“ Westerns ” redirects here. For other uses, see westerly ( disambiguation ) “ western movies ” redirects here. For The Olympics song, see Western Movies
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Western is a genre of fiction set primarily in the latter one-half of the 19th and early twentieth hundred in the Western United States, which is styled the “ Old West ”. Its stories normally center on the life of a mobile cowboy or gunfighter [ 1 ] who rides a horse and is armed with a revolving door and/or a plunder. Cowboys and gunslingers typically wear broad-brimmed and high-crowned Stetson hats, neckerchief bandanna, vests, spurs, cowboy boots, and buckskins ( alternatively dusters ). Recurring characters include the aforesaid cowboys, Indians, Spaniards, Mexicans, bandits, lawmen, prostitutes, amplitude hunters, outlaws, gamblers, soldiers ( specially mounted cavalry ), and settlers ( farmers, ranchers, and town ). The atmosphere is normally punctuated with a western music score, including american tribe music and spanish / Mexican folk music such as country, native american music, New Mexico music, and rancheras. Westerns much stress the harshness of the wilderness and frequently set the natural process in an arid, lay waste to landscape of deserts and mountains. Often, the huge landscape plays an significant function, presenting a “ fabulous imagination of the plains and deserts of the american West. ” [ 2 ] specific settings include ranches, minor frontier towns, saloons, railways, wilderness, and isolated military forts of the Wild West. Many Westerns use a stock plot of depicting a crime, then showing the pursuit of the wrongdoer, ending in revenge and vengeance, which is much dispensed through a gunfight or quick-draw duel. [ 3 ] [ 4 ] [ 5 ] The Western has been recognized as the most popular Hollywood film genre from the 1930s through the 1960s. John Ford ‘s landmark Western movie Stagecoach ( 1939 ) became one of the biggest hits of that class, and made John Wayne a mainstream movie star. The popularity of Westerns continued to grow in the 1940s, with the release of films such as The Ox-Bow Incident ( 1943 ), My Darling Clementine ( 1946 ), Fort Apache ( 1948 ), and Red River ( 1948 ). The 1950s have been described as the golden age of the Western, an era which saw the dismissal of films such as Broken Arrow ( 1950 ), High Noon ( 1952 ), Shane ( 1953 ), Wichita ( 1955 ), The Searchers ( 1956 ), and Rio Bravo ( 1959 ). celebrated western films released in the 1960s include Cat Ballou ( 1965 ), The Good, the Bad and the Ugly ( 1966 ), The Wild Bunch, and Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid ( both 1969 ). [ 6 ] classic Westerns such as these have been the inspiration for assorted films about Western-type characters in contemporaneous settings, such as Junior Bonner ( 1972 ), set in the 1970s, and The Three Burials of Melquiades Estrada ( 2005 ), set in the twenty-first hundred .
Themes [edit ]
The Lone Ranger, a celebrated heroic lawman, was with a cavalry of six Texas Rangers until they all, except for him, were killed. He preferred to remain anonymous, so he resigned and built a sixth dangerous that purportedly held his torso. He fights on as a lawman, wearing a mask, for “ Outlaws live in a world of concern. fear of the mysterious. ” The western writing style sometimes portrays the conquest of the wilderness and the mastery of nature in the mention of civilization or the confiscation of the territorial rights of the original, native American, inhabitants of the frontier. [ 1 ] The western depicts a society organized around codes of honor and personal, direct or private justice– ” frontier judge ” –dispensed by gunfights. These honor codes are frequently played out through depictions of feud or individuals seeking personal retaliation or retribution against person who has wronged them ( for example, True Grit has retaliation and vengeance as its chief themes ). This western word picture of personal justice contrasts sharply with justice systems organized around rationalistic, abstract police that exist in cities, in which social order is maintained predominantly through relatively impersonal institutions such as courtrooms. The popular percept of the Western is a history that centers on the animation of a seminomadic spider, normally a cowboy or a gunfighter. [ 1 ] A confrontation or duel at high noon featuring two or more gunfighters is a stereotyped scene in the democratic concept of Westerns. In some ways, such protagonists may be considered the literary descendants of the knights-errant, who stood at the center of earlier extensive genres such as the arthurian romances. [ 1 ] Like the cowboy or gunfighter of the Western, the knight-errant of the earlier european tales and poetry was wandering from topographic point to place on his sawhorse, fighting villains of respective kinds, and bounce to no fixed social structures, but only to his own natural code of honor. Like knights-errant, the heroes of Westerns frequently rescue damsels in distress. similarly, the wandering protagonists of Westerns share many characteristics with the ronin in modern japanese culture. The Western typically takes these elements and uses them to tell simple morality tales, although some noteworthy examples ( e.g. the late Westerns of John Ford or Clint Eastwood ‘s Unforgiven, about an old chartered killer whale ) are more morally equivocal. Westerns frequently stress the severity and isolation of the wilderness, and frequently set the action in an arid, lay waste to landscape. westerly films generally have specific settings, such as detached ranches, native american villages, or modest frontier towns with a barroom. Oftentimes, these settings appear deserted and without much structure. apart from the wilderness, the barroom normally emphasizes that this is the barbarian West ; it is the space to go for music ( raucous piano play ), women ( often prostitutes ), gambling ( draw poker or five-card stud ), drinking ( beer, whiskey, or tequila if set in Mexico ), brawling, and shooting. In some Westerns, where culture has arrived, the township has a church, a general storehouse, a bank, and a school ; in others, where frontier rules even hold swing, it is, as Sergio Leone said, “ where life has no rate ” .
Plots [edit ]
common plots include :
- The construction of a railroad or a telegraph line on the wild frontier
- Ranchers protecting their family ranch from rustlers or large landowners, or who build a ranch empire
- Conflict over resources such as water or minerals
- Revenge stories, which hinge on the chase and pursuit by someone who has been wronged
- Stories about cavalry fighting Native Americans
- Outlaw gang plots
- Stories about a lawman or bounty hunter tracking down his quarry
film [edit ]
Characteristics [edit ]
The American Film Institute defines westerly films as those “ set in the american West that [ incarnate ] the spirit, the struggle, and the demise of the new frontier. ” [ 7 ] The term “ western ”, used to describe a narrative film writing style, appears to have originated with a July 1912 article in Motion Picture World magazine. [ 8 ] Most of the characteristics of western films were separate of 19th-century popular western fiction, and were firm in place before film became a democratic artwork form. [ 9 ] western films normally feature protagonists such as cowboys, gunslingers, and amplitude hunters, who are much depicted as seminomadic wanderers who wear Stetson hats, bandannas, spurs, and buckskins, use revolvers or rifles as casual tools of survival and as a means to settle disputes using “ frontier justice ”. Protagonists ride between cold towns and cattle ranches on their trusty steeds. [ citation needed ] western films were enormously popular in the silent-film era ( 1894–1927 ). With the advent of sound in 1927–28, the major Hollywood studios quickly abandoned Westerns, [ 10 ] leaving the writing style to smaller studios and producers. These smaller organizations churned out countless low-budget features and serials in the 1930s. By the late 1930s, the Western film was wide regarded as a “ pulp ” music genre in Hollywood, but its popularity was dramatically revived in 1939 by major studio productions such as Dodge City starring Errol Flynn, Jesse James with Tyrone Power, Union Pacific with Joel McCrea, Destry Rides Again featuring James Stewart and Marlene Dietrich, and specially John Ford ‘s landmark western adventure Stagecoach starring John Wayne, which became one of the biggest hits of the class. Released through United Artists, Stagecoach made John Wayne a mainstream screen star in the wake of a ten of headlining B Westerns. Wayne had been introduced to the riddle 10 years early as the leading man in film director Raoul Walsh ‘s spectacular widescreen The Big Trail, which failed at the box office in cattiness of being shot on localization across the american West, including the Grand Canyon, Yosemite, and the elephantine redwoods, due in depart to exhibitors ‘ inability to switch over to widescreen during the Great Depression. After the Westerns ‘ renewed commercial successes in the recently 1930s, their popularity continued to rise until its vertex in the 1950s, when the count of western films produced outnumbered all other genres combined. [ 11 ]
western films much describe conflicts with native Americans. While early Eurocentric Westerns frequently portray the “ Injuns ” as dishonest villains, the by and by and more culturally impersonal Westerns gave Native Americans a more sympathetic discussion. other recurring themes of Westerns include treks ( e.g. The Big Trail ) or parlous journeys ( e.g. Stagecoach ) or groups of bandits terrorizing small towns such as in The Magnificent Seven. early on Westerns were largely filmed in the studio, as in other early on Hollywood films, but when localization shooting became more common from the 1930s, producers of Westerns used desolate corners of Arizona, California, Colorado, Kansas, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas, Utah, or Wyoming. These settings gave filmmakers the ability to depict huge plains, looming mountains, and epic canyons. Productions were besides filmed on placement at movie ranches. [ citation needed ] much, the huge landscape becomes more than a vivid backdrop ; it becomes a fictional character in the film. After the early 1950s, respective widescreen formats such as Cinemascope ( 1953 ) and VistaVision used the extend width of the screen to display dramatic westerly landscapes. John Ford ‘s use of Monument Valley as an expressive landscape in his films from Stagecoach to Cheyenne Autumn ( 1965 ), “ present us with a mythic vision of the plains and deserts of the american West, embodied most memorably in Monument Valley, with its buttes and mesas that tower above the men on hogback, whether they be settlers, soldiers, or native Americans ”. [ 2 ]
Subgenres [edit ]
writer and screenwriter Frank Gruber identified seven basic plots for Westerns : [ 12 ] [ 13 ]
- Union Pacific story: The plot concerns construction of a railroad, a telegraph line, or some other type of modern technology or transportation. Wagon-train stories fall into this category.
- Ranch story: The plot concerns threats to the ranch from rustlers or large landowners attempting to force out the proper owners.
- Empire story: The plot involves building a ranch empire or an oil empire from scratch, a classic rags-to-riches plot.
- Revenge story: The plot often involves an elaborate chase and pursuit by a wronged individual, but it may also include elements of the classic mystery story.
- Cavalry and Indian story: The plot revolves around “taming” the wilderness for White settlers.
- Outlaw story: The outlaw gangs dominate the action.
- Marshal story: The lawman and his challenges drive the plot.
Gruber said that dear writers used negotiation and diagram development to develop these basic plots into credible stories. [ 13 ] other subgenres include :
In the 1960s and 1970s, the Western was reinvented with the revisionist Western. [ 14 ]
authoritative western [edit ]
The first know western narrative film is the british short Kidnapping by Indians, made by Mitchell and Kenyon in Blackburn, England, in 1899. [ 15 ] [ 16 ] The Great Train Robbery ( 1903, based on the earlier british film A Daring Daylight Burglary ), Edwin S. Porter ‘s film starring Broncho Billy Anderson, is much mistakenly cited as the foremost Western, though George N. Fenin and William K. Everson point out that the “ Edison caller had played with western material for several years anterior to The Great Train Robbery. “ however, they concur that Porter ‘s film “ set the pattern—of crime, pursuit, and retribution—for the western film as a genre. ” [ 17 ] The film ‘s popularity opened the door for Anderson to become the riddle ‘s inaugural cowboy star ; he made several hundred western film shorts. then popular was the writing style that he soon faced competition from Tom Mix and William S. Hart. [ 18 ] The Golden Age of the Western is epitomized by the work of several big directors including : [ 19 ]
Acid Western [edit ]
Film critic Jonathan Rosenbaum refers to a makeshift 1960s and 1970s music genre called the acid Western, [ 20 ] associated with Dennis Hopper, Jim McBride, and Rudy Wurlitzer, vitamin a well as films such as Monte Hellman ‘s The Shooting ( 1966 ), Alejandro Jodorowsky ‘s bizarre experimental movie El Topo (The Mole) ( 1970 ), [ 20 ] and Robert Downey Sr. ‘s Greaser’s Palace ( 1972 ). [ 20 ] The 1970 film El Topo is an allegorical cult Western and underground film about the eponymous character, a violent black-clad gunfighter, and his bay for nirvana. The film is filled with bizarre characters and occurrences, habit of maimed and gnome performers, and heavy doses of christian symbolism and Eastern philosophy. Some spaghetti Westerns besides crossed over into the acidic western writing style, such as Enzo G. Castellari ‘s mystic Keoma ( 1976 ), a western rework of Ingmar Bergman ‘s The Seventh Seal ( 1957 ). More recent acerb Westerns include Alex Cox ‘s Walker ( 1987 ) and Jim Jarmusch ‘s Dead Man ( 1995 ). Rosenbaum describes the acid Western as “ formulating a chill, savage frontier poetry to justify its hallucinate agenda ” ; ultimately, he says, the Acid Western expresses a counterculture sensibility to critique and replace capitalism with alternative forms of exchange. [ 21 ]
australian Western or Meat pie western [edit ]
The australian Western genre or meat pie western is set in Australia, particularly the australian Outback or the australian Bush. [ 22 ] The genre borrows from US traditions and frequently features autochthonal Australians in the function native Americans. The Tracker is an original in this human body of australian Western, with signature scenes of harsh abandon environments, and exploration of the themes of rough justice, exploitation of the Aboriginals, and the thirst for justice at all costs. Others in this category include Rangle River ( 1936 ), Kangaroo, The Kangaroo Kid ( 1950 ), The Sundowners ( 1960 ), Quigley Down Under, Ned Kelly ( 1970 ), The Man from Snowy River ( 1982 ), The Proposition, Lucky Country, and Sweet Country. [ 23 ] Mystery Road is an example of a modern australian Western, and Mad Max has inspired many fantast dystopian examples of the australian Western such as The Rover .
Blaxploitation Western [edit ]
many blaxploitation films, peculiarly ones involving Fred Williamson, have incorporated a western rig within them, with examples such as Soul Soldier ( 1970 ), Buck and the Preacher ( 1972 ), The Legend of Nigger Charley ( 1972 ), The Soul of Nigger Charley ( 1973 ), Thomasine & Bushrod ( 1974 ), Boss Nigger ( 1975 ), Adiós Amigo ( 1975 ), and Posse ( 1993 ) .
Charro, cabrito, or chili Westerns [edit ]
Charro Westerns, frequently featuring musical stars, arsenic well as natural process, have been a standard feature of Mexican film since the 1930s. In the 1930s and 1940s, these were typically film about horsemen in rural Mexican society, displaying a set of cultural concerns very different from the Hollywood metanarrative, but the overlap between “ charro ” movies and Westerns became more apparent in the 1950s, ’60s, and ’70s. Some examples are Ismael Rodríguez ‘s Los Hermanos del Hierro ( 1961 ), Jorge Fons ‘s Cinco Mil Dólares de Recompensa, and Arturo Ripstein ‘s Tiempo de morir. The most authoritative is Alberto Mariscal, bang-up author of El tunco Maclovio, Todo por nada, Los marcados, El juez de la soga, and La chamuscada. [ 24 ] [ 25 ]
Comedy Western [edit ]
This subgenre is echoic in style to mock, comment on, or trivialize the Western music genre ‘s established traits, subjects, auteurs ‘ styles, or some other prey by means of humorous, satirical, or ironic imitation or parody. A premier example of comedy Western includes The Paleface ( 1948 ), which makes a satirical campaign to “ send up Owen Wister ‘s fresh The Virginian and all the cliches of the western from the unafraid hero to the concluding gunfight on Main Street. ” The Paleface “ features a cowardly champion known as “ Painless ” Peter Potter ( Bob Hope ), an awkward dentist, who often entertains the notion that he is a crack sharpshooter and accomplished indian champion ”. [ 26 ]
contemporary western or neo-Western [edit ]
besides known as neo-Westerns, these films have contemporaneous U.S. settings, and use Old West themes and motifs ( a disaffected antihero, open plains and desert landscapes, and gunfights ). These films have been on the rise since the free of Joel and Ethan Coen ‘s No Country for Old Men ( 2007 ). [ citation needed ] For the most part, they hush take position in the american West and reveal the progression of the Old West mentality into the recently twentieth and early 21st centuries. This subgenre often features Old West-type characters struggling with displacement in a “ civilized ” world that rejects their outdated trade name of department of justice. Taylor Sheridan ‘s filmography can be used as a template to identify what being a neo-Western film means, [ 27 ] with three identifying themes. First is the miss of rules, with morals guided by the character ‘s or audience ‘s instincts of right and wrong quite than by administration. The second is characters searching for judge. The third theme, characters feeling compunction, connects the neo-Western film to the broader western genre, reinforcing a cosmopolitan theme that consequences come with actions. [ 27 ] Examples include Nicholas Ray ‘s The Lusty Men ( 1952 ) ; John Sturges ‘s Bad Day at Black Rock ( 1955 ) ; Lonely Are the Brave, screenplay by Dalton Trumbo ( 1962 ), Hud, starring Paul Newman ( 1963 ) ; the Oscar succeed Midnight Cowboy ( 1969 ) Don Siegel ‘s Dirty Harry ( 1971 ) ; Sam Peckinpah ‘s The Getaway ( 1972 ) ; Junior Bonner ( 1972 ) ; Bring Me the Head of Alfredo Garcia ( 1974 ) ; Hearts of the West starring Jeff Bridges ( 1975 ) ; John Carpenter ‘s Assault on Precinct 13 ( 1976 ) ; Alan J. Pakula ‘s Comes a Horseman ( 1978 ) ; J. W. Coop ( 1972 ), directed/co-produced/co-written by and starring Cliff Robertson ; Flashpoint ( 1984 ) ; Extreme Prejudice ( 1987 ) ; Robert Rodríguez ‘s El Mariachi ( 1992 ), Desperado ( 1995 ) and Once Upon a Time in Mexico ( 2003 ) ; John Sayles ‘s Lone Star ( 1996 ) ; The Way of the Gun ( 2000 ) ; Down in the Valley ( 2005 ) ; Quentin Tarantino ‘s Kill Bill: Volume 2 ( 2004 ) and Once Upon a Time in Hollywood ( 2019 ) ; Tommy Lee Jones ‘s The Three Burials of Melquiades Estrada ( 2005 ) ; Ang Lee ‘s Brokeback Mountain ( 2005 ) ; Wim Wenders ‘s Don’t Come Knocking ( 2005 ) ; Joel and Ethan Coen ‘s No Country for Old Men ( 2007 ) ; Clint Eastwood ‘s Gran Torino ( 2008 ) ; Scott Cooper ‘s Crazy Heart ( 2009 ) ; Out of the Furnace ( 2013 ) ; The Rover ( 2014 ) ; Rambo: Last Blood ( 2019 ) ; El Camino: A Breaking Bad Movie ( 2019 ) ; Nomadland ( 2020 ) ; angstrom well as George Miller ‘s Mad Max franchise. The television shows Sons Of Anarchy ( 2008–2014 ) ; Justified ( 2010–2015 ), Longmire ( 2012–2017 ), Mystery Road ( 2018–present ) and Yellowstone ( 2018–present ) along with the Nicholas Winding Refn noir/satire mini serial Too Old to Die Young ( 2019 ) ; Sicario ( 2015 ) and its sequel Sicario: Day of the Soldado ( 2018 ) ; Hell or High Water ( 2016 ) ; Wind River ( 2017 ) and Those Who Wish Me Dead ( 2021 ), all written by Taylor Sheridan ; and the superhero film Logan ( 2017 ). Fallout: New Vegas ( 2010 ), Call of Juarez: The Cartel ( 2011 ) and Grand Theft Auto V ( 2013 ) are examples of neo-Western video recording games. Likewise, the television series Breaking Bad and its spin off Better Call Saul, which both take position in advanced times, feature many examples of western archetypes. According to creator Vince Gilligan, “ After the first Breaking Bad episode, it started to dawn on me that we could be making a contemporary Western. So you see scenes that are like gunfighters squaring off, like Clint Eastwood and Lee van Cleef —we have Walt and others like that. ” [ 28 ] The precursor to these [ citation needed ] was the radio series Tales of the Texas Rangers ( 1950–1952 ), with Joel McCrea, a contemporary detective drama set in Texas, featuring many of the characteristics of traditional Westerns .
Dacoit Western [edit ]
The Bollywood film Sholay ( 1975 ) was much referred to as a “ curry westerly ”. [ 29 ] A more accurate genre label for the movie is the “ dacoit Western “, as it combines the conventions of indian dacoit films such as Mother India ( 1957 ) and Gunga Jumna ( 1961 ) with those of spaghetti Westerns. Sholay spawned its own music genre of “ dacoit western ” films in Bollywood during the 1970s. [ 30 ] The first westerly films made in India – Kalam Vellum ( 1970, Tamil ), Mosagallaku Mosagadu ( 1971, Telugu ), Mappusakshi ( Malayalam ), [ citation needed ] Ganga ( 1972, Tamil ), and Jakkamma ( 1972, Tamil ) – were based on classic Westerns. Thazhvaram ( 1990 ), the Malayalam film directed by Bharathan and written by note writer M. T. Vasudevan Nair, possibly most resembles the Spaghetti Westerns in terms of production and cinematic techniques. Earlier Spaghetti Westerns laid the foundation for such films as Adima Changala ( 1971 ) starring Prem Nazir, a enormously democratic “ zapata Spaghetti Western film in Malayalam, and Sholay ( 1975 ) Khote Sikkay ( 1973 ) and Thai Meethu Sathiyam ( 1978 ) are luminary curry Westerns. Kodama Simham ( 1990 ), a Telugu action film, starring Chiranjeevi and Mohan Babu, was one more addition to the Indo Western music genre that fared well at the corner office. It was besides the foremost South indian movie to be dubbed in English as Hunters of the Indian Treasure [ 31 ] Takkari Donga ( 2002 ), starring Telugu actor Mahesh Babu, was applauded by critics, but was median at box agency. Quick Gun Murugun ( 2009 ), an indian drollery film that spoofs indian Western movies, is based on a character created for television promotions at the clock time of the launch of the music network Channel [ V ] in 1994, which had fad following. [ 32 ] Irumbukkottai Murattu Singam ( 2010 ), a western gamble comedy film, based on cowboy movies and paying homages to the John Wayne, Clint Eastwood, and Jaishankar, was made in Tamil. Laal Kaptaan ( 2019 ) is an IndoWestern star Saif Ali Khan, which is set during the rise of the british Empire in India .
Documentary Western [edit ]
The documentary Western is a subgenre of Westerns that explore the nonfiction elements of the historic and contemporary american West. Ken Burns ‘ The West is an example of a series based upon a historical storyline, whereas films such as Cowboys: A Documentary Portrait provide a nonfiction portrayal of modern working cowboy in the contemporary West .
Electric Western [edit ]
The 1971 film Zachariah starring John Rubinstein, Don Johnson, and Pat Quinn, was billed as the “ first electric Western. ” [ 33 ] The film featured multiple perform rock bands in an otherwise american english West fix. [ 33 ] Zachariah featured appearances and music supplied by rock groups from the 1970s, including the James Gang [ 33 ] and Country Joe and the Fish as “ The Cracker Band. ” [ 33 ] Fiddler Doug Kershaw had a musical cameo [ 33 ] as does Elvin Jones as a gunslinging drummer named Job Cain. [ 33 ] The independent film Hate Horses starring Dominique Swain, Ron Thompson, and Paul Dooley billed itself as the “ second electric Western. ” [ 34 ]
Epic Western [edit ]
The epic poem Western is a subgenre of the Western that emphasizes the fib of the American Old West on a august scale. many epic poem Westerns are normally set during a churning time, specially a war, as in Sergio Leone ‘s The Good, the Bad and the Ugly ( 1966 ), set during the American Civil War, or Sam Peckinpah ‘s The Wild Bunch ( 1969 ), set during the mexican Revolution. One of the grandest films in this music genre is Leone ‘s Once Upon a Time in the West ( 1968 ), which shows many operatic conflicts centered on master of a town while using wide-scale shots on Monument Valley locations against a broad run time. early celebrated examples include The Iron Horse ( 1924 ), Duel in the Sun ( 1946 ), The Searchers ( 1956 ), Giant ( 1956 ), The Big Country ( 1958 ), Cimarron ( 1960 ), How the West Was Won ( 1962 ), Duck, You Sucker! ( 1971 ), Heaven’s Gate ( 1980 ), Dances with Wolves ( 1990 ), The Assassination of Jesse James by the Coward Robert Ford ( 2007 ), Django Unchained ( 2012 ), and The Revenant ( 2015 ) .
Euro-Westerns are Western-genre films made in Western Europe. The term can sometimes include the spaghetti western subgenre. One case of a Euro-Western is the Anglo-Spanish film The Savage Guns ( 1961 ). several Euro-Western films, nicknamed sauerkraut Westerns [ 35 ] because they were made in Germany and shot in Yugoslavia, were derived from stories by novelist Karl May, and were film adaptations of May ‘s work. One of the most popular german western franchises was the Winnetou series, which featured a native american english Apache champion in the head function. besides in Finland, merely a few western films have been made, the most celebrated of which could be the 1971 low-budget comedy The Unhanged, directed by, written by, and starring Spede Pasanen. Some new Euro-Westerns emerged in the 2010s, including Kristian Levring ‘s The Salvation, Martin Koolhoven ‘s Brimstone, and Andreas Prochaska ‘s The Dark Valley .
Fantasy Western [edit ]
Fantasy Westerns mixed in fantasy settings and themes, and may include fantasy mythology as background. Some celebrated examples are Stephen King ‘s The Stand and The Dark Tower serial of novels, the Vertigo comics series Preacher, and Keiichi Sigsawa ‘s easy fresh series, Kino’s Journey, illustrated by Kouhaku Kuroboshi .
Florida Western [edit ]
Florida Westerns, besides known as cracker Westerns, are set in Florida during the moment Seminole War. An case is Distant Drums ( 1951 ) starring Gary Cooper .
greek western [edit ]
According to the naming conventions after spaghetti western, in Greece they are besides referred to as “ fasolada Westerns ” ( greek : φασολάδα = bean soup, i.e. the alleged national smasher of Greece ). A noteworthy exercise is Blood on the Land ( 1966 ), which was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film. [ 36 ]
Horror Western [edit ]
Another subgenre is the repugnance Western, with roots in films such as Curse of the Undead ( 1959 ) and Billy the Kid vs. Dracula ( 1966 ), which depicts the legendary illegitimate Billy the Kid crusade against the ill-famed vampire. Another exercise is The Ghoul Goes West, an unproduced Ed Wood film to star Bela Lugosi as Dracula in the Old West. [ citation needed ] Newer examples include the films Near Dark ( 1987 ) directed by Kathryn Bigelow, which tells the fib about a human falling in love with a vampire, From Dusk till Dawn ( 1996 ) by Robert Rodriguez deals with criminal battling vampires across the margin, Vampires ( 1998 ) by John Carpenter, which tells about a group of vampires and vampire hunters looking for an ancient relic in the west, Ravenous ( 1999 ), which deals with cannibalism at a distant US united states army outstation ; The Burrowers ( 2008 ), about a band of trackers who are stalked by the titular creatures ; and Abraham Lincoln: Vampire Hunter ( 2012 ). Undead Nightmare ( 2010 ), an expansion to Red Dead Redemption ( 2010 ) is an model of a video game in this music genre, telling the narrative of a zombi outbreak in the Old West. Bone Tomahawk ( 2015 ), one of the most holocene entries in the music genre, received wide critical applaud for its chilling fib of cannibalism, but like many early movies in the writing style, it was not a commercial success .
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warlike arts Western ( Wuxia Western ) [edit ]
While many of these mash-ups ( for example, Billy Jack ( 1971 ) and its sequel The Trial of Billy Jack ( 1974 ) ) are bum exploitation films, others are more unplayful drama such as the Kung Fu TV series, which ran from 1972 to 1975. comedy examples include the Jackie Chan and Owen Wilson collaboration Shanghai Noon ( 2000 ). far subdivisions of this subgenre include Westerns based on ninjas and samurai ( incorporating samurai film themes ), such as Red Sun ( 1971 ) with Charles Bronson, Alain Delon, and Toshiro Mifune .
musical [edit ]
There have been many melodious films with a western put and many musicians have appeared in westerly films, sometimes in non-musical roles. Singers Doris Day and Howard Keel worked together in Calamity Jane, a huge achiever on exhaust which remains one of the most popular western musicals. On the other handwriting, crooner Dean Martin and crop up singer Ricky Nelson played the parts of gunfighters in Rio Bravo, which is not a melodious, although they did combine to sing a match of songs in the middle of the film while they were guarding the jail. [ citation needed ]
Northern [edit ]
The Northern music genre is a subgenre of Westerns taking put in Alaska or Western Canada. Examples include respective versions of the Rex Beach novel, The Spoilers ( including 1930 ‘s The Spoilers, with Gary Cooper, and 1942 ‘s The Spoilers, with Marlene Dietrich, Randolph Scott, and Wayne ) ; The Far Country ( 1954 ) with James Stewart ; North to Alaska ( 1960 ) with Wayne ; Death Hunt ( 1981 ) with Charles Bronson ; and The Grey Fox ( 1983 ) with Richard Farnsworth .
Ostern [edit ]
Ostern films, besides known as “ Eastern ” or “ red western ” films, were produced in the Soviet Union and Socialist Eastern Europe. They were popular in communist eastern european countries and were a detail favorite of Joseph Stalin. “ red western ” films normally portrayed the american Indians sympathetically, as persecute people, fighting for their rights, in line to American Westerns of the time, which frequently portrayed the Indians as villains. Osterns frequently featured Gypsy or Turkic people in the function of the Indians, ascribable to the dearth of authentic Indians in Eastern Europe. Gojko Mitić portrayed righteous, kindhearted, and charming indian chiefs ( for example, in Die Söhne der großen Bärin ( 1966 ), directed by Josef Mach ). He became honorary headman of the Sioux tribe when he visited the United States, in the 1990s, and the television crew accompanying him showed the tribe of one of his films. american actor and singer Dean Reed, an expatriate who lived in East Germany, besides starred in several Ostern films. “ easterly ” films typically replaced the Wild West setting with by an easterly dress in the steppes of the Caucasus. western standard characters, such as “ cowboys and Indians “, were besides replaced by white banal characters, such as bandits and harems. A celebrated example of the writing style was White Sun of the Desert, which was popular in the Soviet Union. [ 37 ]
pornographic western [edit ]
Pornographic Westerns use the Old West as a background for stories primarily focused on pornography. The three major examples of the pornography Western film are Russ Meyer ‘s nudie-cutie Wild Gals of the Naked West ( 1962 ), and the hard-core A Dirty Western ( 1975 ) and Sweet Savage ( 1979 ). Sweet Savage starred Aldo Ray, a seasoned actor who had appeared in traditional Westerns, in a non-sex function. Among videogames, Custer’s Revenge ( 1982 ) is an ill-famed case, considered to be one of the worst video games of all time .
Ramen western [edit ]
first used in the publicity of the film Tampopo, the term “ ramen western ” besides is a act on words using a national dish. The term is used to describe western style films set in Asia. Examples include The Drifting Avenger, Break the Chain, Millionaires Express, East Meets West, Thai movies Tears of the Black Tiger and Dynamite Warrior, Let the Bullets Fly, Unforgiven, Marlina the Murderer in Four Acts, Buffalo Boys, The Good, the Bad and the Weird and Sukiyaki Western Django. [ 38 ]
revisionist western [edit ]
After the early 1960s, many american filmmakers began to motion and variety many traditional elements of Westerns, and to make revisionist Westerns that encouraged audiences to question the simple hero-versus-villain dualism and the ethical motive of using violence to test one ‘s character or to prove oneself right. This is shown in Sam Peckinpah ‘s The Wild Bunch ( 1969 ). One major revision was the increasingly convinced representation of Native Americans, who had been treated as “ savages ” in earlier films. Examples of such revisionist Westerns include Ride the High Country ( 1962 ), Richard Harris ‘ A Man Called Horse ( 1970 ), Little Big Man ( 1970 ), Soldier Blue (1970), Man in the Wilderness ( 1971 ), The Outlaw Josey Wales ( 1976 ), Dances with Wolves ( 1990 ), Unforgiven ( 1992 ), The Quick and the Dead ( 1995 ), and Dead Man ( 1995 ). A television miniseries, Godless ( 2016 ), besides fits into this class. A few earlier revisionist Westerns gave women more herculean roles, such as Westward the Women ( 1951 ) starring Robert Taylor. Another earlier work encompassed all these features, The Last Wagon ( 1956 ). In it, Richard Widmark played a white man raised by Comanches and persecuted by Whites, with Felicia Farr and Susan Kohner playing young women forced into leadership roles .
Science fiction Western [edit ]
The science fabrication western places science fiction elements within a traditional western set. Examples include Jesse James Meets Frankenstein’s Daughter ( 1965 ) and The Valley of Gwangi ( 1969 ), the latter sport cowboys and dinosaurs. John Jakes ‘s Six Gun Planet takes seat on a future satellite colonized by people consciously seeking to recreate the Old West ( with cowboys riding automaton horses … ). The movie Westworld ( 1973 ) and its sequel Futureworld ( 1976 ), Back to the Future Part III ( 1990 ), Wild Wild West ( 1999 ), and Cowboys & Aliens ( 2011 ), and the television series Westworld ( 2016, based on the movie ). Fallout: New Vegas ( 2010 ) is an example of a video recording game that follows this format, with futuristic technology and genic mutations placed among the westerly themes and desert sprawl of the Mojave Wasteland. [ citation needed ]
Space Western [edit ]
The quad Western or space frontier is a subgenre of science fiction, which uses the themes and tropes of Westerns within science-fiction stories. [ citation needed ] Subtle influences may include exploration of wide-open frontiers in deep space, while more overt influences may feature literal cowboys in out space who use beam guns and ride automatic horses. Examples include the american television series BraveStarr ( which aired original episodes from September 1987 to February 1988 ) and Firefly ( created by Joss Whedon in 2002 ), and the films Battle Beyond the Stars ( 1980 ), which is a remake of The Magnificent Seven ; Outland ( 1981 ), which is a remake of High Noon ; and Serenity ( 2005, based on the Firefly TV serial ). Another example is the japanese zanzibar copal series Cowboy Bebop. The classical western music genre has besides been a major determine on science-fiction films such as the original Star Wars movie of 1977, with 2018 ‘s Solo: A Star Wars Story and 2019 ‘s Star Wars: The Mandalorian more directly featuring westerly tropes. famously, Gene Roddenberry pitched the concept of the television receiver show Star Trek as a “ Wagon Train to the stars ”. [ citation needed ]
Spaghetti Western [edit ]
During the 1960s and 1970s, a revival of the Western emerged in Italy with the “ spaghetti Westerns ”, besides known as “ Italo-Westerns ”. The most celebrated of them is The Good, the Bad and the Ugly, the third gear movie of the Dollars Trilogy. Many of these films are low-budget affairs, shoot in locations ( for exercise, the spanish desert area of Almería ) chosen for their cheap crew and product costs, vitamin a well as their similarity to landscapes of the Southwestern United States. Spaghetti Westerns were characterized by the presence of more natural process and violence than the Hollywood Westerns. besides, the protagonists normally acted out of more selfish motives ( money or retaliation being the most coarse ) than in the classical music Westerns. [ 39 ] Some Spaghetti Westerns demythologized the american Western custom, and some films from the genre are considered revisionist Westerns. For example, the Dollars Trilogy itself has much different tropes compared to standard Westerns, demythologizing the Sheriff human body ( in A Fistful of Dollars and For a Few Dollars More ), putting both the Union and the Confederacy in ambiguously moral positions ( The Good, the Bad and the Ugly ), and not featuring native Americans ( except for a brief mention in A Fistful of Dollars ) .
The western films directed by Sergio Leone were felt by some to have a different note from the Hollywood Westerns. [ 40 ] Veteran American actors Charles Bronson, Lee Van Cleef, and Clint Eastwood [ 40 ] became celebrated by starring in spaghetti Westerns, although the films besides provided a case for early note actors such as James Coburn, Henry Fonda, Rod Steiger, Klaus Kinski, Jason Robards, Gian Maria Volonte and Eli Wallach. Eastwood, previously the lead in the television series Rawhide, by chance found himself catapulted into the vanguard of the film industry by Leone ‘s A Fistful of Dollars ( the first gear in the Dollars Trilogy ). [ 40 ]
Weird Western [edit ]
The wyrd western combines elements of the authoritative western with those of other genres, constantly illusion, horror and skill fiction. The Wild Wild West television series, television movies, and 1999 film adaptation blend the western with steampunk. The Jonah Hex franchise besides blends the western with superhero elements. The film Western Religion ( 2015 ), by writer and conductor James O’Brien, introduces the devil into a traditional Wild West set. The Old Man Logan ( 2008–2009 ) graphic fresh combines the elements of superhero and post apocalyptic fiction with Westerns .
Genre studies [edit ]
In the 1960s, academic and critical care to cinema as a legitimate art imprint emerged. With the increase attention, film theory was developed to attempt to understand the significance of film. [ citation needed ] From this environment emerged ( in concurrence with the literary movement ) an enclave of critical studies called writing style studies. This was primarily a semantic and structuralist approach to understanding how alike films convey meaning. [ citation needed ] One of the results of writing style studies is that “ Westerns ” need not take space in the american West or flush in the nineteenth century, as the codes can be found in other types of films. For exemplar, a very typical Western plot is that an easterly lawman heads west, where he matches wits and trades bullets with a gang of outlaws and thugs, and is aided by a local lawman who is well-meaning, but largely ineffective until a critical consequence, when he redeems himself by saving the champion ‘s biography, as in the quite complex [ according to whom? ] classic The man who shot Liberty Valance. [ citation needed ] This stars James Stewart and John Wayne although Lee Marvin, then a supporting actor, bears the title role to which the unknown hero ( and plot ambiguity ) alludes. [ citation needed ] This classic description can be used to describe any act of Westerns, but besides other films such as Die Hard ( itself a free rework of High Noon ) and Akira Kurosawa ‘s Seven Samurai, which are frequently cited [ by whom? ] examples of films that do not take position in the american West, but have many themes and characteristics coarse to Westerns. Likewise, films set in the American Old West may not necessarily be considered Westerns. [ citation needed ]
Influences [edit ]
Being menstruation drama pieces, both the Western and samurai music genre influenced each early in style and themes throughout the years. [ 41 ] The Magnificent Seven was a remake of Akira Kurosawa ‘s film Seven Samurai, and A Fistful of Dollars was a remake of Kurosawa ‘s Yojimbo, which itself was inspired by Red Harvest, an american detective novel by Dashiell Hammett. [ 42 ] Kurosawa was influenced by American Westerns and was a fan of the genre, most specially John Ford. [ 43 ] [ 44 ] Despite the Cold War, the Western was a strong determine on Eastern Bloc cinema, which had its own take on the writing style, the alleged “ Red Western “ or “ Ostern ”. Generally these took two forms : either straight Westerns tear in the eastern Bloc, or action films involving the russian Revolution and civil war and the Basmachi rebellion. [ citation needed ] An outgrowth of the westerly genre is the “ postapocalyptic ” western, in which a future society, struggling to rebuild after a major catastrophe, is portrayed in a manner very similar to the 19th-century frontier. Examples include The Postman and the Mad Max serial, and the calculator crippled series Fallout. many elements of space-travel series and films borrow extensively from the conventions of the western genre. This is particularly the case in the space Western subgenre of skill fabrication. Peter Hyams ‘ Outland transferred the plot of High Noon to Io, moon of Jupiter. More recently, the space opera series Firefly used an explicitly western composition for its depicting of frontier worlds. zanzibar copal shows such as Cowboy Bebop, Trigun and Outlaw Star have been similar mixes of science-fiction and western elements. The science fabrication Western can be seen as a subgenre of either Westerns or skill fiction. Elements of western films can be found besides in some films belonging basically to other genres. For example, Kelly’s Heroes is a war film, but its action and characters are Western-like .
The character played by Humphrey Bogart in noir films such as Casablanca and To Have and Have Not —an individual bound entirely by his own secret code of honor—has a draw in common with the classic western bomber. In become, the Western has besides explored noir elements, as with the films Pursued and Sugar Creek. [ citation needed ] In many of Robert A. Heinlein ‘s books, the settlement of other planets is depicted in ways explicitly modeled on american settlement of the West. For example, in his Tunnel in the Sky, settlers set out to the planet “ New Canaan ”, via an interstellar teleporter portal vein across the galaxy, in Conestoga wagons, their captain sporting mustaches and a short goatee and riding a palomino horse—with Heinlein explaining that the colonists would need to survive on their own for some years, so horses are more practical than machines. [ citation needed ] Stephen King ‘s The Dark Tower is a series of seven books that meshes themes of Westerns, high fantasy, science fiction, and repugnance. The protagonist Roland Deschain is a gunman whose image and personality are largely inspired by the Man with No name from Sergio Leone ‘s films. In addition, the superhero illusion genre has been described as having been derived from the cowboy hero, only powered up to omnipotence in a chiefly urban setting. The western genre has been parodied on a number of occasions, celebrated examples being Support Your Local Sheriff!, Cat Ballou, Mel Brooks ‘s Blazing Saddles, and Rustler’s Rhapsody. [ citation needed ] George Lucas ‘s Star Wars films use many elements of a western, and Lucas has said he intended for Star Wars to revitalize cinematic mythology, a part the western once held. The Jedi, who take their name from Jidaigeki, are modeled after samurai, showing the influence of Kurosawa. The character Han Solo dressed like an archetypal gunman, and the Mos Eisley cantina is much like an Old West barroom. [ 45 ] interim, films such as The Big Lebowski, which plucked actor Sam Elliott out of the Old West and into a Los Angeles bowling bowling alley, and Midnight Cowboy, about a Southern-boy-turned-gigolo in New York ( who disappoints a node when he does not measure up to Gary Cooper ), transplanted western themes into modern settings for both purposes of parody and court. [ 46 ]
literature [edit ]
western fabrication is a writing style of literature set in the American Old West, most normally between 1860 and 1900. The first critically recognized Western was The Virginian ( 1902 ) by Owen Wister. “ classic Wild West literature ”. early long-familiar writers of western fiction include Zane Grey, from the early 1900s, Ernest Haycox, Luke Short, and Louis L’Amour, from the mid twentieth hundred. many writers better known in other genres, such as Leigh Brackett, Elmore Leonard, and Larry McMurtry, have besides written western novels. The genre ‘s popularity peaked in the 1960s, due in part to the shutter of many pulp magazines, the popularity of televised Westerns, and the raise of the spy novel. Readership began to drop off in the mid- to late 1970s and reached a raw low in the 2000s. Most bookstores, outside of a few westerly states, now only carry a belittled number of western novels and short-story collections. [ 47 ] literary forms that share alike themes include stories of the American frontier, the gaucho literature of Argentina, and tales of the village of the australian Outback .
television [edit ]
television Westerns are a subgenre of the Western. When television receiver became popular in the late 1940s and 1950s, television receiver Westerns quickly became an consultation favored. [ 48 ] Beginning with rebroadcasts of existing films, a phone number of movie cowboys had their own television receiver shows. As requirement for the Western increased, new stories and stars were introduced. A count of long-running television Westerns became classics in their own right, such as : The Lone Ranger ( 1949–1957 ), The Life and Legend of Wyatt Earp ( 1955–1961 ), Cheyenne ( 1955–1962 ), Gunsmoke ( 1955–1975 ), Maverick ( 1957–1962 ), Have Gun – Will Travel ( 1957–1963 ), Wagon Train ( 1957–1965 ), Sugarfoot ( 1957–1961 ), The Rifleman ( 1958–1963 ), Rawhide ( 1959–1966 ), Bonanza ( 1959–1973 ), The Virginian ( 1962–1971 ), and The Big Valley ( 1965–1969 ). The Life and Legend of Wyatt Earp was the first gear western television series written for adults, [ 49 ] premiering four days before Gunsmoke on September 6, 1955. [ 50 ] [ 51 ] The peak year for television receiver Westerns was 1959, with 26 such shows airing during primetime. At least six of them were connected in some extent to Wyatt Earp : The Life and Legend of Wyatt Earp, Bat Masterson, Tombstone Territory, Broken Arrow, Johnny Ringo, and Gunsmoke. [ 52 ] Increasing costs of american television receiver production weeded out most action half-hour series in the early 1960s, and their substitute by hour-long television shows, increasingly in tinge. [ 53 ] Traditional Westerns died out in the belated 1960s as a result of network changes in demographic targeting along with atmospheric pressure from parental television receiver groups. future entries in the genre would incorporate elements from early genus, such as crime drama and mystery mystery elements. western shows from the 1970s included Hec Ramsey, Kung Fu, Little House on the Prairie, McCloud, The Life and Times of Grizzly Adams, and the ephemeral but highly acclaimed How the West Was Won that originated from a miniseries with the same name. In the 1990s and 2000s, hour-long Westerns and glibly packaged made-for-TV movie Westerns were introduced, such as Lonesome Dove ( 1989 ) and Dr. Quinn, Medicine Woman. besides, new elements were once again added to the western convention, such as science-fiction Western Firefly, created by Joss Whedon in 2002. Deadwood was a critically applaud western series that aired on HBO from 2004 through 2006. Hell on Wheels, a fictionalize history of the construction of the First Transcontinental Railroad, aired on AMC for five seasons between 2011 and 2016. Longmire is a western series that centered on Walt Longmire, a sheriff in fictional Absaroka County, Wyoming. originally aired on the A & E network from 2012 to 2014, it was picked up by Netflix in 2015 until the show ‘s termination in 2017 .
“ As Wild felled one of the redskins by a fellate from the butt of his revolving door, and form for the one with the tomahawk, the headman ‘s daughter abruptly appeared. Raising her hands, she exclaimed, ‘Go back, Young Wild West. I will save her ! ‘ ” ( 1908 )
ocular art [edit ]
A number of ocular artists focused their work on representations of the American Old West. american West-oriented artwork is sometimes referred to as “ western Art ” by Americans. This relatively new class of artwork includes paintings, sculptures, and sometimes native american crafts. initially, subjects included exploration of the western states and cowboy themes. Frederic Remington and Charles M. Russell are two artists who captured the “ fantastic West ” in paintings and sculpt. [ 54 ] Some art museums, such as the Buffalo Bill Center of the West in Wyoming and the Autry National Center in Los Angeles, feature american Western Art. [ 55 ]
other media [edit ]
The popularity of Westerns extends beyond films, literature, television, and ocular art to include numerous other media .
Anime and manga [edit ]
With anime and manga, the writing style tends towards the science-fiction Western [ for example, Cowboy Bebop ( 1998 zanzibar copal ), Trigun ( 1995–2007 manga ), and Outlaw Star ( 1996–1999 manga ) ]. Although contemporaneous Westerns besides appear, such as Kōya no Shōnen Isamu, a 1971 shōnen manga about a boy with a japanese father and a native american mother, or El Cazador de la Bruja, a 2007 anime television series set in contemporary Mexico. Part 7 of the manga series JoJo’s Bizarre Adventure is based in the american Western rig. The fib follows racers in a transcontinental sawhorse race, the “ Steel Ball Run ”. Golden Kamuy ( 2014–present ) shifts its arrange to 1900s Hokkaido, having the Ainu people alternatively of native Americans, arsenic well having other recognizable western tropes .
Comics [edit ]
western comics have included dangerous entries, ( such as the classical comics of the late 1940s and early on 1950s ( namely Kid Colt, Outlaw, Rawhide Kid, and Red Ryder ) or more modern ones as Blueberry ), cartoons, and parodies ( such as Cocco Bill and Lucky Luke ). In the 1990s and 2000s, western comics leaned towards the fantasy, horror and skill fabrication genres, normally involving supernatural monsters, or christian iconography as in Preacher. More traditional westerly comics are found throughout this period, though ( for example, Jonah Hex and Loveless ) .
Games [edit ]
Western arcade games, computer games, role-playing games, and television games are frequently either square Westerns or Western-horror hybrids. Some Western-themed computer games include The Oregon Trail ( 1971 ), Mad Dog McCree ( 1990 ), Sunset Riders ( 1991 ), Outlaws ( 1997 ), Desperados series ( 2001– ), Red Dead series ( 2004– ), Gun ( 2005 ), and Call of Juarez series ( 2007– ). early video games adapt the “ weird West ” concept – for example, Fallout ( 1997 ), Gunman Chronicles ( 2000 ), Darkwatch ( 2005 ), the Borderlands series ( 2009– ) , Fallout: New Vegas ( 2010 ), and Hard West ( 2015 ) .
radio drama [edit ]
Western radio play were very popular from the 1930s to the 1960s. Some popular shows include The Lone Ranger ( first broadcast in 1933 ), The Cisco Kid ( first broadcast in 1942 ), Dr. Sixgun ( first circulate in 1954 ), Have Gun–Will Travel ( first broadcast in 1958 ), and Gunsmoke ( beginning air in 1952 ). [ 56 ]
Web series [edit ]
Westerns have been showcased in short-episodic network series. Examples include League of STEAM, Red Bird, and Arkansas Traveler .
See besides [edit ]
References [edit ]
far reading [edit ]
- Buscombe, Edward, and Christopher Brookeman. The BFI Companion to the Western (A. Deutsch, 1988)
- Everson, William K. A Pictorial History of the Western Film (New York: Citadel Press, 1969)
- Kitses, Jim. Horizons West: The Western from John Ford to Clint Eastwood (British Film Institute, 2007).
- Lenihan, John H. Showdown: Confronting Modern America in the Western Film (University of Illinois Press, 1980)
- Nachbar, John G. Focus on the Western (Prentice Hall, 1974)
- Simmon, Scott. The Invention of the Western Film: A Cultural History of the Genre’s First Half Century (Cambridge University Press, 2003)
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