Slot machine – Wikipedia

casino gambling machine
A slot machine ( american english English ), known variously as a fruit machine ( british English ), puggy ( Scottish English ), [ 1 ] the slots ( canadian English and American English ), poker machine/pokies ( australian English and New Zealand English ), fruities ( british English ) or slots ( american English ), is a gambling machine that creates a game of probability for its customers. Slot machines are besides known pejoratively as one-armed bandits because of the large mechanical levers affixed to the sides of early mechanical machines and the games ‘ ability to empty players ‘ pockets and wallets as thieves would. [ 2 ] A slot machine ‘s standard layout features a riddle displaying three or more reels that “ spin ” when the game is activated. Some modern slot machines still include a lever as a skeuomorphic design trait to trigger play. however, the mechanics of early machines have been superseded by random number generators, and most are immediately operated using buttons and touchscreens. Slot machines include one or more currency detectors that validate the form of requital, whether coin, cash, voucher, or token. The machine pays out according to the blueprint of symbols displayed when the reels stop “ spinning ”. Slot machines are the most popular gambling method acting in casinos and constitute about 70 % of the average U.S. casino ‘s income. [ 3 ]

Digital engineering has resulted in variations on the master slot machine concept. As the player is basically playing a video game, manufacturers are able to offer more interactional elements, such as advanced bonus rounds and more varied video recording graphics .

etymology [edit ]

The “ slot machine ” condition derives from the slots on the machine for inserting and retrieving coins. [ 4 ] “ Fruit car ” comes from the traditional yield images on the spinning reels such as lemons and cherries. [ 5 ]

history [edit ]

1899 “ Liberty Bell ” machine, manufactured by Charles Fey. Sittman and Pitt of Brooklyn, New York developed a gambling machine in 1891 that was a harbinger to the modern slot machine. It contained five drums holding a total of 50 poster faces and was based on poker. The machine proved highly popular, and soon many bars in the city had one or more of them. Players would insert a nickel and pull a lever, which would spin the drums and the cards that they held, the player hoping for a estimable poker hand. There was no direct payout mechanism, so a pair of kings might get the player a exempt beer, whereas a royal flush could pay out cigars or drinks ; the prizes were wholly dependent upon what the constitution would offer. To improve the odds for the house, two cards were typically removed from the deck, the ten-spot of spades and the jack of hearts, doubling the odds against winning a royal flush. The drums could besides be rearranged to further reduce a player ‘s find of winning. Because of the huge number of possible wins in the original poker-based game, it proved practically impossible to make a machine capable of awarding an automatic rifle payout for all potential acquire combinations. At some clock time between 1887 and 1895, [ 6 ] Charles Fey of San Francisco, California devised a much simple automatic pistol mechanism [ 7 ] with three spinning reels containing a sum of five symbols : horseshoes, diamonds, spades, hearts and a Liberty Bell ; the bell gave the machine its name. By replacing ten cards with five symbols and using three reels alternatively of five drums, the complexity of reading a acquire was well reduced, allowing Fey to design an effective automatic rifle payout mechanism. Three bells in a course produced the biggest return, ten nickels ( 50¢ ). Liberty Bell was a huge achiever and spawned a booming mechanical bet on device diligence. After a few years, the devices were banned in California, but Fey still could not keep up with the demand for them from elsewhere. The Liberty Bell car was then popular that it was copied by many slot-machine manufacturers. The first of these, besides called the “ Liberty Bell ”, was produced by the manufacturer Herbert Mills in 1907. By 1908, many “ bell ” machines had been installed in most cigar stores, saloons, bowling alleys, brothels and barber shops. [ 8 ] Early machines, including an 1899 Liberty Bell, are now depart of the Nevada State Museum ‘s Fey Collection. [ 9 ] The first Liberty Bell machines produced by Mills used the lapp symbols on the reels as did Charles Fey ‘s original. Soon subsequently, another version was produced with patriotic symbols, such as flags and wreaths, on the wheels. former, a alike machine called the Operator ‘s Bell was produced that included the option of adding a gum tree -vending attachment. As the gumwood offered was fruit-flavored, fruit symbols were placed on the reels : lemons, cherries, oranges and plums. A bell was retained, and a painting of a stay of Bell-Fruit Gum, the beginning of the barroom symbol, was besides present. This fix of symbols proved highly popular and was used by other companies that began to make their own slot machines : Caille, Watling, Jennings and Pace. [ 10 ] A normally used technique to avoid gambling laws in a number of states was to award food prizes. For this reason, a number of gumball and other vending machines were regarded with distrust by the courts. The two Iowa cases of State v. Ellis [ 11 ] and State v. Striggles [ 12 ] are both used in criminal law classes to illustrate the concept of reliance upon authority as it relates to the axiomatic ignorantia juris non excusat ( “ ignorance of the law is no apologize ” ). [ 13 ] In these cases, a mint vending machine was declared to be a gambling device because the machine would, by internally manufactured prospect, occasionally give the next exploiter a issue of tokens exchangeable for more sugarcoat. Despite the display of the resultant role of the next use on the machine, the courts ruled that “ [ thyroxine ] he machine appealed to the player ‘s proclivity to gamble, and that is [ a ] frailty. ” [ 14 ] In 1963, Bally developed the first amply electromechanical slot machine called Money Honey ( although earlier machines such as Bally ‘s high Hand draw-poker machine had exhibited the basics of electromechanical structure ampere early as 1940 ). Its electromechanical workings made Money Honey the first slot machine with a bottomless hopper and automatic pistol payout of up to 500 coins without the help oneself of an attendant. [ 15 ] The popularity of this machine led to the increasing predomination of electronic games, with the side lever soon becoming vestigial. The first base video slot machine was developed in 1976 in Kearny Mesa, California by the Las Vegas–based Fortune Coin Co. This machine used a modify 19-inch ( 48 curium ) Sony Trinitron color recipient for the display and logic boards for all slot-machine functions. The prototype was mounted in a life-size, show-ready slot-machine cabinet. The first production units went on trial at the Las Vegas Hilton Hotel. After some modifications to defeat cheating attempts, the television slot machine was approved by the Nevada State Gaming Commission and finally found popularity on the Las Vegas Strip and in business district casinos. Fortune Coin Co. and its television slot-machine engineering were purchased by IGT ( International Gaming Technology ) in 1978. [ citation needed ] The inaugural american video recording slot machine to offer a “ second screen door ” bonus round was Reel ’ Em In, developed by WMS Industries in 1996. [ 16 ] This type of machine had appeared in Australia from at least 1994 with the Three Bags Full game. [ 17 ] With this type of machine, the display changes to provide a unlike game in which an extra payout may be awarded .

operation [edit ]

Wheel of Fortune. A row of “ Wheel of Fortune ” slot machines in a casino in Las Vegas. This specific slot machine is themed to the television receiver game picture RAY ‘s Ruusu and Tuplapotti slot machines in Finland Depending on the machine, the player can insert cash or, in “ ticket-in, ticket-out “ machines, a paper tag with a barcode, into a designate slot on the machine. The machine is then activated by means of a pry or button ( either physical or on a touch screen ), which activates reels that spin and stop to rearrange the symbols. If a musician matches a winning combination of symbols, the player earns credits based on the paytable. Symbols change depending on the subject of the machine. classical symbols include objects such as fruits, bells, and stylized golden sevens. Most slot games have a composition, such as a specific aesthetic, localization, or quality. Symbols and other bonus features of the bet on are typically aligned with the theme. Some themes are licensed from popular media franchises, including films, television series ( including game shows such as Wheel of Fortune ), entertainers, and musicians. Multi-line slot machines have become more popular since the 1990s. These machines have more than one payline, meaning that visible symbols that are not aligned on the main horizontal may be considered as winning combinations. traditional three-reel slot machines normally have one, three, or five paylines while video slot machines may have 9, 15, 25, or deoxyadenosine monophosphate many as 1024 different paylines. Most accept variable numbers of credits to play, with 1 to 15 credits per line being typical. The higher the total bet, the higher the payout will be if the musician wins. One of the chief differences between television slot machines and reel machines is in the way payouts are calculated. With reel machines, the only means to win the maximum pot is to play the maximum number of coins ( normally three, sometimes four or tied five coins per spin ). With video machines, the fixed payout values are multiplied by the number of coins per line that is being bet. In other words : on a reel machine, the odds are more friendly if the gambler plays with the utmost number of coins available. [ 18 ] however, depending on the structure of the game and its bonus features, some video slots may placid include features that improve chances at payouts by making increased wagers. “ Multi-way ” games eschew fixed paylines in favor of allowing symbols to pay anywhere, a long as there is at least one in at least three straight reels from left to right. Multi-way games may be configured to allow players to bet by-reel : for exemplar, on a crippled with a 3×5 form ( often referred to as a 243-way game ), playing one bobbin allows all three symbols in the foremost reel to potentially pay, but only the center row pays on the remaining reels ( frequently designated by darkening the fresh portions of the reels ). other multi-way games use a 4×5 or 5×5 pattern, where there are up to five symbols in each reel, allowing for up to 1,024 and 3,125 ways to win respectively. The australian manufacturer Aristocrat Leisure brands games featuring this arrangement as “ Reel Power ”, “ Xtra Reel Power ” and “ Super Reel Power ” respectively. A variation involves patterns where symbols pay adjacent to one another. Most of these games have a hexangular spin geological formation, and much like multi-way games, any patterns not played are darkened out of habit. Denominations can range from 1 cent ( “ penny slots ” ) all the way up to $ 100.00 or more per credit. The latter are typically known as “ high limit ” machines, and machines configured to allow for such wagers are often located in consecrated areas ( which may have a classify team of attendants to cater to the needs of those who play there ). The car mechanically calculates the number of credits the player receives in exchange for the cash inserted. Newer machines often allow players to choose from a selection of denominations on a splash screen or menu .

terminology [edit ]

A bonus is a particular sport of the especial game composition, which is activated when certain symbols appear in a fetching combination. Bonuses and the numeral of bonus features vary depending upon the plot. Some bonus rounds are a special seance of free spins ( the issue of which is frequently based on the winning combination that triggers the bonus ), much with a different or modified set of winning combinations as the chief game and/or early multipliers or increased frequencies of symbols, or a “ hold and re-spin ” mechanic in which specific symbols ( normally marked with values of credits or other prizes ) are collected and locked in place over a finite number of spins. In other bonus rounds, the player is presented with several items on a screen from which to choose. As the player chooses items, a number of credits is revealed and awarded. Some bonuses use a mechanical device, such as a spin roulette wheel, that works in junction with the bonus to display the amount won. A candle is a light on lead of the slot machine. It flashes to alert the operator that change is needed, hand give is requested or a electric potential problem with the machine. It can be lit by the player by pressing the “ service ” or “ help oneself ” button. Carousel refers to a grouping of slot machines, normally in a circle or ellipse formation. A coin hopper is a container where the coins that are immediately available for payouts are held. The grounder is a mechanical device that rotates coins into the coin tray when a musician collects credits/coins ( by pressing a “ Cash Out ” button ). When a certain preset coin capacity is reached, a mint diverter mechanically redirects, or “ drops ”, excess coins into a “ drop bucket ” or “ drop box ”. ( fresh coin hoppers can still be found even on games that entirely employ Ticket-In, Ticket-Out technology, as a trace. ) The credit meter is a display of the come of money or number of credits on the machine. On mechanical slot machines, this is normally a seven-segment display, but video slot machines typically use stylized text that suits the bet on ‘s theme and exploiter interface. The drop bucket or drop box is a container located in a slot machine ‘s establish where excess coins are diverted from the grounder. typically, a dribble bucket is used for low-denomination slot machines and a drop box is used for high-denomination slot machines. A drop box contains a hinge eyelid with one or more locks whereas a drop bucket does not contain a hat. The contents of drop buckets and neglect boxes are collected and counted by the casino on a schedule footing. EGM is short for “ electronic gambling machine ”. Free spins are a common shape of bonus, where a series of spins are automatically played at no charge at the player ‘s stream bet. release spins are normally triggered via a disperse of at least three destine symbols ( with the issue of spins dependant on the number of symbols that land ). Some games allow the rid spins bonus to “ retrigger ”, which adds extra spins on exceed of those already awarded. There is no theoretical limit to the count of release spins gettable. Some games may have other features that can besides trigger over the course of free spins. A hand pay refers to a payout made by an attendant or at an substitute point ( “ cage ” ), rather than by the time slot machine itself. A hand pay up occurs when the come of the payout exceeds the maximum sum that was preset by the slot machine ‘s operator. normally, the maximal amount is set at the level where the operator must begin to deduct taxes. A hand pay could besides be necessary as a result of a abruptly pay. Hopper fill slip is a document used to record the refilling of the coin in the coin grasshopper after it become depleted as a result of making payouts to players. The slip indicates the amount of coin placed into the hoppers, adenine well as the signatures of the employees involved in the transaction, the slot machine number and the localization and the date. MEAL book ( M achine e ntry a uthorization l og ) is a log of the employee ‘s entries into the machine. Low-level or slant-top slot machines include a stool so the player may sit down. Stand-up or upright slot machines are played while standing. Optimal play is a vengeance share based on a gambler using the optimum scheme in a skill-based slot machine plot. Payline is a tune that crosses through one symbol on each spin, along which a acquire combination is evaluated. authoritative spinning reel machines normally have up to nine paylines, while television slot machines may have deoxyadenosine monophosphate many as one hundred. Paylines could be of versatile shapes ( horizontal, vertical, oblique, triangular, zigzag, etc. ) Persistent state refers to passive features on some slot machines, some of which able to trigger bonus payouts or early special features if certain conditions are met over fourth dimension by players on that machine. [ 19 ] Roll-up is the work of dramatizing a succeed by playing sounds while the meters count up to the total that has been won. Short pay refers to a fond payout made by a time slot machine, which is less than the come due to the actor. This occurs if the coin hop-picker has been depleted as a result of making earlier payouts to players. The remaining total due to the actor is either paid as a hand yield or an attendant will come and refill the machine. A scatter is a pay combination based on occurrences of a intend symbol landing anywhere on the reels, preferably than falling in sequence on the lapp payline. A disperse give normally requires a minimal of three symbols to land, and the machine may offer increase prizes or jackpots depending on the number that land. Scatters are frequently used to trigger bonus games, such as rid spins ( with the number of spins multiplying based on the number of scatter symbols that land ). The scatter symbol normally can not be matched using wilds, and some games may require the break up symbols to appear on straight reels in order to pay. On some multiway games, scatter symbols still pay in unused areas. Taste is a reference to the small come frequently paid out to keep a player seated and endlessly betting. entirely rarely will machines fail to pay even the minimum out over the course of respective pulls .
Display filmdom of a slot machine in rock manner Tilt is a term derived from electromechanical slot machines ‘ “ tilt switches “, which would make or break a lap when they were tilted or otherwise tampered with that triggered an alarm. While modern machines no long have tilt switches, any kind of technical fault ( doorway substitution in the wrong express, virginia reel motor failure, out of newspaper, etc. ) is inactive called a “ rock ”. A theoretical hold worksheet is a document provided by the manufacturer for every slot machine that indicates the theoretical percentage the machine should hold based on the amount paid in. The worksheet besides indicates the bobbin comic strip settings, numeral of coins that may be played, the payout schedule, the number of reels and early information descriptive of the particular type of slot machine. Volatility or variance refers to the measure of risk associated with playing a slot machine. A low-volatility slot machine has regular but smaller wins, while a high-variance slot car has fewer but bigger wins. Weight count is an american term referring to the sum value of coins or tokens removed from a slot machine ‘s drop bucket or drop box for count by the casino ‘s hard consider team through the use of a weigh scale. Wild symbols substitute for most early symbols in the plot ( similarly to a joker card ), normally excluding scatter and pot symbols ( or offering a lower choice on non-natural combinations that include wilds ). How jokers behave are dependent on the particular game and whether the player is in a bonus or loose games manner. sometimes baseless symbols may only appear on sealed reels, or have a prospect to “ stack ” across the entire reel .

Pay table [edit ]

Each machine has a mesa that lists the number of credits the player will receive if the symbols listed on the pay table credit line up on the pay line of the machine. Some symbols are wild and can represent many, or all, of the other symbols to complete a fetching line. specially on older machines, the pay up board is listed on the confront of the machine, normally above and below the area containing the wheels. On video recording time slot machines, they are normally contained within a help menu, along with information on other features .

technology [edit ]

Reels [edit ]

historically, all slot machines used revolving mechanical reels to display and determine results. Although the original slot car used five reels, simple, and consequently more authentic, three virginia reel machines cursorily became the standard. A problem with three stagger machines is that the number of combinations is only cubic – the master slot machine with three forcible reels and 10 symbols on each reel had only 103 = 1,000 possible combinations. This limited the manufacturer ‘s ability to offer big jackpots since even the rarest event had a likelihood of 0.1 %. The maximum theoretical payout, assuming 100 % return to player would be 1000 times the stake, but that would leave no room for other pays, making the car very high risk, and besides quite bore. Although the phone number of symbols finally increased to about 22, allowing 10,648 combinations, [ 20 ] this still restrict jackpot sizes equally well as the act of possible outcomes. In the 1980s, however, slot car manufacturers incorporated electronics into their products and programmed them to weight finical symbols. Thus the odds of losing symbols appearing on the payline became disproportionate to their actual frequency on the forcible virginia reel. A symbol would only appear once on the reel displayed to the player, but could, in fact, occupy several stops on the multiple reel. In 1984, Inge Telnaes received a apparent for a device titled, “ electronic Gaming Device Utilizing a Random Number Generator for Selecting the Reel Stop Positions ” ( US Patent 4448419 ), [ 21 ] which states : “ It is crucial to make a machine that is perceived to present greater chances of return than it actually has within the legal limitations that games of gamble must operate. ” [ 22 ] The patent was former bought by International Game Technology and has since expired. A virtual bobbin that has 256 virtual stops per reel would allow up to 2563 = 16,777,216 final positions. The manufacturer could choose to offer a $ 1 million pot on a $ 1 bet, confident that it will only happen, over the long term, once every 16.8 million plays .

computerization [edit ]

With microprocessors now omnipresent, the computers inside advanced slot machines allow manufacturers to assign a different probability to every symbol on every reel. To the player, it might appear that a winning symbol was “ so close up ”, whereas in fact the probability is much lower. In the 1980s in the U.K., machines embodying microprocessors became park. These used a number of features to ensure the payout was controlled within the limits of the gambling legislation. As a coin was inserted into the car, it could go either immediately into the cashbox for the benefit of the owner or into a channel that formed the payout reservoir, with the microprocessor monitoring the number of coins in this duct. The barrel themselves were driven by stepper motors, controlled by the processor and with proximity sensors monitoring the position of the drums. A “ look-up board ” within the software allows the processor to know what symbols were being displayed on the drums to the gambler. This allowed the system to control the degree of payout by stopping the drums at positions it had determined. If the payout channel had filled up, the payout became more generous ; if closely empty, the payout became less so ( frankincense giving good control of the odds ) .

Video slot machines [edit ]

Video slot machines do not use mechanical reels, but manipulation graphic reels on a cybernate display. As there are no mechanical constraints on the design of television slot machines, games much use at least five reels, and may besides use non-standard layouts. This greatly expands the number of possibilities : a machine can have 50 or more symbols on a stagger, giving odds american samoa high as 300 million to 1 against – enough for even the largest jackpot. As there are so many combinations possible with five reels, manufacturers do not need to weight the payout symbols ( although some may still do so ). alternatively, higher paying symbols will typically appear merely once or twice on each reel, while more common symbols earning a more frequent payout will appear many times. Video slot machines normally make more across-the-board manipulation of multimedia, and can feature more elaborate minigames as bonuses. Modern cabinets typically use flat-panel displays, but cabinets using larger curved screens ( which can provide a more immersive experience for the player ) are not rare. [ 23 ] Video slot machines typically encourage the player to play multiple “ lines ” : rather than plainly taking the middle of the three symbols displayed on each reel, a line could go from top leave to the bottom mighty or any early form specified by the manufacturer. As each symbol is equally likely, there is no difficulty for the manufacturer in allowing the player to take as many of the possible lines on propose as hope – the long-run return to the player will be the same. The dispute for the actor is that the more lines they play, the more likely they are to get paid on a given whirl ( because they are betting more ). To avoid seem as if the actor ‘s money is simply ebbing away ( whereas a payout of 100 credits on a single-line machine would be 100 bets and the player would feel they had made a substantial gain, on a 20-line car, it would entirely be five bets and not seem as significant ), manufacturers normally offer bonus games, which can return many times their bet. The actor is encouraged to keep play to reach the bonus : even if they are losing, the bonus game could allow them to win back their losses .

Random number generators [edit ]

All modern machines are designed using pseudorandom number generators ( “ PRNGs ” ), which are constantly generating a sequence of simulate random numbers, at a rate of hundreds or possibly thousands per second. arsenic soon as the “ Play ” button is pressed, the most holocene random issue is used to determine the result. This means that the resultant role varies depending on precisely when the game is played. A fraction of a second earlier or later and the resultant role would be different. It is crucial that the machine contains a high-quality RNG implementation. Because all PRNGs must finally repeat their numeral sequence [ 24 ] and, if the period is inadequate or the PRNG is otherwise flawed, an advanced player may be able to “ predict ” the future result. Having access to the PRNG code and seed values, Ronald Dale Harris, a early time slot machine programmer, discovered equations for specific gambling games like Keno that allowed him to predict what the adjacent set of selected numbers would be based on the previous games played. Most machines are designed to defeat this by generating numbers even when the machine is not being played so the player can not tell where in the succession they are, tied if they know how the machine was programmed .

Payout share [edit ]

Slot machines are typically programmed to pay out as winnings 0 % to 99 % of the money that is wagered by players. This is known as the “ theoretical payout percentage ” or RTP, “ return to player ”. The minimum theoretical payout share varies among jurisdictions and is typically established by law or regulation. For model, the minimal payout in Nevada is 75 %, in New Jersey 83 %, and in Mississippi 80 %. The winning patterns on slot machines – the amounts they pay and the frequencies of those payouts – are cautiously selected to yield a certain fraction of the money paid to the “ house ” ( the operator of the slot machine ) while returning the rest to the players during play. Suppose that a certain slot machine costs $ 1 per whirl and has a return key to player ( RTP ) of 95 %. It can be calculated that, over a sufficiently long menstruation such as 1,000,000 spins, the machine will return an average of $ 950,000 to its players, who have inserted $ 1,000,000 during that time. In this ( simplified ) case, the time slot machine is said to pay out 95 %. The operator keeps the remaining $ 50,000. Within some EGM development organizations this concept is referred to plainly as “ par ”. “ Par ” besides manifests itself to gamblers as promotional techniques : “ Our ‘Loose Slots ‘ have a 93 % payback ! play now ! “ [ citation needed ] A slot machine ‘s theoretical payout percentage is set at the factory when the software is written. Changing the payout percentage after a slot car has been placed on the gambling floor requires a physical swap of the software or firmware, which is normally stored on an EPROM but may be loaded onto non-volatile random access memory ( NVRAM ) or even stored on CD-ROM or DVD, depending on the capabilities of the machine and the applicable regulations. Based on stream technology, this is a time-consuming action and as such is done infrequently. [ citation needed ] In certain jurisdictions, such as New Jersey, the EPROM has a tamper-evident navy seal and can entirely be changed in the presence of Gaming Control Board officials. other jurisdictions, including Nevada, randomly audit time slot machines to ensure that they contain alone approved software. historically, many casinos, both on-line and offline, have been unwilling to publish individual crippled RTP figures, making it impossible for the player to know whether they are playing a “ loose ” or a “ rigorous ” bet on. Since the flex of the hundred, some information regarding these figures has started to come into the public world either through diverse casinos releasing them—primarily this applies to online casinos—or through studies by autonomous gambling authorities. [ citation needed ] The return to player is not the lone statistic that is of matter to. The probabilities of every payout on the pay postpone is besides critical. For example, consider a conjectural slot machine with a twelve unlike values on the pay postpone. however, the probabilities of getting all the payouts are zero except the largest one. If the payout is 4,000 times the input sum, and it happens every 4,000 times on average, the return to player is precisely 100 %, but the game would be dull to play. besides, most people would not win anything, and having entries on the paytable that have a return of zero would be deceptive. As these person probabilities are closely guard secrets, it is possible that the advertise machines with high reelect to musician merely increase the probabilities of these jackpots. The casino could legally place machines of a similar manner payout and advertise that some machines have 100 % render to player. The total advantage is that these large jackpots increase the agitation of the other players.

The table of probabilities for a specific machine is called the Probability and Accounting Report or PAR sheet, besides PARS normally understood as Paytable and Reel Strips. mathematician Michael Shackleford revealed the PARS for one commercial slot machine, an original International Gaming Technology Red White and Blue machine. This game, in its original shape, is disused, so these specific probabilities do not apply. He only published the odds after a winnow of his transport him some data provided on a slot car that was posted on a machine in the Netherlands. The psychology of the machine design is promptly revealed. There are 13 possible payouts ranging from 1:1 to 2,400:1. The 1:1 payout comes every 8 plays. The 5:1 payout comes every 33 plays, whereas the 2:1 payout comes every 600 plays. Most players assume the likelihood increases proportionate to the payout. The one mid-size payout that is designed to give the player a bang is the 80:1 payout. It is programmed to occur an average of once every 219 plays. The 80:1 payout is high enough to create agitation, but not high adequate that it makes it likely that the player will take their winnings and abandon the game. More than likely the actor began the game with at least 80 times his stake ( for example there are 80 quarters in $ 20 ). In contrast the 150:1 payout occurs only on average of once every 6,241 plays. The highest payout of 2,400:1 occurs merely on average of once every 643 = 262,144 plays since the machine has 64 virtual stops. The player who continues to feed the machine is probably to have several mid-size payouts, but improbable to have a big payout. He quits after he is bored or has exhausted his bankroll. [ citation needed ] Despite their confidentiality, occasionally a PAR sheet is posted on a web site. They have limited value to the musician, because normally a machine will have 8 to 12 different possible programs with varying payouts. In accession, flimsy variations of each machine ( for example, with double jackpots or five times play ) are always being developed. The casino operator can choose which EPROM chip to install in any particular car to select the payout desired. The result is that there is not very such a thing as a senior high school payback type of machine, since every machine potentially has multiple settings. From October 2001 to February 2002, columnist Michael Shackleford obtained PAR sheets for five different nickel machines ; four IGT games Austin Powers, Fortune Cookie, Leopard Spots and Wheel of Fortune and one crippled manufactured by WMS ; Reel ’em In. Without revealing the proprietorship information, he developed a plan that would allow him to determine with normally less than a twelve plays on each car which EPROM chip was installed. then he did a sketch of over 400 machines in 70 different casinos in Las Vegas. He averaged the data, and assigned an modal vengeance share to the machines in each casino. The vector sum number was widely publicized for selling purposes ( particularly by the Palms casino which had the top rate ). [ citation needed ] One argue that the slot machine is then profitable to a casino is that the musician must play the high house edge and high payout wagers along with the low house edge and low payout wagers. In a more traditional bet game like craps, the player knows that certain wagers have about a 50/50 gamble of winning or miss, but they only pay a limited multiple of the original bet ( normally no higher than three times ). other bets have a higher house border, but the player is rewarded with a bigger gain ( up to thirty times in craps ). The actor can choose what kind of stake he wants to make. A slot machine does not afford such an opportunity. theoretically, the hustler could make these probabilities available, or allow the player to choose which one so that the player is spare to make a choice. however, no hustler has ever enacted this strategy. Different machines have different maximal payouts, but without knowing the odds of getting the pot, there is no rational way to differentiate. In many markets where central monitoring and master systems are used to link machines for auditing and security purposes, normally in wide-eyed area networks of multiple venues and thousands of machines, player recurrence must normally be changed from a central calculator preferably than at each machine. A scope of percentages is set in the game software and selected remotely. In 2006, the Nevada Gaming Commission began working with Las Vegas casinos on technology that would allow the casino ‘s management to change the game, the odds, and the payouts remotely. The switch can not be done instantaneously, but lone after the selected machine has been idle for at least four minutes. After the change is made, the machine must be locked to new players for four minutes and display an on-screen message informing potential players that a change is being made. [ 25 ]

Linked machines [edit ]

Some varieties of slot machines can be linked together in a setup sometimes known as a “ community ” game. The most basic form of this setup involves liberal jackpots that are shared between the bank of machines, but may include multiplayer bonuses and other features. [ 26 ] In some cases multiple machines are linked across multiple casinos. In these cases, the machines may be owned by the manufacturer, who is creditworthy for paying the pot. The casino lease the machines rather than owning them outright. Casinos in New Jersey, Nevada, and South Dakota now offer multi-state progressive jackpots, which now offer bigger jackpot pools. [ 27 ] [ 28 ]

fraud [edit ]

mechanical slot machines and their coin acceptors were sometimes susceptible to cheating devices and early scams. One historical example involved spinning a coin with a light length of plastic electrify. The slant and size of the coin would be accepted by the machine and credits would be granted. however, the spin created by the plastic telegram would cause the mint to exit through the refuse parachute into the payout tray. This especial victimize has become disused due to improvements in newer slot machines. Another disused method acting of defeating slot machines was to use a easy source to confuse the ocular detector used to count coins during payout. [ 29 ] modern slot machines are controlled by EPROM computer chips and, in bombastic casinos, coin acceptors have become disused in favor of circular acceptors. These machines and their bill acceptors are designed with progress anti-cheating and anti-counterfeiting measures and are difficult to defraud. early computerize slot machines were sometimes defrauded through the use of cheating devices, such as the “ slider ”, “ putter hand ”, “ lightwand ” and “ the tongue ”. Many of these honest-to-god adulterous devices were made by the late Tommy Glenn Carmichael, a slot machine fraudster who reportedly stole over $ 5 million. [ 30 ] In the modern day, computerize slot machines are fully deterministic and frankincense outcomes can be sometimes successfully predicted. [ 31 ]

Skill stops [edit ]

Skill stop buttons predated the Bally electromechanical slot machines of the 1960s and 1970s. They appeared on mechanical slot machines manufactured by Mills Novelty Co. vitamin a early as the mid 1920s. These machines had modified reel-stop arms, which allowed them to be released from the clock bar, earlier than in a normal play, merely by pressing the buttons on the front of the machine, located between each reel. “ Skill stop ” buttons were added to some slot machines by Zacharias Anthony in the early 1970s. These enabled the musician to stop each virginia reel, allowing a degree of “ skill ” so as to satisfy the New Jersey gaming laws of the day which required that players were able to control the game in some way. The master conversion was applied to approximately 50 late-model Bally time slot machines. Because the typical machine stopped the reels mechanically in less than 10 seconds, weights were added to the mechanical timers to prolong the automatic stop of the reels. By the time the New Jersey Alcoholic Beverages Commission ( ABC ) had approved the conversion for use in New Jersey arcades, the son was away and every early distributor began adding skill stops. The machines were a huge reach on the Jersey Shore and the remaining unconverted Bally machines were destroyed as they had become instantaneously disused. [ citation needed ]

legislation [edit ]

United States [edit ]

In the United States, the public and private handiness of slot machines is highly regulated by state governments. many states have established gaming control boards to regulate the possession and manipulation of time slot machines and other form of bet on. Nevada is the only state that has no significant restrictions against slot machines both for public and secret use. In New Jersey, slot machines are only allowed in hotel casinos operated in Atlantic City. several states ( Indiana, Louisiana and Missouri ) allow slot machines ( american samoa well as any casino-style gambling ) only on accredited riverboats or permanently anchored barges. Since Hurricane Katrina, Mississippi has removed the necessity that casinos on the Gulf Coast engage on barges and now allows them on estate along the shoreline. Delaware allows slot machines at three knight tracks ; they are regulated by the state lottery mission. In Wisconsin, bars and taverns are allowed to have up to five machines. These machines normally allow a player to either take a payout, or gamble it on a double-or-nothing “ side game ”. The territory of Puerto Rico places significant restrictions on slot machine ownership, but the law is wide flouted and slot machines are common in bars and coffeeshops. [ 32 ] In regards to tribal casinos located on native american reservations, time slot machines played against the house and operating independently from a centralized computer organization are classified as “ Class III ” gambling by the indian Gaming Regulatory Act ( IGRA ), and sometimes promoted as “ Vegas-style ” slot machines. [ 33 ] In order to offer Class III bet on, tribes must enter into a covenant ( agreement ) with the state that is approved by the Department of the Interior, which may contain restrictions on the types and measure of such games. As a workaround, some casinos may operate slot machines as “ Class II ” games—a class that includes games where players play entirely against at least one other adversary and not the house, such as lotto or any relate games ( such as pull-tabs ). In these cases, the reels are an entertainment display with a pre-determined result based on a centralized game played against other players. Under the IGRA, Class II games are regulated by person tribes and the National Indian Gaming Commission, and do not require any extra approval if the express already permits tribal gambling. [ 34 ] [ 35 ] Some diachronic race wagering terminals operate in a like manner, with the machines using slots as an entertainment display for outcomes paid using the parimutuel bet system, based on results of randomly-selected, previously-held cavalry races ( with the musician able to view selected details about the race and adjust their picks before playing the credit, or differently use an auto-bet organization ). [ 36 ]

private ownership [edit ]

Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, Kentucky, Maine, Minnesota, Nevada, Ohio, Rhode Island, Texas, Utah, Virginia, and West Virginia home no restrictions on private ownership of slot machines. conversely, in Connecticut, Hawaii, Nebraska, South Carolina, and Tennessee, private ownership of any slot machine is completely prohibited. The remaining states allow slot machines of a certain historic period ( typically 25–30 years ) or slot machines manufactured before a specific date .

Canada [edit ]

The Government of Canada has minimal involvement in gambling beyond the canadian Criminal Code. In effect, the term “ lottery scheme ” used in the code means slot machines, lotto and postpone games normally associated with a casino. These fall under the jurisdiction of the state or territory without reference to the federal government ; in drill, all canadian provinces operate bet on boards that oversee lotteries, casinos and video lottery terminals under their jurisdiction. OLG piloted a classification organization for slot machines at the Grand River Raceway developed by University of Waterloo professor Kevin Harrigan, as part of its PlaySmart inaugural for responsible gamble. Inspired by nutrition labels on foods, they displayed metrics such as volatility and frequency of payouts. [ 37 ] OLG has besides deployed electronic gaming machines with pre-determined outcomes based on a lotto or pull-tab game, initially branded as “ TapTix ”, which visually resemble slot machines. [ 38 ]

Australia [edit ]

In Australia “ Poker Machines ” or “ pokies ” [ 39 ] are formally termed “ gambling machines ”. In Australia, gaming machines are a topic for state governments, so laws vary between states. Gaming machines are found in casinos ( approximately one in each major city ), public house and clubs in some states ( normally sports, social, or RSL clubs ). The first australian country to legalize this vogue of gambling was New South Wales, when in 1956 they were made legal in all record clubs in the state of matter. There are suggestions that the proliferation of poker machines has led to increased levels of trouble gamble ; however, the accurate nature of this link is still open to research. [ 40 ] In 1999 the Australian Productivity Commission reported that closely half Australia ‘s gaming machines were in New South Wales. At the time, 21 % of all the gambling machines in the global were operating in Australia and, on a per caput footing, Australia had approximately five times as many gaming machines as the United States. Australia ranks 8th in total number of gaming machines after Japan, U.S.A., Italy, U.K., Spain and Germany. This primarily is because gaming machines have been legal in the state of New South Wales since 1956 ; over clock time, the number of machines has grown to 97,103 ( at December 2010, including the australian Capital Territory ). By way of comparison, the U.S. State of Nevada, which legalised gaming including time slot several decades before N.S.W., had 190,135 slots operating. [ 41 ] gross from gaming machines in public house and cabaret accounts for more than one-half of the $ 4 billion in gambling tax income collected by state of matter governments in fiscal year 2002–03. [ citation needed ] In Queensland, gaming machines in public house and clubs must provide a rejoinder rate of 85 %, while machines located in casinos must provide a return rate of 90 %. [ citation needed ] Most early states have like provisions. In Victoria, gaming machines must provide a minimum refund rate of 87 % ( including pot contribution ), including machines in Crown Casino. As of December 1, 2007, Victoria banned gaming machines that accepted $ 100 notes ; all bet on machines made since 2003 comply with this rule. This new police besides banned machines with an automatic dally option. One exception exists in Crown Casino for any player with a VIP loyalty card : they can still insert $ 100 notes and use an autoplay sport ( whereby the machine will automatically play until citation is exhausted or the actor intervenes ). All gaming machines in Victoria have an information sieve accessible to the exploiter by pressing the “ iodine key ” button, showing the plot rules, paytable, revert to player percentage, and the top and bottomland five combinations with their odds. These combinations are stated to be played on a minimal bet ( normally 1 accredit per line, with 1 line or reel played, although some newer machines do not have an option to play 1 telephone line ; some machines may only allow utmost lines to be played ), excluding feature wins. western Australia has the most restrictive regulations on electronic gaming machines in general, with the Crown Perth casino haunt being the only venue allowed to operate them, [ 42 ] and banning slot machines with spinning reels wholly. This policy had an across-the-board political history, reaffirmed by the 1974 Royal Commission into Gambling : [ 43 ]

Poker car play is a mindless, insistent and insidious form of gambling which has many undesirable features. It requires no think, no skill or social contact. The odds are never about winning. Watching people playing the machines over hanker periods of time, the impressionist evidence at least is that they are addictive to many people. Historically poker machines have been banned from western Australia and we consider that, in the public interest, they should stay banned .

While western australian bet on machines are like to the other states ‘, they do not have spinning reels. consequently, different animations are used in invest of the spin reels in arrange to display each game consequence. Nick Xenophon was elected on an independent No Pokies ticket in the South Australian Legislative Council at the 1997 South australian state election on 2.9 percentage, re-elected at the 2006 election on 20.5 percentage, and elected to the australian Senate at the 2007 union election on 14.8 percentage. independent campaigner Andrew Wilkie, an anti-pokies campaigner, was elected to the australian House of Representatives seat of Denison at the 2010 federal election. Wilkie was one of four crossbenchers who supported the Gillard Labor politics following the hang fantan result. Wilkie immediately began forging ties with Xenophon vitamin a soon as it was apparent that he was elected. In exchange for Wilkie ‘s support, the Labor government are attempting to implement precommitment engineering for high-bet/high-intensity poker machines, against opposition from the Tony Abbott Coalition and Clubs Australia. During the COVID-19 pandemic of 2020, every establishment in the country that facilitated poker machines was shut down, in an attempt to curb the banquet of the virus, bringing Australia ‘s custom of poker machines efficaciously to zero. [ 44 ]

soviet russia [edit ]

In Russia, “ slot clubs ” appeared quite late, entirely in 1992. Before 1992, slot machines were only in casinos and small shops, but late slot clubs began appearing all over the country. The most popular and numerous were “ vulcan 777 ” and “ Taj Mahal ”. Since 2009 when gambling establishments were banned, about all slot clubs disappeared and are found entirely in a particularly authorized gamble zones .

United Kingdom [edit ]

Row of old fruit machines in Teignmouth Pier, Devon Slot machines are covered by the Gambling Act 2005, which superseded the Gaming Act 1968. [ 45 ] Slot machines in the U.K. are categorised by definitions produced by the Gambling Commission as separate of the Gambling Act of 2005 .

Machine category Maximum stake (from January 2014) Maximum prize (from January 2014)
A Unlimited Unlimited
B1 £5 £10,000 or if the game has a progressive jackpot that can be £20,000
B2 £100 (in multiples of £10) £500
B3 £2 £500
B3A £1 £500
B4 £2 £400
C £1 £100 or £200 If jackpot is repeated
D (various) 10p to £8 £8 cash or £50 non-cash

Casinos built under the provisions of the 1968 Act are allowed to firm either up to twenty machines of categories B–D or any number of C–D machines. As defined by the 2005 Act, big casinos can have a utmost of one hundred and fifty dollar bill machines in any combination of categories B–D ( subject to a machine-to-table proportion of 5:1 ) ; minor casinos can have a maximal of eighty machines in any combination of categories B–D ( subject to a machine-to-table proportion of 2:1 ) .

category A [edit ]

category A games were defined in readiness for the planned “ Super Casinos “. Despite a drawn-out bid process with Manchester being chosen as the single planned location, the development was cancelled soon after Gordon Brown became Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. As a result, there are no lawful Category A games in the U.K .

class B [edit ]

class B games are divided into subcategories. The differences between B1, B3 and B4 games are chiefly the stake and prizes as defined in the above table. Category B2 games – Fixed odds betting terminals ( FOBTs ) – have quite different stake and pry rules : FOBTs are chiefly found in accredited dissipated shops, or bookmakers, normally in the form of electronic roulette. The games are based on a random number generator ; therefore each game ‘s probability of getting the jackpot is independent of any early game : probabilities are all equal. If a pseudorandom count generator is used alternatively of a in truth random one, probabilities are not independent since each issue is determined at least in part by the one generated before it .

Category C [edit ]

Category C games are much referred to as fruit machines, one-armed bandits and AWP ( amusement with choice ). Fruit machines are normally found in public house, clubs, and arcades. Machines normally have three but can be found with four or five reels, each with 16–24 symbols printed around them. The reels are spin each dally, from which the appearance of particular combinations of symbols result in requital of their associated winnings by the machine ( or alternatively trigger of a subgame ). These games often have many extra features, trails and subgames with opportunities to win money ; normally more than can be won from good the payouts on the reel combinations. Fruit machines in the U.K. about universally have the following features, generally selected at random using a pseudorandom issue generator :

  • A player (known in the industry as a punter) may be given the opportunity to hold one or more reels before spinning, meaning they will not be spun but instead retain their displayed symbols yet otherwise count normally for that play. This can sometimes increase the chance of winning, especially if two or more reels are held.
  • A player may also be given a number of nudges following a spin (or, in some machines, as a result in a subgame). A nudge is a step rotation of a reel chosen by the player (the machine may not allow all reels to be nudged for a particular play).
  • Cheats can also be made available on the internet or through emailed newsletters to subscribers. These cheats give the player the impression of an advantage, whereas in reality the payout percentage remains exactly the same. The most widely used cheat is known as hold after a nudge and increases the chance that the player will win following an unsuccessful nudge. Machines from the early 1990s did not advertise the concept of hold after a nudge when this feature was first introduced, it became so well known amongst players and widespread amongst new machine releases that it is now well-advertised on the machine during play. This is characterized by messages on the display such as DON’T HOLD ANY or LET ‘EM SPIN and is a designed feature of the machine, not a cheat at all. Holding the same pair three times on three consecutive spins also gives a guaranteed win on most machines that offer holds.

It is known for machines to pay out multiple jackpots, one after the early ( this is known as a streak or rave ) but each pot requires a new crippled to be played therefore as not to violate the police about the maximum payout on a single shimmer. typically this involves the musician only pressing the Start button for which a single credit is taken, regardless of whether this causes the reels to spin or not. The minimal payout percentage is 70 %, with pubs frequently setting the payout at around 78 % .

Japan [edit ]

japanese slot machines, known as pachisuro ( パチスロ ) or pachislot from the words “ pachinko ” and “ slot machine ”, are a descendant of the traditional japanese pachinko crippled. Slot machines are a fairly modern phenomenon and they can be found by and large in pachinko parlors and the adult sections of amusement arcades, known as game centers. The machines are regulated with integrate circuits, and have six unlike levels changing the odds of a 777. The levels provide a pugnacious result of between 90 % to 160 % ( 200 % for skilled players ). japanese slot machines are “ beatable ”. Parlor operators naturally set most machines to merely collect money, but intentionally place a few paying machines on the floor thus that there will be at least person winning, [ citation needed ] encouraging players on the losing machines to keep gamble, using the psychology of the gambler ‘s fallacy. Despite the many varieties of pachislot machines, there are sealed rules and regulations put forward by the Security Electronics and Communication Technology Association ( 保安電子通信技術協会 ), an affiliate of the National Police Agency. For example, there must be three reels. All reels must be accompanied by buttons which allow players to manually stop them, reels may not spin faster than 80 RPM, and reels must stop within 0.19 seconds of a button press. In commit, this means that machines can not let reels slip more than 4 symbols. early rules include a 15 coin payout detonator, a 50 credit detonator on machines, a 3 mint maximum bet, and other such regulations. [ citation needed ] Although a 15 coin payout may seem quite humble, regulations allow “ big bonus ” ( c. 400–711 coins ) and “ even Bonus ” modes ( c. 110 coins ) where these 15 coin payouts occur closely endlessly until the bonus modality is finished. While the machine is in bonus modality, the player is entertained with extra winning scenes on the LCD display, and energizing music is heard, payout after payout. Three other unique features of Pachisuro machines are “ stock ”, “ renchan ”, and tenjō ( 天井 ). On many machines, when enough money to afford a bonus is taken in, the bonus is not immediately awarded. typically the game merely stops making the reels slip off the bonus symbols for a few games. If the player fails to hit the bonus during these “ understudy games ”, it is added to the “ stock ” for late collection. many current games, after finishing a bonus round off, set the probability to release extra stock ( gained from earlier players failing to get a bonus last time the car stopped making the reels slip for a bit ) very high for the foremost few games. As a result, a lucky actor may get to play respective bonus rounds in a quarrel ( a “ renchan ” ), making payouts of 5,000 or even 10,000 coins potential. The bait of “ stock ” waiting in the machine, and the possibility of “ renchan ” tease the gambler to keep feeding the machine. To tease them far, there is a tenjō ( ceiling ), a maximum restrict on the number of games between “ neckcloth ” release. For exemplar, if the tenjō is 1,500, and the number of games played since the last bonus is 1,490, the player is guaranteed to release a bonus within good 10 games. Because of the “ lineage ”, “ renchan ”, and tenjō systems, it is possible to make money by simply playing machines on which person has just lost a huge sum of money. This is called being a “ hyena “. They are easily to recognize, roaming the aisles for a “ kamo ” ( “ sucker “ in English ) to leave his machine. In short circuit, the regulations allowing “ stock ”, “ renchan ”, and tenjō transformed the pachisuro from a low-stakes form of entertainment just a few years back to hard-core gambling. many people may be gambling more than they can afford, and the big payouts besides lure distasteful “ hyena ” types into the gamble halls. To address these social issues, a modern rule ( Version 5.0 ) was adopted in 2006 which caps the utmost sum of “ stock ” a machine can hold to around 2,000–3,000 coins ‘ worth of bonus games. furthermore, all pachisuro machines must be re-evaluated for regulation complaisance every three years. translation 4.0 came out in 2004, so that means all those machines with the up to 10,000 coin payouts will be removed from service by 2007 .

Jackpot disputes [edit ]

electronic slot machines can malfunction. When the expose total is smaller than the one it is supposed to be, the erroneousness normally goes unnoticed. When it happens the other direction, disputes are probable. [ 46 ] Below are some noteworthy arguments caused by the owners of the machines saying that the display amounts were far larger than the ones patrons should get .

United States of America [edit ]

Two such cases occurred in casinos in Colorado in 2010, where software errors led to argue jackpots of $ 11 million and $ 42 million. [ citation needed ] analysis of machine records by the state Gaming Commission revealed faults, with the true jackpot being substantially smaller. [ 47 ] State gaming laws did not require a casino to honour payouts in that case .

Vietnam [edit ]

On October 25, 2009, while a vietnamese american man, Ly Sam, was playing a slot car in the Palazzo Club at the Sheraton Saigon Hotel in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, it displayed that he had hit a pot of US $ 55,542,296.73. [ 48 ] The casino refused to pay, saying it was a machine error, Mr Ly sued the casino. [ 49 ] On January 7, 2013, the District 1 People ‘s Court in Ho Chi Minh City decided that the casino had to pay the amount Mr Ly claimed in full, not trusting the error report from an inspection company hired by the casino. [ 50 ] Both sides appealed thereafter, and Mr Ly asked for sake while the casino refused to pay him. [ 51 ] In January, 2014, the newsworthiness reported that the lawsuit had been settled out of woo, and Mr Ly had received an undisclosed sum. [ 52 ]

Problem gambling and slot machines [edit ]

Mills Novelty Co. Horse Head Bonus antique slot machine Natasha Dow Schüll, associate professor in New York University ‘s Department of Media, Culture and Communication, uses the term “ machine zone ” to describe the express of concentration that users of slot machines experience when gamble, where they lose a sense of time, space, bodily awareness, and monetary value. [ 53 ] Mike Dixon, PhD, professor of psychology at the University of Waterloo, [ 54 ] studies the relationship between slot players and machines. In one of Dixon ‘s studies, players were observed experiencing heightened foreplay from the sensory stimulation coming from the machines. They “ sought to show that these ‘losses disguised as wins ‘ ( LDWs ) would be american samoa arousing as wins, and more arousing than regular losses. ” [ 55 ] Psychologists Robert Breen and Marc Zimmerman [ 56 ] [ 57 ] found that players of television time slot machines reach a debilitating level of affair with gambling three times adenine quickly as those who play traditional casino games, even if they have engaged in other forms of gambling without problems. Eye-tracking inquiry in local bookkeepers ‘ offices in the UK suggested that, in slot games, the reels dominated players ‘ ocular attention, and that trouble gamblers looked more frequently at amount-won messages than did those without gambling problems. [ 58 ]

The 2011 60 Minutes report “ Slot Machines : The Big Gamble ” [ 59 ] focused on the link between slot machines and gambling addiction .

See besides [edit ]

References [edit ]

bibliography [edit ]

  • Brisman, Andrew. The American Mensa Guide to Casino Gambling: Winning Ways (Stirling, 1999) ISBN 0-8069-4837-X
  • Grochowski, John. The Slot Machine Answer Book: How They Work, How They’ve Changed, and How to Overcome the House Advantage (Bonus Books, 2005) ISBN 1-56625-235-0
  • Legato, Frank. How to Win Millions Playing Slot Machines! …Or Lose Trying (Bonus Books, 2004) ISBN 1-56625-216-4
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