in the economy, and the UK has the third-highest partake of ball-shaped pharmaceutical R & D expenditures. [ 169 ] [ 170 ] a lot of the UK ‘s space industry is centred on EADS Astrium, based in Stevenage and Portsmouth. The company builds the buses – the underlie structure onto which the warhead and propulsion systems are built – for most of the european Space Agency ‘s spacecraft, ampere well as commercial satellites. The worldly concern leader in compact satellite systems, Surrey Satellite Technology, is besides contribution of Astrium. [ 167 ] Reaction Engines Limited, the company planning to build Skylon, a single-stage-to-orbit spaceplane using their cavalry sword rocket locomotive, a combined-cycle, air-breathing rocket propulsion system is based Culham. The united kingdom space industry was worth £9.1bn in 2011 and employed 29,000 people. It is growing at a rate of 7.5 per cent per annum, according to its umbrella constitution, the UK Space Agency. In 2013, the british Government pledged £60 million to the Skylon project : this investing will provide confirm at a “ crucial stage ” to allow a all-out prototype of the SABRE engine to be built. farming is intensifier, highly mechanised and efficient by european standards, producing 60 % of food needs with entirely 2 % of the labor force. [ 171 ] Two-thirds of production is devoted to livestock, the early to arable crops. [ 172 ] The main crops that are grown are pale yellow, barley, oats, potatoes, sugar beets. England retains a significant, though much reduced fishing industry. Its fleets bring home fish of every kind, ranging from sole to herring. It is besides ample in natural resources including coal, petroleum, natural accelerator, tin, limestone, iron ore, salt, clay, chalk, gypsum, jumper cable, and silica. [ 173 ]
science and technology
outstanding english figures from the battlefield of skill and mathematics include Sir Isaac Newton, Michael Faraday, Charles Darwin, Robert Hooke, James Prescott Joule, John Dalton, Lord Rayleigh, J. J. Thomson, James Chadwick, Charles Babbage, George Boole, Alan Turing, Tim Berners-Lee, Paul Dirac, Stephen Hawking, Peter Higgs, Roger Penrose, John Horton Conway, Thomas Bayes, Arthur Cayley, G. H. Hardy, Oliver Heaviside, Andrew Wiles, Edward Jenner, Francis Crick, Joseph Lister, Joseph Priestley, Thomas Young, Christopher Wren and Richard Dawkins. Some experts claim that the earliest concept of a system of measurement system was invented by John Wilkins, the first gear secretary of the Royal Society, in 1668. [ 174 ] England was a lead center of the Scientific Revolution from the seventeenth century. [ 175 ] As the birthplace of the Industrial Revolution, England was home to many significant inventors during the former 18th and early on 19th centuries. celebrated english engineers include Isambard Kingdom Brunel, best known for the creation of the Great Western Railway, a series of celebrated steamships, and numerous important bridges, hence revolutionising public ecstasy and contemporary engineering. [ 176 ] Thomas Newcomen ‘s steam locomotive helped spawn the Industrial Revolution. [ 177 ] The Father of Railways, George Stephenson, built the first public inter-city railroad track line in the world, the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, which opened in 1830. With his function in the marketing and manufacture of the steamer engine, and invention of modern neologism, Matthew Boulton ( business partner of James Watt ) is regarded as one of the most influential entrepreneurs in history. [ 178 ] The doctor Edward Jenner ‘s smallpox vaccine is said to have “ saved more lives … than were lost in all the wars of world since the begin of record history. ” [ 179 ] [ 181 ]
Inventions and discoveries of the English include : the k locomotive, the first industrial whirl machine, the inaugural calculator and the first mod computer, the World Wide Web along with HTML, the first successful homo blood transfusion, the motorized vacuum cleaner, [ 183 ] the lawn lawn mower, the buttocks belt, the hovercraft, the electric centrifugal, steam engines, and theories such as the Darwinian hypothesis of development and atomic theory. Newton developed the ideas of universal gravitation, newtonian mechanics, and tartar, and Robert Hooke his eponymously named law of elasticity. early inventions include the cast-iron plate railway, the thermosiphon, tarmacadam, the arctic ring, the mousetrap, “ cat ‘s eye ” road marker, joint development of the easy bulb, steam locomotives, the mod seed drill and many modern techniques and technologies used in preciseness engineering. [ 184 ] The Royal Society, formally The Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, [ 185 ] is a teach company and the United Kingdom ‘s national academy of sciences. Founded on 28 November 1660, it was granted a imperial rent by King Charles II as “ The Royal Society ”. [ 185 ] It is the oldest national scientific initiation in the global. [ 186 ] The club fulfils a count of roles : promoting science and its benefits, recognising excellence in science, supporting outstanding skill, providing scientific advice for policy, fostering international and global co-operation, education and public employment. [ 187 ] The Royal Society started from groups of physicians and natural philosophers, confluence at a variety of locations, including Gresham College in London. They were influenced by the “ raw skill “, as promoted by Francis Bacon in his New Atlantis, from approximately 1645 onwards. [ 188 ] A group known as “ The Philosophical Society of Oxford ” was run under a set of rules silent retained by the Bodleian Library. [ 189 ] After the english Restoration, there were even meetings at Gresham College. [ 190 ] It is widely held that these groups were the inspiration for the foundation of the Royal Society. [ 189 ] Scientific research and development remains important in the universities of England, with many establishing skill parks to facilitate output and co-operation with industry. [ 191 ] Between 2004 and 2008 the United Kingdom produced 7 per cent of the world ‘s scientific research papers and had an 8 per penny share of scientific citations, the third and second-highest in the populace ( after the United States and China, respectively ). [ 192 ] Scientific journals produced in the United Kingdom include Nature, the British Medical Journal and The Lancet. [ 193 ]
The Department for Transport is the government torso responsible for overseeing enchant in England. The department is run by the Secretary of State for Transport. England has a dense and modern transportation infrastructure. There are many motorways in England, and many other torso roads, such as the A1 Great North Road, which runs through eastern England from London to Newcastle [ 194 ] ( much of this section is expressway ) and onward to the scots margin. The longest expressway in England is the M6, from Rugby through the North West up to the Anglo-Scottish molding, a distance of 232 miles ( 373 kilometer ). [ 194 ] other major routes include : the M1 from London to Leeds, the M25 which encircles London, the M60 which encircles Manchester, the M4 from London to South Wales, the M62 from Liverpool via Manchester to East Yorkshire, and the M5 from Birmingham to Bristol and the South West. [ 194 ] Bus transport across the area is far-flung ; major companies include Arriva, FirstGroup, Go-Ahead Group, National Express, Rotala and Stagecoach Group. The red bus buses in London have become a symbol of England. National Cycle Route offers cycling routes nationally. There is a rapid transit network in two english cities : the London Underground ; and the Tyne and Wear Metro in Newcastle upon Tyne, Gateshead and Sunderland. [ 195 ] There are several tram networks, such as the Blackpool tramline, Manchester Metrolink, Sheffield Supertram and West Midlands Metro, and the Tramlink system centred on Croydon in South London. [ 195 ]
Great british Railways is a plan state-owned public body that will oversee rail transmit in Great Britain from 2023. The Office of Rail and Road is responsible for the economic and safety regulation of England ‘s railways. [ 196 ] Rail transport in England is the oldest in the universe : passenger railways originated in England in 1825. [ 197 ] Much of Britain ‘s 10,000 miles ( 16,000 kilometer ) of rail network lies in England, covering the nation fairly extensively, although a high symmetry of railway lines were closed in the second one-half of the twentieth hundred. There are plans to reopen lines such as the Varsity Line between Oxford and Cambridge. These lines are largely standard gauge ( individual, double or quadruple track ) though there are besides a few narrow gauge lines. There is fulminate transport access to France and Belgium through an submarine rail associate, the Channel Tunnel, which was completed in 1994. Crossrail, under construction in London, is Europe ‘s largest construction project with a £15 billion projected monetary value. [ 198 ] High Speed 2, a modern high-speed north–south railway lineage, projected in 2015 to cost £56 billion is to start being built in 2020. [ 199 ] England has across-the-board domestic and international aviation links. The largest airport is Heathrow, which is the world ‘s busiest airport measured by number of international passengers. [ 200 ] early bombastic airports include Gatwick, Manchester, Stansted, Luton and Birmingham. [ 201 ] By sea there is ferry enchant, both local and international, including from Liverpool to Ireland and the Isle of Man, and Hull to the Netherlands and Belgium. [ 202 ] There are around 4,400 miles ( 7,100 kilometer ) of navigable waterways in England, one-half of which is owned by the Canal & River Trust, [ 202 ] however, water tape drive is very specify. The River Thames is the major watercourse in England, with imports and exports focused at the Port of Tilbury in the Thames Estuary, one of the United Kingdom ‘s three major ports. [ 202 ]
Energy use in the United Kingdom stood at 2,249 TWh ( 193.4 million tonnes of oil equivalent ) in 2014. [ 205 ] This equates to energy consumption per capita of 34.82 MWh ( 3.00 tonnes of oil equivalent ) compared to a 2010 earth average of 21.54 MWh ( 1.85 tonnes of petroleum equivalent ). [ 206 ] demand for electricity in 2014 was 34.42 GW on average [ 207 ] ( 301.7TWh over the year ) coming from a total electricity generation of 335.0 TWh. [ 208 ] consecutive UK governments have outlined numerous commitments to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. notably, the UK is one of the best sites in Europe for hoist energy, and wind world power output is its fastest growing provide. [ 204 ] [ 209 ] Wind world power contributed 15 % of UK electricity generation in 2017. [ 210 ] [ 211 ] The Climate Change Act 2008 was passed in Parliament with an submerge majority across political parties. It sets out emission reduction targets that the UK must comply with legally. It represents the first ball-shaped legally binding climate change moderation target set by a country. [ 212 ] UK government energy policy aims to play a key character in limiting greenhouse gas emissions, whilst merging energy need. Shifting availabilities of resources and development of technologies besides change the state ‘s energy mix through changes in costs. [ 213 ] The current energy policy is the responsibility of the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy and Secretary of State for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy. [ 214 ] The Minister of State for Business, Energy and Clean Growth is responsible for green finance, climate skill and invention, and low carbon generation. [ 215 ] United Kingdom is ranked 4 out of 180 countries in the Environmental Performance Index. [ 216 ] A law has been passed that UK greenhouse gasoline emissions will be net zero by 2050. [ 217 ]
english Heritage is a governmental consistency with a broad remit of managing the historic sites, artefacts and environments of England. It is presently sponsored by the Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport. [ 218 ] The National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty is a charity which besides maintains multiple sites. Of the 25 United Kingdom UNESCO World Heritage Sites, 17 are in England. [ 219 ] Some of the best know of these include Stonehenge, Avebury and Associated Sites, Tower of London, Jurassic Coast, Palace of Westminster, Roman Baths, City of Bath, Saltaire, Ironbridge Gorge, Studley Royal Park and more recently the english Lake District. The northernmost point of the Roman Empire, Hadrian ‘s Wall, is the largest Roman artifact anywhere : it runs for a total of 73 miles in northern England. [ 220 ] The Secretary of State for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport has overall duty for tourism, arts and culture, cultural property, inheritance and historic environments, libraries, and museums and galleries. [ 221 ] The Parliamentary Under Secretary of State for Arts, Heritage and Tourism is the curate with province over tourism in England. [ 222 ] A blue brass, the oldest historical marker system in the world, is a permanent wave sign installed in a public place in England to commemorate a liaison between that location and a celebrated person or consequence. The system was the inspiration of politician William Ewart in 1863 and was initiated in 1866. It was formally established by the Royal Society of Arts in 1867, and since 1986 has been run by English Heritage. In 2011 there were around 1,600 museums in England. [ 223 ] Entry to most state-supported museums and galleries is free unlike in other countries. [ 224 ]
London is one of the worldly concern ‘s most travel to cities, regularly taking the top five most visit cities in Europe. [ 225 ] [ 226 ] It is largely considered a ball-shaped center of finance, arts and acculturation. [ 227 ]
The National Health Service ( NHS ), is the publicly funded healthcare organization creditworthy for providing the majority of healthcare in the area. The NHS began on 5 July 1948, putting into effect the provisions of the National Health Service Act 1946. It was based on the findings of the Beveridge Report, prepared by economist and social reformer William Beveridge. [ 228 ] The NHS is largely funded from general tax including National Insurance payments, [ 229 ] and it provides most of its services free at the point of consumption, although there are charges for some people for eye tests, dental care, prescriptions and aspects of personal caution. [ 230 ] The government department responsible for the NHS is the Department of Health, headed by the Secretary of State for Health, who sits in the british Cabinet. Most of the consumption of the Department of Health is spent on the NHS—£98.6 billion was spent in 2008–2009. [ 231 ] In holocene years the individual sector has been increasingly used to provide more NHS services despite opposition by doctors and trade unions. [ 232 ] When purchasing drugs, the NHS has significant marketplace power that, based on its own appraisal of the average measure of the drugs, influences the ball-shaped price, typically keeping prices lower. [ 233 ] Several other countries either copy the UK ‘s model or immediately trust on Britain ‘s assessments for their own decisions on state-financed drug reimbursements. [ 234 ] Regulatory bodies such as the General Medical Council and the nursing and Midwifery Council are organised on a UK-wide footing, as are non-governmental bodies such as the Royal Colleges. The average life anticipation of people in England is 77.5 years for males and 81.7 years for females, the highest of the four countries of the United Kingdom. [ 235 ] The South of England has a higher life anticipation than the North ; however, regional differences do seem to be slowly constricting : between 1991–1993 and 2012–2014, life anticipation in the North East increased by 6.0 years and in the North West by 5.8 years, the fastest increase in any region outside London, and the gap between life anticipation in the North East and South East is now 2.5 years, down from 2.9 in 1993. [ 235 ]
population of England and Wales by administrative areas. Their size shows their population, with some approximation. Each group of squares in the map key is 20 % of sum number of districts.
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With over 53 million inhabitants, England is by far the most populous country of the United Kingdom, accounting for 84 % of the compound sum. [ 12 ] : 12 [ 236 ] England taken as a unit and measured against international states would be the 25th largest state by population in the earth. [ 237 ] The english people are british people. [ 238 ] Some genetic evidence suggests that 75–95 % condescend in the paternal line from prehistoric settlers who primitively came from the iberian Peninsula, american samoa well as a 5 % contribution from Angles and Saxons, and a meaning scandinavian ( Viking ) component. [ 240 ] [ 241 ] however, other geneticists place the Germanic calculate up to half. [ 242 ] [ 243 ] Over time, respective cultures have been influential : Prehistoric, Brythonic, [ 244 ] Roman, Anglo-Saxon, [ 245 ] Viking ( North Germanic ), [ 246 ] Gaelic cultures, deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as a large determine from Normans. There is an english diaspora in former parts of the british Empire ; specially the United States, Canada, Australia, South Africa and New Zealand. [ nb 3 ] Since the late 1990s, many english people have migrated to Spain. [ 251 ] [ 252 ] In 1086, when the Domesday Book was compiled, England had a population of two million. About 10 % lived in urban areas. [ 253 ] By 1801, the population was 8.3 million, and by 1901 30.5 million. [ 254 ] Due in particular to the economic prosperity of South East England, it has received many economic migrants from the other parts of the United Kingdom. [ 238 ] There has been significant irish migration. [ 255 ] The proportion of ethnically european residents totals at 87.50 %, including Germans [ 256 ] and Poles. [ 238 ] early people from much farther afield in the former british colonies have arrived since the 1950s : in particular, 6 % of people living in England have family origins in the indian subcontinent, largely India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. [ 238 ] [ 256 ] About 0.7 % of people are chinese. [ 238 ] [ 256 ] 2.90 % of the population are black, from Africa and the Caribbean, particularly erstwhile british colonies. [ 238 ] [ 256 ] In 2007, 22 % of elementary school children in England were from ethnic minority families, [ 257 ] and in 2011 that figure was 26.5 %. [ 258 ] About half of the population increase between 1991 and 2001 was ascribable to immigration. [ 259 ] argument over immigration is politically outstanding ; [ 260 ] 80 % of respondents in a 2009 Home Office poll wanted to cap it. [ 261 ] The ONS has projected that the population will grow by nine million between 2014 and 2039. [ 262 ] England contains one autochthonal national minority, the cornish people, recognised by the united kingdom politics under the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities in 2014. [ 263 ]
( thousands ) [ 264 ]
As its appoint suggests, the English terminology, nowadays spoken by hundreds of millions of people around the populace, originated as the speech of England, where it remains the principal spit spoken by 98 % of the population. [ 265 ] It is an indo-european language in the Anglo-Frisian branch of the Germanic family. [ 266 ] After the Norman conquest, the Old English terminology, brought to Britain by the Anglo-Saxon settlers, was confined to the lower social classes as Norman French and Latin were used by the nobility. By the fifteenth hundred, English was back in fashion among all classes, though much changed ; the Middle English form showed many signs of french influence, both in vocabulary and spell. During the English Renaissance, many words were coined from Latin and Greek origins. [ 267 ] Modern English has extended this custom of flexibility when it comes to incorporating words from different languages. Thanks in boastfully part to the british Empire, the english lyric is the populace ‘s unofficial lingua franca. [ 268 ] english linguistic process determine and teaching is an important economic bodily process, and includes terminology educate, tourism spend, and publication. There is no legislation mandating an official language for England, [ 269 ] but English is the lone terminology used for official occupation. Despite the country ‘s relatively small size, there are many clear-cut regional accents, and individuals with particularly impregnable accents may not be well silent everywhere in the country. a well as English, England has two other autochthonal languages, Cornish and Welsh. Cornish died out as a community language in the eighteenth century but is being revived, [ 270 ] [ 271 ] and is now protected under the european Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. [ 272 ] It is spoken by 0.1 % of people in Cornwall, [ 273 ] and is taught to some degree in several primary and junior-grade schools. [ 274 ] [ 275 ] When the modern border between Wales and England was established by the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542, many Welsh-speaking communities found themselves on the english side of the border. Welsh was spoken in Archenfield in Herefordshire into the nineteenth hundred, [ 276 ] and by natives of parts of western Shropshire until the middle of the twentieth hundred if not by and by. [ 277 ] state schools teach students a irregular language or third lyric from the ages of seven, most normally french, spanish or german. [ 278 ] It was reported in 2007 that around 800,000 school students spoke a foreign speech at home as a resultant role of immigration among their family, [ 257 ] the most common languages being Punjabi and Urdu. however, following the 2011 census data released by the Office for National Statistics, figures now show that Polish is the chief terminology spoken in England after English. [ 279 ]
In the 2011 census, 59.4 % of the population of England specified their religion as Christian, 24.7 % answered that they had no religion, 5 % specified that they were Muslim, while 3.7 % of the population belongs to early religions and 7.2 % did not give an answer. [ 280 ] Christianity is the most wide practised religion in England, as it has been since the Early Middle Ages, although it was first gear introduced much earlier in Gaelic and Roman times. This celtic church was gradually joined to the Catholic hierarchy following the 6th-century gregorian mission to Kent led by St Augustine. The established church service of England is the church of England, [ 281 ] which left communion with Rome in the 1530s when Henry VIII was ineffective to annul his marriage to the aunt of the king of Spain. The church regards itself as both Catholic and Protestant. [ 282 ] There are high Church and Low Church traditions and some Anglicans regard themselves as Anglo-Catholics, following the tractarian apparent motion. The monarch of the United Kingdom is the Supreme Governor of the Church of England, which has around 26 million baptized members ( of whom the huge majority are not regular churchgoers ). It forms separate of the Anglican Communion with the Archbishop of Canterbury acting as its symbolic cosmopolitan oral sex. [ 283 ] many cathedrals and parish churches are historic buildings of significant architectural importance, such as Westminster Abbey, York Minster, Durham Cathedral, and Salisbury Cathedral .
The 2nd-largest Christian practice is the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church. Since its reintroduction after the Catholic Emancipation, the Church has organised ecclesiastically on an England and Wales basis where there are 4.5 million members ( most of whom are English ). [ 284 ] There has been one pope from England to date, hadrian IV ; while saints Bede and Anselm are regarded as Doctors of the Church. A human body of Protestantism known as methodism is the third largest christian practice and grew out of Anglicanism through John Wesley. [ 285 ] It gained popularity in the mill towns of Lancashire and Yorkshire, and amongst can miners in Cornwall. [ 286 ] There are early non-conformist minorities, such as Baptists, Quakers, Congregationalists, Unitarians and The Salvation Army. [ 287 ] The patron enshrine of England is Saint George ; his symbolic cross is included in the flag of England, deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as in the Union Flag as character of a combination. [ 288 ] There are many early English and associate saints ; some of the best-known are : Cuthbert, Edmund, Alban, Wilfrid, Aidan, Edward the Confessor, John Fisher, Thomas More, Petroc, Piran, Margaret Clitherow and Thomas Becket. There are non-Christian religions practised. Jews have a history of a small minority on the island since 1070. [ 289 ] They were expelled from England in 1290 following the Edict of Expulsion, lone to be allowed back in 1656. [ 289 ] specially since the 1950s, religions from the former british colonies have grown in numbers, due to immigration. Islam is the most common of these, now accounting for around 5 % of the population in England. [ 290 ] Hinduism, Sikhism and Buddhism are future in number, adding up to 2.8 % combined, [ 290 ] introduced from India and South East Asia. [ 290 ] A little minority of the population practice ancient Pagan religions. Neopaganism in the United Kingdom is primarily represented by Wicca and Witchcraft religions, Druidry, and Heathenry. According to the 2011 UK Census, there are roughly 53,172 people who identify as Pagan in England, [ nota bene 4 ] and 3,448 in Wales, [ niobium 4 ] including 11,026 Wiccans in England and 740 in Wales. [ nota bene 5 ] 24.7 % of people in England declared no religion in 2011, compared with 14.6 % in 2001. These figures are slightly lower than the aggregate figures for England and Wales as Wales has a higher level of irreligiousness than England. [ 291 ] Norwich had the highest such proportion at 42.5 %, followed closely by Brighton and Hove at 42.4 % .
The Department for Education is the government department creditworthy for issues affecting people in England up to the long time of 19, including education. [ 292 ] State-run and state-funded schools are attended by approximately 93 % of English schoolchildren. [ 293 ] education is the duty of the Secretary of State for Education. [ 294 ] Children who are between the ages of 3 and 5 serve greenhouse or an early Years Foundation Stage reception unit within a basal school. Children between the ages of 5 and 11 attend primary educate, and secondary school is attended by those aged between 11 and 16. State-funded schools are obliged by law to teach the National Curriculum ; basic areas of learning include english literature, english speech, mathematics, skill, artwork & design, citizenship, history, geography, religious education, design & technology, computing, ancient & mod languages, music, and forcible education. [ 295 ] More than 90 % of English schools require students to wear uniforms. [ 296 ] School uniforms are defined by individual schools, within the constraint that consistent regulations must not discriminate on the grounds of sex, subspecies, disability, intimate orientation, sex reassignment, religion or impression. Schools may choose to permit trousers for girls or religious dress. [ 297 ] The Programme for International Student Assessment coordinated by the OECD presently ranks the overall cognition and skills of british 15-year-olds as 13th in the world in reading literacy, mathematics, and skill with the average british student scoring 503.7, compared with the OECD average of 493, ahead of the United States and most of Europe. [ 298 ] Although most english secondary schools are comprehensive examination, there are selective consumption grammar schools to which entrance is subject to passing the eleven-plus examination. Around 7.2 per cent of English schoolchildren attend private schools, which are funded by private sources. [ 299 ] Standards in state schools are monitored by the Office for Standards in Education, and in private schools by the Independent Schools Inspectorate. [ 300 ] After finishing compulsory education, students take GCSE examinations. Students may then opt to continue into further education for two years. far education colleges ( particularly sixth shape colleges ) often form separate of a secondary school site. A-level examinations are sat by a large phone number of further department of education students, and frequently form the footing of an application to university. far education ( FE ) covers a wide course of study of study and apprenticeships, including T-levels, BTEC, NVQ and others. third colleges provide both academic and vocational courses. [ 301 ] Higher education students normally attend university from age 18 onwards, where they study for an academic degree. There are over 90 universities in England, all but one of which are populace institutions. The Department for Business, Innovation and Skills is the politics department creditworthy for higher education in England. [ 302 ] Students are by and large entitled to student loans to cover the cost of tuition fees and living costs. [ niobium 6 ] The beginning degree offered to undergraduates is the bachelor ‘s degree, which normally takes three years to complete. Students are then able to work towards a graduate student degree, which normally takes one year, or towards a doctor’s degree, which takes three or more years. [ 303 ] England ‘s universities include some of the highest-ranked universities in the earth ; University of Cambridge, University of Oxford, Imperial College London, University College London and King ‘s College London are all ranked in the ball-shaped top 30 in the 2018 QS World University Rankings. [ 304 ] The London School of Economics has been described as the global ‘s lead social skill institution for both education and research. [ 305 ] The London Business School is considered one of the world ‘s leave business schools and in 2010 its MBA program was ranked best in the world by the Financial Times. [ 306 ] Academic degrees in England are normally split into classes : first class ( 1st ), amphetamine second class ( 2:1 ), lower moment classify ( 2:2 ), third ( 3rd ), and unclassified. [ 303 ] The King ‘s School, Canterbury and King ‘s School, Rochester are the oldest schools in the english-speaking world. [ 307 ] Many of England ‘s most long-familiar schools, such as Winchester College, Eton, St Paul ‘s School, Harrow School and Rugby School are fee-paying institutions. [ 308 ]
many ancient standing gem monuments were erected during the prehistoric period ; amongst the best known are Stonehenge, Devil ‘s Arrows, Rudston Monolith and Castlerigg. [ 309 ] With the introduction of Ancient Roman computer architecture there was a exploitation of basilica, baths, amphitheaters, exultant arches, villas, Roman temples, Roman roads, Roman forts, stockades and aqueducts. [ 310 ] It was the Romans who founded the first cities and towns such as London, Bath, York, Chester and St Albans. possibly the best-known case is Hadrian ‘s Wall stretch good across northern England. [ 310 ] Another well-preserved model is the Roman Baths at Bath, Somerset. [ 310 ] early Medieval architecture ‘s secular buildings were simple constructions chiefly using forest with thatch for roofing. ecclesiastical architecture ranged from a synthesis of Hiberno – Saxon monasticism, [ 311 ] [ 312 ] to Early Christian basilica and architecture characterised by pilaster-strips, space arcading, baluster shafts and trilateral headed openings. After the Norman conquest in 1066 versatile Castles in England were created indeed law lords could uphold their authority and in the north to protect from invasion. Some of the best-known medieval castles are the Tower of London, Warwick Castle, Durham Castle and Windsor Castle. [ 313 ]
Throughout the Plantagenet era, an english Gothic computer architecture flourished, with flower examples including the medieval cathedrals such as Canterbury Cathedral, Westminster Abbey and York Minster. [ 313 ] Expanding on the Norman establish there was besides castles, palaces, great houses, universities and parish churches. medieval computer architecture was completed with the 16th-century Tudor vogue ; the four-centred arch, now known as the Tudor arch, was a define sport as were wattle and daub houses domestically. In the aftermath of the Renaissance a form of architecture echoing classical ancientness synthesised with Christianity appeared, the english Baroque style of architect Christopher Wren being particularly championed. [ 314 ] georgian architecture followed in a more refine style, evoking a simple palladian shape ; the Royal Crescent at Bath is one of the best examples of this. With the emergence of romanticism during victorian time period, a Gothic Revival was launched. In addition to this, around the same clock the Industrial Revolution paved the way for buildings such as The Crystal Palace. Since the 1930s versatile modernist forms have appeared whose reception is often controversial, though traditionalist underground movements continue with defend in influential places. [ niobium 7 ]
 The landscape garden at Stourhead. Inspired by the bang-up landscape artists of the seventeenth hundred, the landscape garden was described as a ‘living work of art ‘ when first opened in 1750s. Landscape garden, as developed by Capability Brown, set an external course for the English garden. Gardening, and visiting gardens, are regarded as typically english pursuits. The English garden presented an idealize see of nature. At bombastic country houses, the English garden normally included lakes, sweeps of gently rolling lawns set against groves of trees, and recreations of authoritative temples, Gothic ruins, bridges, and other picturesque computer architecture, designed to recreate an idyllic bucolic landscape. [ 317 ] By the end of the eighteenth hundred, the English garden was being imitated by the french landscape garden, and as far away as St. Petersburg, Russia, in Pavlovsk, the gardens of the future Emperor Paul. It besides had a major influence on the form of the public parks and gardens which appeared around the world in the nineteenth century. [ 318 ] The English landscape garden was centred on the english country house and manor houses. [ 317 ] english Heritage and the National Trust conserve great gardens and landscape parks throughout the country. [ 319 ] The RHS Chelsea Flower Show is held every class by the Royal Horticultural Society and is said to be the largest garden prove in the world. [ 320 ]
english folklore developed over many centuries. Some of the characters and stories are award across England, but most belong to specific regions. Common folkloric beings include pixies, giants, elves, bogeymen, trolls, goblins and dwarves. While many legends and folk-customs are thought to be ancient, such as the tales featuring Offa of Angel and Wayland the Smith, [ 321 ] others date from after the Norman invasion. The legends featuring Robin Hood and his Merry Men of Sherwood, and their battles with the Sheriff of Nottingham, are among the best-known of these. [ 322 ] During the High Middle Ages tales originating from Brythonic traditions entered English folklore and developed into the arthurian myth. [ 323 ] [ 324 ] [ 325 ] These were derived from Anglo-Norman, Welsh and french sources, [ 324 ] featuring King Arthur, Camelot, Excalibur, Merlin and the Knights of the Round Table such as Lancelot. These stories are most centrally brought together within Geoffrey of Monmouth ‘s Historia Regum Britanniae ( History of the Kings of Britain ). [ niobium 8 ] Another early figure from british custom, King Cole, may have been based on a real visualize from Sub-Roman Britain. Many of the tales and pseudo-histories make up character of the wide Matter of Britain, a collection of shared british folklore. Some folk figures are based on semifinal or actual historic people whose floor has been passed down centuries ; Lady Godiva for example was said to have ridden naked on horseback through Coventry, Hereward the Wake was a epic english figure resisting the Norman invasion, Herne the Hunter is an equestrian ghost associated with Windsor Forest and Great Park and Mother Shipton is the archetypal hag. [ 327 ] On 5 November people make bonfires, set off fireworks and corrode brittle apples in memorial of the foil of the Gunpowder Plot centred on Guy Fawkes. The chivalrous bandit, such as Dick Turpin, is a recurring character, while Blackbeard is the archetypal pirate. There are versatile home and regional tribe activities, participated in to this day, such as Morris dancing, Maypole dance, Rapper sword in the North East, Long Sword dancing in Yorkshire, Mummers Plays, bottle-kicking in Leicestershire, and cheese-rolling at Cooper ‘s Hill. [ 328 ] There is no official national costume, but a few are good established such as the Pearly Kings and Queens associated with cockneys, the Royal Guard, the Morris costume and Beefeaters. [ 329 ]
Since the early on modern period the food of England has historically been characterised by its simplicity of approach and a reliance on the high quality of natural produce. [ 330 ] During the Middle Ages and through the Renaissance period, english cuisine enjoyed an excellent repute, though a decline began during the Industrial Revolution with the move away from the land and increasing urbanization of the populace. The cuisine of England has, however, recently undergone a revival, which has been recognised by food critics with some good ratings in Restaurant ‘s best restaurant in the universe charts. [ 331 ] An early koran of English recipes is the Forme of Cury from the imperial motor hotel of Richard II. [ 332 ] traditional examples of English food include the Sunday roast, featuring a roasted articulation ( normally beef, lamb, chicken or pork ) served with assorted vegetables, Yorkshire pudding and boom. [ 333 ] other big meals include fish and chips and the full English breakfast ( broadly consisting of bacon, sausages, grilled tomatoes, fried boodle, black pudding, broil beans, mushrooms and eggs ). [ 334 ] Various meat pies are consumed, such as steak and kidney pie, steak and ale pie, bungalow proto-indo european, pork barrel proto-indo european ( normally eaten cold ) [ 333 ] and the Cornish pasty. Sausages are normally eat, either as bangers and squash or frog in the hole. Lancashire hot pot is a long-familiar stew originating in the northwest. Some of the more popular cheeses are Cheddar, Red Leicester, Wensleydale, Double Gloucester and Blue Stilton. many anglo-indian loanblend dishes, curries, have been created, such as wimp tikka masala and balti. traditional english dessert dishes include apple proto-indo european or other fruit pies ; spotted cock – all generally served with custard ; and, more recently, awkward brittle pudding. fresh pastries include scones ( either plain or containing dried fruit ) served with jam or cream, dried yield loaves, Eccles cakes and mince pies a well as a wide-eyed rate of sweet or spiced biscuits. common non-alcoholic drinks include tea, the popularity of which was increased by Catherine of Braganza, [ 335 ] and coffee ; frequently consumed alcoholic drinks include wine, ciders and english beers, such as bitter, balmy, stout and brown ale. [ 336 ]
The earliest know examples are the prehistoric rock and cave art pieces, most outstanding in North Yorkshire, Northumberland and Cumbria, but besides feature further confederacy, for example at Creswell Crags. [ 337 ] With the arrival of Roman culture in the first hundred, versatile forms of art such as statues, busts, glassware and mosaics were the average. There are numerous surviving artefacts, such as those at Lullingstone and Aldborough. [ 338 ] During the early Middle Ages the style favoured graven crosses and ivories, manuscript painting, gold and enamel jewelry, demonstrating a love of intricate, weave designs such as in the Staffordshire Hoard discovered in 2009. Some of these blended Gaelic and anglian styles, such as the Lindisfarne Gospels and vespasian Psalter. [ 339 ] Later Gothic art was popular at Winchester and Canterbury, examples survive such as Benedictional of St. Æthelwold and Luttrell Psalter. [ 340 ] The Tudor era saw big artists as region of their court, portrait paint which would remain an abiding share of English art, was boosted by german Hans Holbein, natives such as Nicholas Hilliard built on this. [ 340 ] Under the Stuarts, Continental artists were influential specially the Flemish, examples from the period include Anthony vanguard Dyck, Peter Lely, Godfrey Kneller and William Dobson. [ 340 ] The eighteenth century was a clock time of significance with the establish of the Royal Academy, a classicism based on the high Renaissance prevailed, with Thomas Gainsborough and Joshua Reynolds becoming two of England ‘s most prize artists. [ 340 ] In the nineteenth hundred, Constable and Turner were major landscape artists. The Norwich School continued the landscape tradition, while the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, led by artists such as Holman Hunt, Dante Gabriel Rossetti and John Everett Millais, revived the early Renaissance dash with their bright and detailed style. [ 340 ] Prominent amongst 20th-century artists was Henry Moore, regarded as the voice of british sculpt, and of british modernism in general. [ 341 ] More late painters include Lucian Freud, whose make Benefits Supervisor Sleeping in 2008 set a universe phonograph record for sale respect of a paint by a then-living artist. [ 342 ] The Royal Society of Arts is an administration committed to the arts and culture. [ 343 ]
literature, poetry, and philosophy
early authors such as Bede and Alcuin wrote in Latin. [ 344 ] The period of Old English literature provided the epic poem poem Beowulf and the worldly prose of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, [ 345 ] along with christian writings such as Judith, Cædmon ‘s Hymn and hagiographies. [ 344 ] Following the Norman conquest Latin continued amongst the train classes, adenine well as an anglo-french literature. Middle English literature emerged with Geoffrey Chaucer, writer of The Canterbury Tales, along with Gower, the Pearl Poet and Langland. William of Ockham and Roger Bacon, who were Franciscans, were major philosophers of the Middle Ages. julian of Norwich, who wrote Revelations of Divine Love, was a big Christian mystic. With the english Renaissance literature in the early on Modern English vogue appeared. William Shakespeare, whose works include Hamlet, Romeo and Juliet, Macbeth, and A Midsummer Night’s Dream, remains one of the most champion authors in english literature. [ 346 ] Christopher Marlowe, Edmund Spenser, Philip Sydney, Thomas Kyd, John Donne, and Ben Jonson are other lay down authors of the Elizabethan long time. [ 347 ] Francis Bacon and Thomas Hobbes wrote on empiricism and materialism, including scientific method and social sign. [ 347 ] Filmer wrote on the Divine Right of Kings. Marvell was the best-known poet of the Commonwealth, [ 348 ] while John Milton authored Paradise Lost during the Restoration .
This royal throne of kings, this empowered isle, this earth of stateliness, this seat of Mars, this other Eden, demi-paradise ; this fortress, built by nature for herself. This blessed plot, this earth, this region, this England .
William Shakespeare. [ 349 ]
Some of the most big philosophers of the Enlightenment were John Locke, Thomas Paine, Samuel Johnson and Jeremy Bentham. More root elements were late countered by Edmund Burke who is regarded as the founder of conservatism. [ 350 ] The poet Alexander Pope with his satirical verse became well regarded. The english played a significant role in romanticism : Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Lord Byron, John Keats, Mary Shelley, Percy Bysshe Shelley, William Blake and William Wordsworth were major figures. [ 351 ] In reply to the Industrial Revolution, agrarian writers sought a way between liberty and custom ; William Cobbett, G. K. Chesterton and Hilaire Belloc were main exponents, while the collapse of club socialism, Arthur Penty, and cooperative movement recommend G. D. H. Cole are reasonably relate. [ 352 ] Empiricism continued through John Stuart Mill and Bertrand Russell, while Bernard Williams was involved in analytics. Authors from around the victorian earned run average include Charles Dickens, the Brontë sisters, Jane Austen, George Eliot, Rudyard Kipling, Thomas Hardy, H. G. Wells and Lewis Carroll. [ 353 ] Since then England has continued to produce novelists such as George Orwell, D. H. Lawrence, Virginia Woolf, C. S. Lewis, Enid Blyton, Aldous Huxley, Agatha Christie, Terry Pratchett, J. R. R. Tolkien, and J. K. Rowling. [ 354 ]
The traditional folk music music of England is centuries previous and has contributed to several genres prominently ; largely sea shanties, jigs, hornpipes and dance music. It has its own distinct variations and regional peculiarities. Ballads featuring Robin Hood, printed by Wynkyn de Worde in the sixteenth hundred, are an authoritative artifact, as are John Playford ‘s The Dancing Master and Robert Harley ‘s Roxburghe Ballads collections. [ 355 ] Some of the best-known songs are Greensleeves, Pastime with Good Company, Maggie May and Spanish Ladies amongst others. many nursery rhymes are of English origin such as Mary, Mary, Quite Contrary, Roses Are Red, Jack and Jill, London Bridge Is Falling Down, The Grand Old Duke of York, Hey Diddle Diddle and Humpty Dumpty. [ 356 ] Traditional English Christmas carols include “ We Wish You a Merry Christmas “, “ The First Noel “, “ I Saw Three Ships ” and “ God Rest You Merry, Gentlemen “. [ 357 ] early on english composers in classical music include Renaissance artists Thomas Tallis and William Byrd, followed up by Henry Purcell from the Baroque period. German-born George Frideric Handel spent most of his composing life in London and became a national icon in Britain, creating some of the most long-familiar works of classical music, specially his english oratorios, The Messiah, Solomon, Water Music, and Music for the Royal Fireworks. [ 358 ] One of his four Coronation Anthems, Zadok the Priest, composed for the coronation of George II, has been performed at every subsequent british coronation, traditionally during the sovereign ‘s anoint. classical music music attracted much attention from 1784 with the constitution of the Birmingham Triennial Music Festival, which was the longest running authoritative music festival of its kind until the final concerts in 1912. The english Musical Renaissance was a hypothetical development in the recently 19th and early twentieth hundred, when english composers, often those lecturing or trained at the Royal College of Music, were said to have freed themselves from foreign melodious influences. There was a revival in the profile of composers from England in the twentieth hundred led by Edward Elgar, Benjamin Britten, Frederick Delius, Gustav Holst, Ralph Vaughan Williams and others. [ 359 ] contemporary composers from England include Michael Nyman, best known for The Piano, and Andrew Lloyd Webber, whose musicals have achieved enormous success in the West end and global. [ 360 ]
In democratic music, many English bands and solo artists have been cited as the most influential and best-selling musicians of all meter. Acts such as The Beatles, Led Zeppelin, Pink Floyd, Elton John, Queen, Rod Stewart, David Bowie, The Rolling Stones and Def Leppard are among the highest-selling record artists in the universe. [ 362 ] many musical genres have origins in ( or strong associations with ) England, such as british invasion, progressive rock, hard rock candy, Mod, glam rock, heavy alloy, Britpop, indie rock ‘n’ roll, gothic rock, shoegazing, acerb house, garage, trip hop, drum and sea bass and dubstep. [ 363 ] big outdoor music festivals in the summer and fall are democratic, such as Glastonbury, V Festival, and the Reading and Leeds Festivals. England was at the forefront of the illegal, absolve rave movement from the former 1980s, which led to pan-European culture of teknivals mirrored on the UK release festival movement and associated travelling life style. [ 364 ] The Boishakhi Mela is a Bengali New Year festival celebrated by the british Bangladeshi residential district. It is the largest alfresco asian festival in Europe. After the Notting Hill Carnival, it is the second-largest street festival in the United Kingdom attracting over 80,000 visitors from across the country. [ 365 ] The most big opera house in England is the Royal Opera House at Covent Garden. [ 366 ] The Proms – a season of orchestral classical concerts held chiefly at the Royal Albert Hall in London – is a major cultural consequence in the English calendar, and takes position annually. [ 366 ] The Royal Ballet is one of the worldly concern ‘s foremost classical ballet companies, its reputation built on two outstanding figures of 20th-century dancing, prima ballerina Margot Fonteyn and choreographer Frederick Ashton. The Royal Academy of Music is the oldest conservatory in England, founded in 1822. It received its royal charter in 1830 from King George IV. [ 367 ] England is home to numerous major orchestras such as the BBC Symphony Orchestra, the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra, the Philharmonia Orchestra, and the London Symphony Orchestra. [ 368 ] The circus is a traditional human body of entertainment in England. Chipperfield ‘s Circus dates back more than 300 years, making it one of the oldest kin circus dynasties. [ 369 ] Philip Astley is regarded as the father of the mod circus. [ 370 ] Following his invention of the circus resound in 1768, Astley ‘s Amphitheatre opened in London in 1773. [ 370 ] [ 371 ] As an equestrian overcome Astley had a skill for trick horse-riding, and when he added tumblers, tightrope -walkers, jugglers, performing dogs, and a clown to fill time between his own demonstrations – the modern circus was born. [ 372 ] [ 373 ] Pantomime is a british musical drollery stage production, designed for syndicate entertainment. It is performed in theatres throughout the England during the Christmas and New Year temper. The art originated in the eighteenth century with John Weaver, a dance chief and choreographer. [ 374 ] In 19th century England it acquired its stage shape, which includes songs, slapstick drollery and dancing, employing gender-crossing actors, combining topical temper with a story loosely based on a well-known fagot narrative. [ 374 ]
England ( and the UK as a solid ) has had a considerable influence on the history of the film, producing some of the greatest actors, directors and gesticulate pictures of all time, including Alfred Hitchcock, Charlie Chaplin, David Lean, Laurence Olivier, Vivien Leigh, John Gielgud, Peter Sellers, Julie Andrews, Michael Caine, Gary Oldman, Helen Mirren, Kate Winslet and Daniel Day-Lewis. Hitchcock and Lean are among the most critically acclaim filmmakers. [ 376 ] Hitchcock ‘s beginning thriller, The Lodger: A Story of the London Fog ( 1926 ), helped shape the thriller music genre in film, while his 1929 film, Blackmail, is much regarded as the inaugural british good feature film. [ 377 ] major film studios in England include Pinewood, Elstree and Shepperton. Some of the most commercially successful films of all time have been produced in England, including two of the highest-grossing film franchises ( Harry Potter and James Bond ). [ 378 ] Ealing Studios in London has a claim to being the oldest endlessly working film studio apartment in the worldly concern. [ 379 ] Famous for recording many movement mental picture film scores, the London Symphony Orchestra beginning performed film music in 1935. [ 380 ] The Hammer Horror films starring Christopher Lee saw the production of the first gory horror films showing blood and guts in coloring material. [ 381 ] The BFI Top 100 british films includes Monty Python’s Life of Brian ( 1979 ), a film regularly voted the funniest of all time by the UK public. [ 382 ] english producers are besides active in external co-productions and english actors, directors and crowd feature of speech regularly in american films. The UK film council ranked David Yates, Christopher Nolan, Mike Newell, Ridley Scott and Paul Greengrass the five most commercially successful english directors since 2001. [ 383 ] other contemporary english directors include Sam Mendes, Guy Ritchie and Richard Curtis. current actors include Tom Hardy, Daniel Craig, Benedict Cumberbatch, Lena Headey, Felicity Jones, Emilia Clarke, Lashana Lynch, and Emma Watson. Acclaimed for his motion capture influence, Andy Serkis opened The Imaginarium Studios in London in 2011. [ 384 ] The ocular effects company Framestore in London has produced some of the most critically acclaimed special effects in modern film. [ 385 ] Many successful Hollywood films have been based on english people, stories or events. The ‘English Cycle ‘ of Disney animated films include Alice in Wonderland, The Jungle Book and Winnie the Pooh. [ 386 ]
Museums, libraries, and galleries
english Heritage is a governmental soundbox with a broad remit of managing the historic sites, artefacts and environments of England. It is presently sponsored by the Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport. The charity National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty holds a contrast function. 17 of the 25 United Kingdom UNESCO World Heritage Sites drop within England. [ 387 ] Some of the best-known of these are : Hadrian ‘s Wall, Stonehenge, Avebury and Associated Sites, Tower of London, Jurassic Coast, Saltaire, Ironbridge Gorge, Studley Royal Park and versatile others. [ 388 ] There are many museums in England, but possibly the most celebrated is London ‘s british Museum. Its collection of more than seven million objects [ 389 ] is one of the largest and most comprehensive in the world, [ 390 ] sourced from every continent, illustrating and documenting the story of human acculturation from its beginning to the present. The british Library in London is the national library and is one of the world ‘s largest research libraries, holding over 150 million items in about all known languages and formats ; including around 25 million books. [ 391 ] [ 392 ] The most elder art drift is the National Gallery in Trafalgar Square, which houses a collection of over 2,300 paintings dating from the mid-13th century to 1900. [ 393 ] The Tate galleries house the national collections of British and international modern art ; they besides host the excellently controversial Turner Prize. [ 394 ]
The BBC, founded in 1922, is the UK ‘s publicly fund radio, television receiver and Internet broadcasting corporation, and is the oldest and largest broadcaster in the world. [ 395 ] [ 396 ] It operates numerous television receiver and radio stations in the UK and afield and its domestic services are funded by the television license. [ 397 ] [ 398 ] The BBC World Service is an international broadcaster owned and operated by the BBC. It is the world ‘s largest of any kind. [ 399 ] It broadcasts radio news program, manner of speaking and discussions in more than 40 languages. [ 400 ] [ 401 ] London dominates the media sector in England : national newspapers and television and radio are largely based there, although Manchester is besides a significant home media center. The UK publication sector, including books, directories and databases, journals, magazines and business media, newspapers and news program agencies, has a combined upset of around £20 billion and employs around 167,000 people. [ 402 ] National newspapers produced in England include The Times, The Guardian and the Financial Times. [ 403 ] Magazines and journals published in England that have achieved cosmopolitan circulation include Nature, New Scientist, The Spectator, Prospect, NME and The Economist. The Secretary of State for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport has overall duty over media and broadcast in England. [ 404 ]
England has a strong sporting inheritance, and during the nineteenth century codified many sports that are nowadays played around the world. Sports originating in England include association football, cricket, rugby union, rugby league, tennis, packing, badminton, squash, [ 406 ] rounders, [ 407 ] field hockey, snooker, billiards, darts, table tennis, stadium, netball, thoroughbred horseracing, greyhound race and flim-flam hunt. It has helped the development of golf, sailing and Formula One. football is the most democratic of these sports. The England national football team, whose family venue is Wembley Stadium, played Scotland in the first base always international football couple in 1872. [ 408 ] Referred to as the “ family of football ” by FIFA, England hosted the 1966 FIFA World Cup, and won the tournament by defeating West Germany 4–2 in the final, with Geoff Hurst scoring a hat-trick. [ 409 ] With a british television hearing top out of 32.30 million viewers, the final is the most watch television event ever in the UK. [ 410 ]
At club level, England is recognised by FIFA as the birthplace of club football, due to Sheffield F.C. founded in 1857 being the world ‘s oldest club. The Football Association is the oldest govern body in the sport, with the rules of football first base drafted in 1863 by Ebenezer Cobb Morley. [ 411 ] The FA Cup and The Football League were the inaugural cup and league competitions respectively. In the mod day, the Premier League is the world ‘s most-watched football league, [ 412 ] most lucrative, [ 413 ] and amongst the elite. [ 414 ] As is the case throughout the UK, football in England is celebrated for the rivalries between clubs and the passion of the supporters, which includes a tradition of football chants. [ 415 ] The most successful english football team in the European Cup/UEFA Champions League is Liverpool F.C. who have won the competition on six occasions. [ 416 ] early English success has come from Manchester United F.C., winning the contest on 3 occasions ; Nottingham Forest F.C. and Chelsea F.C. on 2 occasions, Aston Villa F.C. have only won the trophy once. [ 417 ]
cricket is broadly thought to have been developed in the early medieval period among the farming and metalworking communities of the Weald. [ 419 ] The England cricket team is a composite England and Wales, team. One of the bet on ‘s peak rivalries is The Ashes series between England and Australia, contested since 1882. The orgasm of the 2005 Ashes was viewed by 7.4 million as it was available on tellurian television. [ 420 ] England has hosted five Cricket World Cups ( 1975, 1979, 1983, 1999 and 2019 ), winning the 2019 edition in a final involve as one of the greatest one day internationals ever played. [ 421 ] They hosted the ICC World Twenty20 in 2009, winning this format in 2010 beat rivals Australia in the final. In the domestic competition, the County Championship, Yorkshire are by far the most successful club having won the rival 32 times instantaneously and sharing it on 1 other occasion. [ 422 ] Lord ‘s Cricket Ground situated in London is sometimes referred to as the “ Mecca of Cricket ”. [ 423 ] William Penny Brookes was outstanding in organising the format for the modern Olympic Games. In 1994, then President of the IOC, Juan Antonio Samaranch, laid a wreath on Brooke ‘s grave, and said, “ I came to pay court and protection to Dr Brookes, who actually was the founder of the modern Olympic Games ”. [ 424 ] London has hosted the Summer Olympic Games three times, in 1908, 1948, and 2012. England competes in the Commonwealth Games, held every four years. Sport England is the governing body responsible for distributing funds and providing strategic guidance for sporting natural process in England. The Minister for Sport and Civil Society has responsibility for sport in England. [ 425 ]
Rugby union originated in Rugby School, Warwickshire in the early nineteenth hundred. [ 426 ] The England rugby union team won the 2003 Rugby World Cup, with Jonny Wilkinson scoring the winning drop goal in the last infinitesimal of extra time against Australia. England was one of the host nations of the competition in the 1991 Rugby World Cup and besides hosted the 2015 Rugby World Cup. [ 427 ] The top charge of baseball club engagement is the english Premiership. Leicester Tigers, London Wasps, Bath Rugby and Northampton Saints have had success in the Europe-wide Heineken Cup. Rugby league was born in Huddersfield in 1895. Since 2008, the England national rugby league team has been a fully test nation in stead of the Great Britain national rugby league team, which won three World Cups but is now retired. Club sides play in Super League, the contemporary embodiment of the Rugby Football League Championship. Rugby League is most popular among towns in the northerly English counties of Lancashire, Yorkshire and Cumbria. [ 428 ] The huge majority of English clubs in Super League are based in the north of England. Some of the most successful clubs include Wigan Warriors, Hull F.C. St. Helens, Leeds Rhinos and Huddersfield Giants ; the former three have all won the World Club Challenge previously. golf has been outstanding in England ; due in region to its cultural and geographic ties to Scotland, the dwelling of Golf. [ 429 ] There are both professional enlistment for men and women, in two main tours : the PGA and the european Tour. England has produced grand piano slam winners : Cyril Walker, Tony Jacklin, Nick Faldo, and Justin Rose in the men ‘s and Laura Davies, Alison Nicholas, and Karen Stupples in the women ‘s. The world ‘s oldest golf tournament, and golf ‘s foremost major is The open Championship, played both in England and Scotland. The biennial golf competition, the Ryder Cup, is named after English businessman Samuel Ryder who sponsored the event and donated the trophy. [ 430 ] Nick Faldo is the most successful Ryder Cup musician ever, having won the most points ( 25 ) of any player on either the European or US teams. [ 431 ]
tennis was created in Birmingham in the late nineteenth century, and the Wimbledon Championships is the oldest tennis tournament in the global, and widely considered the most prestigious. [ 433 ] [ 434 ] Wimbledon is a tournament that has a major stead in the british cultural calendar. Fred Perry was the last Englishman to win Wimbledon in 1936. He was the beginning player to win all four Grand Slam singles titles [ 435 ] and helped lead the Great Britain team to four Davis Cup wins. english women who have won Wimbledon include : Ann Haydon Jones in 1969 and Virginia Wade in 1977. In boxing, under the Marquess of Queensberry Rules, England has produced many world champions across the weight divisions internationally recognised by the governing bodies. World champions include Bob Fitzsimmons, Ted “ Kid ” Lewis, Randolph Turpin, Nigel Benn, Chris Eubank, Frank Bruno, Lennox Lewis, Ricky Hatton, Naseem Hamed, Amir Khan, Carl Froch, and David Haye. [ 436 ] In women ‘s boxing, Nicola Adams became the populace ‘s first woman to win an Olympic box gold decoration at the 2012 Summer Olympics. Originating in 17th and 18th-century England, the thoroughbred is a sawhorse breed best known for its function in cavalry race. The National Hunt knight race the Grand National, is held per annum at Aintree Racecourse in early April. It is the most determine horse race in the UK, attracting casual observers, and three-time achiever Red Rum is the most successful racehorse in the event ‘s history. [ 437 ] Red Rum is besides the best-known racehorse in the nation. [ 438 ]
The 1950 british Grand Prix at Silverstone was the first subspecies in the newly created Formula One World Championship. [ 439 ] Since then, England has produced some of the greatest drivers in the sport, including ; John Surtees, Stirling Moss, Graham Hill ( entirely driver to have won the Triple Crown ), Nigel Mansell ( lone man to hold F1 and IndyCar titles at the lapp time ), Damon Hill, Lewis Hamilton and Jenson Button. [ 440 ] It has manufactured some of the most technically advance race cars, and many of today ‘s racing companies choose England as their base of operations for its engineering cognition and organization. McLaren Automotive, Williams F1, Team Lotus, Honda, Brawn GP, Benetton, Renault, and Red Bull Racing are all, or have been, located in the south of England. England besides has a rich heritage in Grand Prix motorbike racing, the premier backing of motorbike road racing, and produced several World Champions across all the respective class of motorcycle : Mike Hailwood, John Surtees, Phil Read, Geoff Duke, and Barry Sheene .
Mo Farah is the most successful British track athlete in modern Olympic Games history, winning the 5000 m and 10,000 m events at two Olympic Games. Darts is a wide popular fun in England ; a professional competitive fun, darts is a traditional public house game. The sport is governed by the World Darts Federation, one of its member organisations is the british Darts Organisation ( BDO ), which per annum stages the BDO World Darts Championship, the other being the Professional Darts Corporation ( PDC ), which runs its own world backing at Alexandra Palace in London. Phil Taylor is wide regarded as the best darts actor of all time, having won 187 professional tournaments, and a record 16 World Championships. [ 441 ] [ 442 ] Trina Gulliver is the ten-time Women ‘s World Professional Darts Champion of the british Darts Organisation. Another popular sport normally associated with public house games is Snooker, and England has produced several world champions, including Steve Davis and Ronnie O’Sullivan. The English are acute sailors and enjoy competitive sweep ; establish and winning some of the worldly concern ‘s most celebrated and respected external competitive tournaments across the respective subspecies formats, including the peer raceway, a regatta, and the America ‘s Cup. England has produced some of the worldly concern ‘s greatest sailors, including Francis Chichester, Herbert Hasler, John Ridgway, Robin Knox-Johnston, Ellen MacArthur, Mike Golding, Paul Goodison, and the most successful Olympic sailor ever Ben Ainslie. [ 443 ]
The St George ‘s Cross has been the national flag of England since the thirteenth hundred. originally the sag was used by the maritime Republic of Genoa. The english monarch paid a tribute to the Doge of Genoa from 1190 onwards so that English ships could fly the flag as a means of protection when entering the Mediterranean. A crimson cross was a symbol for many Crusaders in the 12th and 13th centuries. It became associated with Saint George, along with countries and cities, which claimed him as their patron saint and used his crabbed as a banner. [ 444 ] Since 1606 the St George ‘s Cross has formed separate of the purpose of the Union Flag, a Pan-British flag designed by King James I. [ 288 ] During the English Civil War and Interregnum, the New Model Army ‘s standards and the Commonwealth ‘s Great Seal both incorporated the iris of Saint George. [ 445 ] [ 446 ]
There are numerous other symbols and emblematic artefacts, both official and unofficial, including the Tudor rose, the nation ‘s floral emblem, and the Three Lions featured on the Royal Arms of England. The Tudor rose was adopted as a national emblem of England around the fourth dimension of the Wars of the Roses as a symbol of peace. [ 447 ] It is a syncretic symbol in that it merged the egg white rose of the Yorkists and the loss rose of the Lancastrians —cadet branches of the Plantagenets who went to war over see of the nation. It is besides known as the Rose of England. [ 448 ] The oak tree is a symbol of England, representing strength and survival. The Royal Oak symbol and Oak Apple Day commemorate the escape of King Charles II from the grasp of the parliamentarians after his beget ‘s performance : he hid in an oak tree to avoid signal detection before safely reaching exile. The Royal Arms of England, a national coating of arms featuring three lions, originated with its adoption by Richard the Lionheart in 1198. It is blazoned as gules, three lions passant guardant or and it provides one of the most outstanding symbols of England ; it is like to the traditional arms of Normandy. England does not have an official designated national hymn, as the United Kingdom as a whole has God Save the Queen. however, the following are frequently considered unofficial English national anthems : Jerusalem, Land of Hope and Glory ( used for England during the 2002 Commonwealth Games ), [ 449 ] and I Vow to Thee, My Country. England ‘s National Day is 23 April which is Saint George ‘s Day : ideal George is the patron saint of England. [ 450 ]
- English Heritage – National body protecting English heritage
- Natural England – Wildlife and the natural world of England
- VisitEngland – English Tourist Board
- BBC News – England – News items from BBC News relating to England
- GOV.UK – The Official Website of the British Government
- Geographic data related to England at OpenStreetMap