Capitol Records, LLC ( known legally as Capitol Records, Inc. until 2007 ) is an american read label owned by Universal Music Group through its Capitol Music Group depression. It was founded as the first base West Coast-based record tag of note in the United States [ 1 ] in 1942 by Johnny Mercer, Buddy DeSylva, and Glenn E. Wallichs. Capitol was acquired by british music pudding stone EMI as its north american english subordinate in 1955. [ 2 ] EMI was acquired by Universal Music Group in 2012, and was merged with the company a class late, making Capitol and the Capitol Music Group both a function of UMG. The label ‘s circular headquarters construction is a recognized landmark of Hollywood, California. Capitol is well known as the U.S. record label of the Beatles, particularly during the years of Beatlemania in America from 1964 to 1967. Capitol ‘s roll has included Nat King Cole, Frank Sinatra, Judy Garland, Peggy Lee, Dinah Shore, Tina Turner, Garth Brooks, Paul McCartney, Ringo Starr, the Beach Boys, Brian Wilson, Bee Gees, Megadeth, The Knack, NF, Everclear, Katy Perry, Mary J. Blige, Halsey, Duran Duran, Beastie Boys, Juice Newton, The Kingston Trio, Neil Diamond, Iron Maiden, Richard Thompson, Minnie Riperton, Luscious Jackson, Linda Ronstadt, Eagles, Beck, Avenged Sevenfold, Don Henley, Yellowcard, Sam Smith, Sparklehorse, Migos, Emeli Sandé, Queen Naija, Helena Paparizou, 5 Seconds of Summer, Brian Courtney Wilson, Niall Horan, and Fletcher.
Reading: Capitol Records – Wikipedia
history [edit ]
Founding [edit ]
Songwriter Johnny Mercer founded Capitol Records in 1942 [ 3 ] with fiscal help from songwriter and film producer Buddy DeSylva and the occupation acumen of Glenn Wallichs, owner of Wallichs Music City. Mercer raised the idea of starting a record company while golfing with Harold Arlen and Bobby Sherwood and with Wallichs at Wallichs ‘s record shop. On February 2, 1942, Mercer and Wallichs met DeSylva at a restaurant in Hollywood to talk about investment by Paramount Pictures. On March 27, 1942, the three men incorporated as autonomy Records ( not Capitol ‘s future sister label Liberty Records ). In May, the application was amended to change the label ‘s name to Capitol Records. [ 4 ] On April 6, 1942, Mercer supervised Capitol ‘s foremost recording seance where Martha Tilton recorded the sung “ Moon Dreams ”. On May 5, Bobby Sherwood and his orchestra recorded two tracks in the studio. On May 21, Freddie Slack and his orchestra recorded three tracks in the studio : matchless with the orchestra, one with Ella Mae Morse called “ Cow-Cow Boogie “ and “ Air-Minded executive ” supervised by Mercer. On June 4, Capitol opened its first position in a second-floor board south of Sunset Boulevard. On that like day, Wallichs presented the company ‘s first free record to Los Angeles phonograph record jockey Peter Potter. On June 5, Paul Whiteman and his Orchestra recorded four songs at the studio apartment. On June 12, the orchestra recorded five more songs in the studio, including “ Trav’lin ‘ Light ” with Billie Holiday. On June 11, Tex Ritter recorded “ ( I Got Spurs That ) Jingle Jangle Jingle “ and “ Goodbye My Little Cherokee ” for his first Capitol recording seance, and the songs comprised Capitol ‘s hundred-and-tenth produced record. The earliest commemorate artists included co-owner Mercer, Johnnie Johnston, Morse, Jo Stafford, the Pied Pipers, Tex Ritter, Tilton, Paul Weston, Whiteman, and Margaret Whiting. [ 3 ] Capitol ‘s first gold unmarried was Morse ‘s “ Cow Cow Boogie ” in 1942. Capitol ‘s beginning album was Capitol Presents Songs by Johnny Mercer, a three phonograph record set with recordings by Mercer, Stafford and the Pied Pipers, all with Weston ‘s orchestra. The label ‘s other 1940s musicians included Les Baxter, Les Brown, Jimmy Bryant, Billy Butterfield, Nat King Cole, Sammy Davis Jr., Dinning Sisters, Tennessee Ernie Ford, Mary Ford, Benny Goodman, Skitch Henderson, Betty Hutton, Stan Kenton, Peggy Lee, Billy May, Les Paul, Alvino Rey, Andy Russell, Smilin ‘ Jack Smith, Kay Starr, Speedy West, and Cootie Williams. Musicians on the Capitol Americana pronounce included Lead Belly, Cliffie Stone, Hank Thompson, Merle Travis, Wesley Tuttle, Jimmy Wakely, and Tex Williams. Capitol was the first major west coast label to compete with major labels on the east slide such as RCA Victor, Columbia, and Decca. In addition to its Los Angeles recording studios, Capitol owned a second studio in New York City and occasionally sent mobile recording equipment to other cities .
other genres [edit ]
In 1946, writer-producer Alan W. Livingston created Bozo the Clown for the company ‘s children ‘s record library. Examples of luminary Capitol albums for children during that era are Sparky’s Magic Piano and Rusty in Orchestraville. Capitol besides developed a celebrated jazz catalog that included the Capitol Jazz Men and issued the Miles Davis ‘s album Birth of the Cool. [ citation needed ] Capitol released a few classical albums in the 1940s, some of which contained big heavily embossed, leather-like covers. These recordings appeared on the 78 revolutions per minute format and were subsequently reissued on the new LP format in 1949. Among the recordings : brazilian composer Heitor Villa-Lobos ‘ Choros No. 10, with contributions from a Los Angeles choral group and the Janssen Symphony Orchestra ( 1940–1952 ), conducted by Werner Janssen ; Symphony No. 3 by Russian composer Reinhold Moritzovich Glière ; and César Franck ‘s Symphony in D minor, with Willem Mengelberg and the Concertgebouw Orchestra. [ citation needed ] In 1949, Capitol opened a branch office in Canada and purchased KHJ Studios on Melrose Avenue adjacent to Paramount in Hollywood. [ citation needed ] By the 1950s, Capitol had become a huge label that concentrated chiefly on popular music. The label ‘s roll at that meter included the Andrews Sisters, Ray Anthony, Shirley Bassey, June Christy, Tommy Duncan, Tennessee Ernie Ford, the Four Freshmen, the Four Knights, the Four Preps, Jane Froman, Judy Garland, Jackie Gleason, Andy Griffith, Dick Haymes, Harry James, the Louvin Brothers, Dean Martin, Al Martino, Skeets McDonald, Louis Prima, Nelson Riddle, Dinah Shore, Frank Sinatra, and Keely Smith. [ citation needed ] Capitol began recording rock candy and roll acts such as The Jodimars and Gene Vincent. There were comedy records by Stan Freberg, Johnny Standley, and Mickey Katz. Children listened to Capitol ‘s Bozo the Clown albums. Although diverse people played Bozo the Clown on television, Capitol used the voice of Pinto Colvig, who was besides the voice of Goofy in Walt Disney cartoons. Don Wilson besides released children ‘s records. In June 1952, Billboard magazine contained a history of the label ‘s first ten years in business. [ 6 ]
ownership under EMI [edit ]
 Revived in 2017. Capitol logo from 1969 to 1978, designed by Roland Young.Revived in 2017. In 1955, the british record company EMI ended its 55-year reciprocal distribution agreement with RCA Victor and acquired 96 % of Capitol ‘s stock for $ 8.5 million. EMI built a studio at Hollywood and Vine to match its state-of-the-art Abbey Road Studios in London. In 1957, EMI ‘s classical label Angel was merged into Capitol. Some authoritative recordings were issued in high fidelity and stereophonic sound. These included William Steinberg and the Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra, Leopold Stokowski with respective orchestras ( including the Los Angeles Philharmonic Orchestra ) and Sir Thomas Beecham and the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra, vitamin a well as unaccented classical albums by Carmen Dragon and the Hollywood Bowl Orchestra and albums of film music conducted by Hollywood composers such as Alfred Newman. The Capitol of the World series introduced in 1956 and active into the 1970s encompassed German Beer Drinking Songs, Honeymoon in Rome, Australian Aboriginals, and Kasongo! Modern Music of the Belgian Congo. many were produced by Dave Dexter Jr. This series contained over 400 albums. [ 9 ] [ 10 ] In October 1979, EMI merged with Thorn Electrical Industries to form Thorn EMI [ 11 ] and, due to clientele models increasingly diverging, on August 16, 1996, Thorn EMI ‘s shareholders voted to demerge. The resulting media company was then known as the EMI Group. [ 12 ]
ownership under Universal Music Group [edit ]
In 2012, the record music operations of EMI were sold to the Universal Music Group and the earth headquarters were re-established in the Capitol Tower in Hollywood as share of the subsequent reorganization of the Capitol Music Group. Steve Barnett, previously an employee of Columbia, was hired as chair and CEO of the division. [ 13 ] [ 14 ] Capitol filed a lawsuit against Vimeo, an on-line video-sharing web site, for audio copyright misdemeanor. Capitol filed the claim after users were visibly lip-synch to some of their tracks. [ 15 ] Following legal legal action by Capitol against the ReDigi.com on-line company in April 2013, the latter was found to have violated copyright law. Capitol Records claimed that ReDigi was guilty of copyright violation due to a clientele model that facilitated the universe of extra copies of Capitol ‘s digital music files, whereby users could upload the files for downloading or streaming to the new buyer of the charge. ReDigi argued that the resale of MP3/digital music files is permitted under certain doctrines ( “ fair use ” and “ first sale ” ) but the court maintained that the doctrines ‘ application “ was limited to material items that the copyright owner put into the stream of commerce. ” [ 16 ] In 2014, PGH Live Music joined the team and Katy Perry founded the record label Metamorphosis Music, starting a label speculation with Capitol. [ 17 ] The appoint of the label was late changed to Unsub Records in 2016. [ 18 ]
Read more: Top 10 Best Songs of All Time
besides that year, Capitol rose to number two market share and won four categories at the Grammy Awards for music by Beck and Sam Smith. [ 19 ] In 2018, Capitol ‘s electronic division Astralwerks relaunched with a newly team and moved its stallion operations to Capitol ‘s tugboat in Los Angeles. [ 20 ] In December 2019, Jeff Vaughn was named President of Capitol Records, assuming his position as of January 1, 2020, and is based in Hollywood at the iconic Capitol Tower. [ 21 ]
Headquarters [edit ]
Capitol Records headquarters building Designed by Welton Becket with Louis Naidorf, a young architect from Becket ‘s agency, serving as project architect [ 22 ] [ 2 ] the thirteen-story, earthquake-resistant Capitol Records Tower was the earth ‘s first circular agency building and it is the free-base for respective recording studios. Although not intended as a tribute to record players, its wide curved awnings and tall narrow tower mimic the appearance of a batch of gramophone records atop a record player. The build was commissioned by EMI after its skill of Capitol Records in 1955 and was completed in April 1956. The build up is north of the intersection of Hollywood and Vine and is the center of the company ‘s amalgamate West Coast operations. It was nicknamed “ The House That Nat Built ” after the fiscal success of Capitol singer Nat King Cole. The rectangular ground floor is a separate structure joined to the loom after it was completed. In September 2006, EMI announced that it had sold the tugboat and adjacent properties for $ 50 million to New York-based developer Argent Ventures. [ 23 ] In mid-2008, a controversy erupted over a plan to build a condominium complex future door, igniting fears that the construct ‘s acoustic properties, specifically its belowground echo chambers, would be compromised. It was announced in November 2012 that Steve Barnett would become chair and CEO of Capitol Music Group and would be based at the Capitol Records Building. [ 24 ] Capitol and artist Richard Wyatt Jr. restored his Hollywood Jazz Mural on the south wall of the Capitol Records Building. [ 25 ]
Studios [edit ]
Capitol ‘s recording studios were designed to minimize noise and vibration, then newly crucial goals in the high-fidelity sound era. An inner wall floating on layers of condom and cork was erected inside the build ‘s 10-inch-thick ( 250 millimeter ) concrete outside walls, leaving a one-inch air out gap to provide dispatch sound isolation. [ 26 ] The facility besides features subterranean echo chambers that allow engineers to add echo during the record process. Eight trapezoidal chambers are located 30 feet ( 9.1 thousand ) clandestine, with 10-inch concrete walls and 12-inch-thick ( 300 millimeter ) concrete ceilings. Speakers on one side and microphones on the other license an repeat effect of up to five seconds. Studios A and B can be combined for the read of orchestral music and symphonic film soundtracks. The foremost album recorded in the tower was Frank Sinatra Conducts Tone Poems of Color .
International operations [edit ]
Capitol modified albums that were originally released in other countries on other labels. Albums released in the United States contained fewer tracks, normally no more than 11 or 12, compared to albums released in the United Kingdom due to differences in the method acting of publishing royalties were calculated in the two countries. [ 27 ] besides, in the american market it was expected that albums would include the stream hit one, whereas british albums typically did not duplicate songs released as singles .
The Beatles [edit ]
possibly the best-known treatment of an international artist ‘s recordings was the label ‘s turn pattern for versatile albums by the Beatles. This began with Capitol ‘s publish of Meet the Beatles!, the first album by the band to be released by Capitol in the United States. It was based on the british album With the Beatles, which contained 14 tracks and a prevail time of around 35 minutes. Capitol removed five tracks ( “ Money ”, “ You ‘ve actually Got A Hold On Me ”, “ Devil in Her Heart ”, “ Please Mister Postman ”, and “ Roll Over Beethoven ” ) and added both sides of the band ‘s beginning american english hit unmarried ( “ I Want To Hold Your Hand ” c/w “ I Saw Her Standing There ” ) and the british single ‘s B-side, “ This Boy ”. “ I Saw Her Standing There ” was on the Beatles ‘ first british album, Please Please Me. This resulted in Capitol releasing Meet the Beatles as a 12-track album with a duration of around 30 minutes and made it comparable with other american pop albums. It besides provided Capitol with unreleased tracks for use in later US Beatles albums such as The Beatles’ Second Album. Capitol besides issued “ duophonic “ stereo releases of some recordings where the original headmaster was monophonic. Capitol engineers split the single overcome infectious mononucleosis track into two, boosted the bass on the right channel, boosted triple on the leave impart and added a split-second check between channels to produce a “ stereophonic ” release. This duophonic procedure meant that the Beatles ‘ american fans occasionally heard a slenderly different song from that learn by the rest of the world if they listened to the stereo version. [ 28 ] This course in the Beatles ‘ american discography continued until 1967 when a newfangled read shrink with EMI was signed. unhappy with the way Capitol in the US and other companies around the populace were issuing their ferment in about unrecognizable forms, beginning in 1967 the Beatles gained full approval of album titles and cover artwork, traverse list and running club in North America. Starting with Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band, Beatles ‘ albums were released unmodified. The issue of 45 RPM singles featuring album tracks was besides stopped. alternatively, non-album tracks were issued as singles between album releases .
United Kingdom [edit ]
Beginning in 1948, Capitol Records were released in the UK on the Capitol pronounce by Decca. After its 1955 acquisition of Capitol, EMI took over distribution in 1956. [ 29 ] EMI ‘s Parlophone unit handled Capitol label marketing in the UK in by and by years. [ 30 ] In 2012, EMI was sold to Universal Music Group. Universal Music started Capitol as an autonomous label in the UK with the rights to the Beatles ‘ catalog. [ 31 ] This marks the first meter that Capitol in the UK operated as an autonomous label. [ 32 ]
Canada [edit ]
Capitol Records of Canada was established in 1949 by businessman W. Lockwood Miller. Capitol broke with Miller ‘s party and formed Capitol Record Distributors of Canada Limited in 1954. EMI acquired this company when it acquired Capitol. The company was renamed Capitol Records of Canada Ltd. in 1958 after Miller ‘s rights to the name expired. In 1959, Capitol of Canada picked up distribution rights for EMI ‘s labels Angel, Pathé, Odeon, and Parlophone. [ 33 ] In 1957, Paul White joined Capitol of Canada and in 1960 established an A & R department mugwump of the american company to promote talent for the canadian market. [ 34 ] The division found native talent such as Anne Murray and EMI musicians from early countries. Beginning in 1962, Capitol of Canada issued albums by british musicians such as Cliff Richard, Helen Shapiro and Frank Ifield. They accepted the Beatles long earlier the american company. By 1967, they were distributing non-EMI labels such as twentieth Century Fox, Buena Vista Records, Disneyland, and Pickwick. [ 34 ] The company was renamed Capitol Records-EMI of Canada in 1974, before the EMI Music Canada appoint was adopted in 1993. [ 35 ] [ 36 ] [ 37 ] EMI Music Canada was absorbed into Universal Music Canada in 2012. In 2016, Universal Music Canada donated the EMI Music Canada archives to the University of Calgary. [ 38 ]
other countries [edit ]
Capitol Latin focuses on Latin music artists in Latin America and the United States. It was founded in 1989 as EMI Latin and was renamed to Capitol Latin in 2009. [ 39 ] [ 40 ] Capitol Latin was merged with Universal Music Latin Entertainment in 2013. [ 41 ] Capitol Music Germany was founded by EMI Music Germany and inherited most of EMI ‘s german artists catalog. In 2013, Capitol Germany was acquired by Universal and merged with UMG ‘s Vertigo Berlin domestic division. The new label is called Vertigo/Capitol. Capitol Music Group Sweden was relaunched in 2015 after UMG rebranded the Lionheart Music Group label. It in the first place existed as a division of EMI Music Sweden during the 90 ‘s and mid-2000 ‘s. EMI ‘s swedish offices were included in the Parlophone Label Group sale and were acquired by Warner Music Group, which owns the Capitol Sweden ‘s back catalog. In France, Capitol Label Services ( once Capitol Music France ) exists as a division of Universal Music France, and bears the 70 ‘s Capitol “ C ” logo .