Dundalk – Wikipedia

County town of County Louth, Ireland
This article is about the town of Dundalk in Ireland. For other uses, see Dundalk ( disambiguation )
Town in Leinster, Ireland

Map of Dundalk Map of DundalkArea of Dundalk Municipal District Area of Dundalk Municipal District Dundalk ( dun-DAW(L)K ; [ 5 ] irish : Dún Dealgan [ ˌd̪ˠuːn̪ˠ ˈdʲalˠɡənˠ ], meaning “ the fortify of Dealgan ”, a Fir Bolg Chieftain ) is the county town ( the administrative center ) of County Louth, Ireland. The town is on the Castletown River, which flows into Dundalk Bay on the east seashore of Ireland. It is near the bound with Northern Ireland, halfway between Dublin and Belfast. It is the eighth largest urban area in Ireland, with a population of 39,004 as of the 2016 census. Having been inhabited since the Neolithic period, Dundalk was established as a Norman stronghold in the twelfth century following the Norman invasion of Ireland, and became the northernmost outpost of The Pale in the Late Middle Ages. The township came to be nicknamed the “ Gap of the North ” where the northernmost point of the province of Leinster meets the state of Ulster. The modern street layout dates from the early eighteenth century and owes its form to James Hamilton ( later 1st Earl of Clanbrassil ). The legends of the fabulous warrior bomber Cú Chulainn are set in the zone and the motto on the township ‘s coat of arms is Mé do rug Cú Chulainn cróga ( Irish ) “ I gave parturition to brave Cú Chulainn ”. The township developed brewing, purify, tobacco, fabric, and mastermind industries during the nineteenth century. It became comfortable and its population grew as it became an crucial manufacture and trade centre—both as a hub on the Great Northern Railway ( Ireland ) net and with its maritime connection to Liverpool from the Port of Dundalk. It late suffered from gamey unemployment and urban disintegrate after these industries closed or scaled back operations both in the aftermath of the Partition of Ireland in 1921 and following the accession of Ireland to the european Economic Community in 1973. New industries have been established in the early function of the twenty-first century, including pharmaceutical, engineering, fiscal services, and specialist foods. There is one third-level education institute — Dundalk Institute of Technology. The largest dramaturgy in the town, An Táin Arts Centre, is in the Town Hall, and the restore buildings of the nearby former Dundalk Distillery house both the County Museum Dundalk and the Louth County Library. Sporting baseball club include Dundalk Football Club ( who play at Oriel Park ), Dundalk Rugby Club, Dundalk Golf Club, and several clubs competing in Gaelic games. Dundalk Stadium is a sawhorse and greyhound racing venue and is Ireland ‘s entirely all-weather cavalry racing chase .

history [edit ]

early history and legend [edit ]

Proleek Dolmen, Ballymascanlon Proleek Dolmen, Ballymascanlon archaeological studies at Rockmarshall indicate that the Dundalk area was first inhabited circa 3700 BC following the goal of the last Ice Age, during the Neolithic time period. [ 6 ] visible evidence of this early presence can calm be seen in the form of the Proleek Dolmen, the eroded remains of a portal vein grave in the Ballymascanlon area, north of Dundalk, which dates to around 3000 BC. [ 7 ] A cuneate gallery grave accent ( known as the “ Giant ‘s Grave ” ) is nearby. early pre-christian archaeological sites in the Dundalk Municipal District are Rockmarshall Court Tomb, a woo cairn, [ 8 ] and Aghnaskeagh Cairns, a chamber cairn and portal site grave. [ 9 ] [ 10 ] The legends of Cú Chulainn, including the Táin Bó Cúailnge ( The Cattle Raid of Cooley ), an epic poem of early irish literature, are set in the first base hundred AD, before the arrival of Christianity to Ireland. Clochafarmore, the menhir that Cú Chulainn reputedly tied himself to before he died, is located to the west of the town, near Knockbridge. [ 11 ] According to the Annals of the Four Masters, a battle was fought at Faughart ( a townland 6 kilometer north of the centre of Dundalk, near the Moyry Pass ) between Cormac mac Airt, High King of Ireland and Storno ( or Starno ), King of Lochlin, in 248. The report is folklore and both characters are ahistorical. testify of settlements from early christian Ireland are to be found in the high concentration of souterrains in north Louth. [ 13 ] The high concentration of souterrains indicates that the area was regularly subject to raids, and the discovery of a type of pottery known as ‘souterrain consume ‘, which has only been found in north Louth, County Down and County Antrim, indicates that these areas shared cultural ties separate from the lie of early historic Ireland. The assiduity of souterrains drops significantly on crossing the River Fane to the south, indicating that the district was a boundary line area between separate kingdoms. Saint Brigid is reputed to have been born in 451 AD in Faughart. [ 15 ] A enshrine to her is placid located at Faughart. [ 16 ] St Brigid ‘s Church in Kilcurry holds what worshippers believe is a keepsake of the saint—a break up of her skull, which was brought to the church in 1905 by Sister Mary Agnes of the Dundalk Convent of Mercy. [ 17 ]

Middle Ages [edit ]

Most of what is recorded about the Dundalk area between the fifth hundred and the basis of the township as a Norman stronghold in the twelfth hundred comes from the Annals of the Four Masters and the Annals of Tigernach, which were both written hundreds of years after the events they record. According to the annals, the plains of North Louth incorporating what is immediately Dundalk were known as Magh Muirthemne ( the Plain of the Dark Sea ). The area, bordered to the northeast by Cuailgne ( the Cooley peninsula ) and to the south by the Ciannachta, was ruled by a Cruthin kingdom known as Conaille Muirtheimne ( who were aligned to the Ulaid ) in the early christian menstruation. [ 18 ] According to the annals, a battle was fought at Faughart in 732 by Áed Allán, High King of Ireland against the Ulaid, for which there is no contemporary evidence. The Annals of Ulster record that in 851, danish Vikings ( the Dubhgall ) attempted to attack the norwegian Viking ( Fingall ) settlement at Annagassan at the southern end of Dundalk Bay and were heavily defeated. The follow year, norwegian Vikings based in Scotland were sent to attack the Danes in Carlingford Lough but their expedition was abortive. [ 20 ] D’Alton ‘s History of Dundalk recounts an apocryphal narrative of the “ Battle of Dundalk ” : Sitric, son of Turgesius, ruler of the Danes in Ireland, had offered Callaghan, the King of Munster, his sister in marriage. But it was a trick to take the king prisoner and he was captured and held hostage in Armagh. An united states army was raised in Munster and marched on Armagh to free the king, but he had been removed to Sitric ‘s ship in Dundalk Bay. however, a fleet from Munster attacked the Danes in the bay from the confederacy. During the ocean battle, the Munster admiral, Failbhe Fion, boarded Sitric ‘s ship and freed the king, but was killed by Sitric who put Failbhe Fion ‘s head on a pole. Failbhe Fion ‘s second in command, Fingal, enraged, seized Sitric by the neck and jumped into the ocean where they both drowned. Two more irish captains, seeing this, each grabbed one of Sitric ‘s two brothers and did the lapp, and the Danes subsequently surrendered. anterior to the arrival of the Normans, the zone can be said to have entirely comprised rural settlements, although there are historical references to a pre-Norman town called Traghbaile ( anglicised as Traghbally : Seatown ), the identify of which could originate from the legend of the end of Baile Mac Buain—hence Traghbaile, meaning ‘Baile ‘s Strand ‘. [ 23 ] By the clock of the Norman invasion of Ireland in 1169, Magh Muirthemne had been absorbed into the kingdom of Airgíalla ( Oriel ) under the Ó Cearbhaills. [ 24 ] In about 1185, the Norman lord Bertram de Verdun erected a manor house at Castletown Mount on the ancient locate of Dún Dealgan —a strategic location on the southerly borders of Ulster. De Verdon founded his village apparently without resistance from Airgíalla ( the Ó Cearbhaills are recorded as having submitted to Henry II ), and in 1187 he founded an augustinian friary under the clientele of St Leonard. [ 26 ] He was awarded the lands around what is now Dundalk by Prince John on the death of Murchadh Ó Cearbhaill in 1189. On de Verdun ‘s death in Jaffa in 1192, his lands at Dundalk passed to his son Thomas and then to his second son, Nicholas, when Thomas died. In 1236, Nicholas ‘s daughter Roesia commissioned Castle Roche 10 km northwest of the contemporary township, on a large rocky outcrop with a command opinion of the surrounding countryside. It was completed by her son, John, in the 1260s. [ 28 ]
Grave of King Edward Bruce Grave of King Edward Bruce The Ulster Irish sided with Edward Bruce, brother of the Scottish baron Robert the Bruce after he landed at Larne on 26 May 1315. As his army made its room south through Ulster, they destroyed the de Verdun fortress at Castle Roche and attacked Dundalk on 29 June. The township was about wholly destroyed and its population, both Anglo-Irish and Gaelic, massacred. After taking possession of the township, Bruce proclaimed himself King of Ireland. Following three more years of battles across the north-eastern separate of the island, Bruce was killed and his united states army defeated at the Battle of Faughart by a effect led by John de Birmingham, who was created the 1st Earl of Louth as a reward. [ 29 ] late generations of de Verduns continued to own lands at Dundalk into the fourteenth century. Following the death of Theobald de Verdun, 2nd Baron Verdun in 1316 without a male successor, the family ‘s landholdings were split. One of Theobold de Verdun ‘s daughters, Joan, married the second gear Baron Furnivall, Thomas de Furnivall, and his family subsequently acquired much of the de Verdun domain at Dundalk. [ 26 ] The de Furnivall family ‘s coat of arms formed the basis of the seal of the ‘New Town of Dundalk’—a 14th-century seal discovered in the early twentieth hundred, which became the town ‘s coat of arms in 1968. [ 30 ] The ‘new town ‘ that was established in the thirteenth century is the contemporary town center ; the ‘old town of the Castle of Dundalk ‘ being the original de Verdun settlement at Castletown Mount some 2 km to the west. The de Furnivalls then sold their holdings to the Bellew class, another Norman family hanker established in County Meath. The town was granted its inaugural courtly charter as a ‘New Town ‘ in the late fourteenth hundred under the reign of Richard II of England. efficaciously a frontier town as the northernmost outstation of The Pale, Dundalk continued to grow as the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries progressed. The town was heavily fortified, as it was regularly attacked—with at least 14 separate assaults, sieges or demands for tribute by a resurgent native irish population recorded between 1300 and 1600 ( with more than that total being probable ). The O’Neills and O’Donnells of Ulster ransacked the town at least doubly and threatened it on at least three other occasions between 1423 and 1444 .

english govern [edit ]

Map of Dundalk, 1675 Map of Dundalk, 1675 In overture of crowning himself ‘ King of Ireland ‘ in 1542, Henry VIII extended his policy of Dissolution of the Monasteries to Ireland, and in 1540 the Priory of St Leonard, founded by Bertram de Verdun, was surrendered. [ 34 ] During the subsequent Tudor conquest of Ireland, Dundalk remained the northern frontier settlement of English dominion. When the conquest was complete, it was recorded that the lands and property of Dundalk were in the hands of Sir John Bellew and Sir John Draycot. The town was subsequently used as a base of operations for the English, led by Charles Blount, 8th Baron Mountjoy, for their push into Ulster through the ‘Gap of the North ‘ ( the Moyry Pass ) in 1600, during the Nine Years ‘ War. [ 36 ] Following the Flight of the Earls, the subsequent plantation of Ulster ( and the consort inhibition of Catholicism ) resulted in the irish Rebellion of 1641. After entirely token resistance, Dundalk was occupied by an Ulster Irish Catholic army on 31 October. They subsequently tried and failed to take Drogheda and retreated to Dundalk. The Royal Irish Army, who were led by the Duke of Ormond ( and known as Ormondists ), in turn, laid siege to Dundalk and overrun and plundered the town in March 1642, killing many inhabitants. [ 37 ] The Royalists continued to occupy the town, during which time they maintained a armistice with the Irish Catholic Confederation who had succeeded the rebels of 1641, as the English Civil War developed. In 1647, the town was occupied by the Northern Parliamentary Army of George Monck, who held it for two years before surrendering it back to the Ormondists. It was promptly retaken by the forces of Oliver Cromwell, who had landed in Ireland in August 1649 and sacked Drogheda. After the slaughter in Drogheda, Cromwell wrote to the Ormondist commanding officer in Dundalk warning him that his garrison would suffer the lapp destiny if it did not surrender. The Duke of Ormond ordered the commander to have his men burn the town before his hideaway but they did not do sol, such was their haste to leave. For the remainder of the cromwellian conquest of Ireland, the town was again used as a base for operations against the Irish in Ulster. [ 37 ] The Corporation of Dundalk was granted a newly charter by Charles II on 4 March 1673, after the Restoration of the monarchy. The forfeit of property and settlements carried out during the Restoration saw a lot of the nation of Dundalk granted to Marcus Trevor, 1st Viscount Dungannon, who had fought for both sides in the war. flush though the Bellews were seen as Papists, Sir John Bellew appears to have held on to much of his family ‘s down. [ 37 ] english politics were soon impacting Ireland again, and in 1689 the Williamite commanding officer, Schomberg landed in Belfast and marched unopposed to Dundalk, but, as the bulge of his forces were natural and undisciplined angstrom well as inferior in numbers to the Jacobite Irish Army, he decided against risking a battle. He entrenched himself at Dundalk and declined to be drawn beyond the circle of his defences. With poor logistics and struck by disease, over 5,000 of his troops died and an opportunity to end the war by taking Dundalk from the Jacobites was missed. [ 38 ] After the end of the Williamite War, the third Viscount Dungannon, Mark Trevor, sold the Dundalk estate of the realm to James Hamilton of Tollymore, County Down. Hamilton ‘s son, besides James, was created Viscount Limerick in 1719 and then the first base Earl of Clanbrassil in 1756. The modern township of Dundalk largely owes its shape to Hamilton. The military activeness of the seventeenth century had left much of the township ‘s walls in ruins. With the break down of the Gaelic nobility and the total coup d’etat of the nation by the English, Dundalk was no longer a frontier town and no long had a need for its 15th-century fortifications. Hamilton commissioned the construction of streets leading to the township center ; his ideas stemming from his visits to Continental Europe. In addition to the demolition of the old walls and castles, he had fresh roads laid out eastwards of the principal streets. [ 39 ] When the foremost Earl died in 1758, the estates passed to his son, again James, the irregular Earl of Clanbrassil, who died without an successor in 1798. The second Earl ‘s sister, Lady Anne Hamilton, had married Robert Jocelyn in 1752. The Jocelyns were in the first place landowners in County Tipperary and Robert Jocelyn was created first Earl of Roden in 1771. On the death of the moment Earl of Clanbrassil, the Earls of Roden succeeded to the Dundalk estate. several portions of the Roden Dundalk estate were sold off under the auspices of the diverse country acts of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, culminating in the Irish Free State politics lands purchase acts of the 1920s. The remainder of the estate of the realm, chiefly freeholds and prime rents, was sold in 2006, thus finally severing the links between the Earls of Roden and the township of Dundalk. [ 40 ] During the eighteenth hundred, Ireland was controlled by the minority Anglican Protestant Ascendancy via the Penal Laws, which discriminated against both the majority Irish Catholic population and Dissenters. Mirroring other boroughs around the country, Dundalk Corporation was a ‘closed shop ‘, consisting of an electorate of ‘freemen ‘, most of whom were absentee landlords of the Ascendancy. The Earl of Clanbrassil controlled the procedures for both the nomination of new freemen and the nomination of parliamentary candidates, consequently disenfranchising the local anesthetic populace. [ 41 ] In the late eighteenth hundred, the United Irishmen motion, inspired by the american and french revolutions, led to the Rebellion of 1798. [ 42 ] In north Louth, the authorities had successfully suppressed the activities of the United Irishmen anterior to the rebellion with the help of informants, and a phone number of local leaders had been rounded up and imprisoned in Dundalk Gaol. An attack on the military barracks and imprison was planned for 21 June 1798, in order to loose prisoners. The attack failed because of a thunderstorm, which dispersed the gathered United Irish volunteers, and two of the imprison leaders – Anthony Marmion and John Hoey – were subsequently tried for treason and hanged. [ 41 ]

After the Acts of Union [edit ]

Kelly Monument, Dundalk, County Louth Kelly Monument Following the Act of Union, which came into violence on 1 January 1801, The nineteenth century saw industrial expansion in the town ( see Economy ) and the construction of a total of buildings, which hush stand nowadays. [ 43 ] The first railway links arrived when the Dundalk and Enniskillen Railway opened a line from Quay Street to Castleblayney in 1849, and by 1860 the company operated a route northwesterly to Derry. besides in 1849, the Dublin and Belfast Junction Railway opened Dundalk railroad track place. Following a series of mergers, both lines were incorporated into the Great Northern Railway ( Ireland ) in 1876. [ 44 ] The established and merchant classes prospered alongside a general population that suffered from poverty. A typhus epidemic assume in the 1810s, potato-crop failures in the 1820s caused dearth, and a cholera epidemic strike in the 1830s. [ 45 ] During the Great Famine of the 1840s, the town did not suffer to the like extent as the west and south of Ireland. Cereal-based department of agriculture, new industries, construction projects, and the arrival of the railroad track all contributed to sparing the town of its worst effects. [ 45 ] Nevertheless, indeed many people died in the Dundalk Union Workhouse that the cemetery was quickly filled. A second base cemetery was opened on the Ardee Road—the Dundalk Famine Graveyard—which is known to contain approximately 4,000 bodies. It was closed in 1905 and was left creaky until the twenty-first Century when local volunteers worked to restore it. [ 46 ] In 1858, a transport, the Mary Stoddart, was wrecked in Dundalk Bay during a storm. In attempting to rescue the crew, Captain James Joseph Kelly and three volunteer crew drowned when the storm overturned their boat. Five of the Mary Stoddart crew were besides lost, while 11 were finally rescued. 20 years late, a repository known as the Kelly Monument was erected in Roden Place in their memory, which still stands today. [ 47 ] [ 48 ]
Market held in front of Dundalk Courthouse with Maid of Erin statue to front and bell tower of St Patrick's Church visible in background, c. 1906 market held in front man of Dundalk Courthouse with Maid of Erin statue to front and bell tower of St Patrick ‘s Church visible in background, c. 1906 The latter part of the nineteenth Century was dominated by the Irish Home Rule drift and Dundalk became a focal steer of the politics of the time. The irish National Land League held a demonstration in Dundalk on New Year ‘s Day, 1881, stated by the local anesthetic wardrobe to be the largest gather always seen in the town. [ 49 ] The township by this point had become increasingly and overtly nationalist —for example, the Dundalk Democrat & People’s Journal newspaper, founded in 1849, had the motto “ Ireland for the Irish ” on its masthead, [ 50 ] and for the centennial of the 1798 rebellion, a memorial called the ‘Maid of Erin ‘ was erected in the Market Square outside the courthouse, where it distillery stands today. [ 51 ] As the Home Rule movement developed, the sitting Home Rule League MP, Philip Callan, fell afoul of party drawing card Charles Stewart Parnell, who travelled to Dundalk to oversee efforts to have Callan unseat. Parnell ‘s campaigner, Joseph Nolan, defeated Callan in the election of 1885, after a campaign of voter inhibition and intimidation on both sides. [ 52 ] Following the schism in the Irish Parliamentary Party, the leading anti-Parnellite, Tim Healy, won the North Louth seat in 1892, defeating Nolan ( who had stayed patriotic to Parnell ). The campaign, predicted by Healy to be “ the nastiest fight in Ireland ”, saw running battles and mass brawl in the streets between Parnellites, ‘Healyites ‘, and ‘Callanites’—supporters of Philip Callan, who was trying to regain his seat. [ 53 ] The local anesthetic Sinn Féin cumann was founded in 1907 by Patrick Hughes. It struggled to grow beyond a handful of members owing to the existing political factions. [ 54 ] In 1910, on the entree of George V to the English throne, the local High Sheriff, accompanied by police and soldiers, led a announcement to the new king at the Market Square. The ceremony was interrupted by the local Sinn Féin members, who raised a tricolor beside the Maid of Erin monument and chanted “ God Save Ireland ” during a rendition of “ God Save the King ” —giving the party visibility in the town for the first fourth dimension. [ 55 ] approximately 2,500 men from Louth volunteered for Allied regiments in World War I and it is estimated that 307 men from the Dundalk zone died during the war. [ 56 ] In the months before the outbreak of the war, the G.N.R. converted nine of its carriages into a mobile ‘ambulance train ‘, which could hold 100 wounded soldiers. Ambulance Train 13 was kept in service for the duration of the war before being decommissioned in 1919. [ 57 ] The war came to Dundalk right at its end, when the S.S. Dundalk was sunk by a german submarine on 14 October 1918 on a voyage from Liverpool spinal column to Dundalk. 20 crew-members were killed, while 12 were rescued. [ 58 ] interim, the Easter Rising had changed the political landscape. 80 members of the irish Volunteers had left Dundalk to take region in the Rising, with orders to destroy the bridge at Slane and take up put in Blanchardstown, outside Dublin. The countermanding order of Eoin MacNeill, followed by the realization that the Rising had commenced anyhow, caused confusion. Members of the unit ended up in Castlebellingham, trying to evade the Dundalk RIC. There, they held a number of RIC men and a british Army policeman at point until one of the Volunteers, believing the army military officer was reaching for a hidden weapon, fired, killing RIC constable Charles McGee. The unit of measurement subsequently made their way to North County Dublin until the Rising had ended. They went on the run and most were captured. Four were sentenced to end for the murder of constable McGee but were released in the general amnesty of 1917. [ 59 ]

independence [edit ]

In the 1918 Irish cosmopolitan election, Louth elected its first Sinn Féin MP when John J. O’Kelly defeated the sitting MP, Richard Hazleton of the Irish Parliamentary Party, in the closest contest of the election—O’Kelly winning by 255 votes. In the run-up to the election, the local newspapers had supported the Irish Party over Sinn Féin and complained afterwards that the area of Drogheda in County Meath that was included in the Louth constituency had tipped the contest in Sinn Féin ‘s favor. [ 60 ] Again, the campaign saw reports of far-flung violence and bullying tactics. [ 61 ]
Photographs of the train derailed at Adavoyle railway station Photographs of the coach derailed at Adavoyle, printed in the Daily Mirror, 27 June 1921 There was no strategic military natural process in north Louth during the Irish War of Independence. Activity consisted of attacks on RIC stations and patrols to seize arms, and acts of sabotage. Arson attacks were a feature of the period in detail. [ 62 ] Crown forces committed reprisal attacks in response, hardening patronize for Sinn Féin. [ 61 ] In the consequence of a shoot of an RIC aide on 17 June 1921, brothers John and Patrick Watters were taken from their home at the Windmill Bar and shot dead. The british authorities subsequently suppressed the Dundalk Examiner newspaper for reporting on the incident, and smashed its impression presses. [ 54 ] Volunteers from the area led by Frank Aiken were more active in Ulster, and were responsible for the derail of a military train at Adavoyle railroad track post, 14 kilometer north of Dundalk, which killed three soldiers, the string ‘s guard, and dozens of horses. [ 63 ] The Anglo-Irish Treaty turned Dundalk, once again, into a frontier town. Aiken ‘s Fourth Northern Division continued a guerrilla campaign against the new Northern Ireland government and its Ulster Special Constabulary, with sectarian attacks and reprisals carried out by both sides. In the fresh Irish Free State, the divide over the treaty led to the Irish Civil War. Before the outbreak of hostilities, Éamon de Valera toured Ireland making a series of anti-treaty speeches. In the Market Square on 2 April 1922, before a large push, he said that those who had negotiated the treaty “ had run across to Lloyd George to be spanked like short boys. ” [ 64 ] Aiken attempted to keep his division neutral during the split over the treaty but events in Dublin overtook his surround war. [ 63 ] On 16 July 1922, Aiken and all of the anti-treaty elements among his men were arrested and imprisoned at Dundalk military barracks and Dundalk Gaol in a surprise move by the pro-treaty Fifth Northern Division, now part of the National Army. Eleven days former, anti-treaty ‘Irregulars ‘ blew a trap in the forbidden wall of the jail, freeing Aiken and his men. At 4am on 14 August, Aiken led an assail on the barracks that resulted in its capture with five National Army and two irregular soldiers killed. Aiken ‘s men killed another twelve National Army soldiers in guerrilla attacks before the township was retaken without resistor on 26 August. Before withdrawing, Aiken called for a armistice at a converge in the center of Dundalk. [ 65 ] From that degree, north Louth ceased to be an area of strategic importance in the war. guerrilla attacks continued—mainly acts of sabotage, particularly against the railway. In January 1923, six anti-treaty prisoners were executed by firing team in Dundalk for bearing arms against the state. [ 66 ] [ 67 ]

Border town [edit ]

The division of Ireland turned Dundalk into a edge township and the Dublin–Belfast main tune into an international railway. On 1 April 1923, the Free State government began installing bound posts for the function of collecting customs duties. Almost immediately, the township started to suffer economic problems. A global post-war slump had been exacerbated by the introduction of the margin and tariffs. Businesses in the town saw their trade with the raw cross-border areas greatly reduced, and Carroll ‘s tobacco caller set about opening a new factory in Liverpool. The Dundalk Distillery was closed within weeks, as its products became nonviable. It reopened temporarily but was closed again in 1926 because its owners, scottish Distillers, no longer needed the production capacity. [ 70 ] The lapp year, the G.N.R. works reduced its work force by several hundred ; and the Dundalk and Newry Steam Packet Company went into volunteer liquidation and was taken over by B & I. It had been beset by strikes because of engage cuts imposed in both Dundalk and Liverpool by management. With a population of 14,000 at the time, unemployment was reported to be closely 2,000 and it was reported that : “ Up to a few years ago, Dundalk was one of the most golden and enterprise towns in Ireland … [ but ] it is a matter of coarse local cognition that distress to an acute accent degree is prevailing. ” [ 70 ] The Anglo-Irish trade wind war, in the midst of a ball-shaped natural depression, made things more unmanageable still. The industrial situation stabilised, however, as the need for autonomy and the protectionist policies adopted admit local anesthetic industries to increase use and thrive. [ 71 ] After the election of Fianna Fáil in 1932, two years of violence and intimidation followed as early Civil War foes in the IRA and National Army clashed at political rallies. The latter formed the Army Comrades Association, and became known as the Blueshirts. A penis of the Blueshirts carrying money from a collection in Dundalk was robbed at point by the IRA. Two local men were subsequently convicted of the looting. One of the witnesses for the prosecution was a Joseph McGrory from Chapel Sreet. Unidentified men, presumed by Gardaí to be members of the IRA, belated threw a bombard into his house, destroying it and badly injuring his mother who was inside, and two children playing away. [ 72 ] [ 73 ] The woman late died from her injuries. Five suspects charged with her mangle were former acquitted due to lack of evidence. [ 74 ] One of these, IRA Volunteer Richard Goss, was interned at the begin of World War II and was released following a successful habeas principal legal challenge. [ 75 ] He was late executed in 1941 for shooting at Gardaí and Defence Forces while trying to evade arrest. [ 76 ] There were three airplane crashes in what is immediately the municipal zone during the war. A british Hudson bomber crashed with three fatalities in 1941, and a P-51 Mustang champion of the US Army Air Forces crashed in September 1944, killing its pilot. The worst of the wartime air crashes occurred on 16 March 1942. 15 allied airmen died when their consolidate B-24 Liberator bomber crashed into Slieve na Glogh, which rises above the townland of Jenkinstown. [ 77 ] On 24 July 1941, the Luftwaffe dropped bombs near the town. There were no casualties and only minor damage was caused. [ 78 ] The town continued to grow in size—in terms of area, population and employment—after “ the Emergency “ ( as World War II was called in Ireland ), despite economic shocks such as the profligacy of the G.N.R. in 1958 and the closure of the Rawson shoe factory after a fire in 1967. [ 61 ] The accession of Ireland to the european Economic Community in 1973 induce difficulties, however. subsequent factory closures and job losses in businesses that struggled due to competition, collapsing consumer confidence, and unfavorable exchange rates with cross-border competitors, resulted in an unemployment rate of 26 % by 1986. [ 79 ] In summation, the outbreak of the Troubles in Northern Ireland in 1968 and the town ‘s position close to the border saw the town ‘s population swell, as nationalists/Catholics fleeing the violence in Northern Ireland settled in the area. [ 80 ] As a result of the ongoing sectarianism in the north, there was sympathy for the campaign of the Provisional irish Republican Army and Sinn Féin, and the town was home to numerous IRA operatives. [ 81 ] It was in this period that Dundalk earned the nickname ‘ El Paso ‘, after the Texan frame township of the lapp name on the edge with Mexico. [ 82 ] On 1 September 1973, the 27 Infantry Battalion of the irish Army was established, with its headquarters in Dundalk barracks, as a leave of the ongoing violence in the border region of North Louth / South Armagh. The barracks was renamed Aiken Barracks in 1986 in honor of Frank Aiken. [ 83 ] ‘The Battle of Courtbane ‘ took station on Sunday 29 August 1971, when a british army patrol consisting of two armored Ferret Scout cars crossed the irish molding into Co. Louth near the village of Courtbane close to Dundalk. angry locals blocked their retreat and set one of the vehicles on fire. As this was happening, an IRA unit arrived on the setting and a british soldier was killed and another wounded after an exchange of gunfire. [ 84 ] The Ulster Volunteer Force carried out the Dundalk Christmas Bombing on 19 December 1975, when a car turkey killed 2 and injured 15. [ 85 ] [ 86 ] The township was besides the picture of number of killings connected to the INLA and its leaning to engage in inner feud and criminal activity. [ 87 ] After the beginning of the Northern Ireland peace action, and the subsequent good Friday Agreement, then U.S. president, Bill Clinton, chose Dundalk to make an alfresco address in December 2000 in support of the peace process. [ 88 ] In his speech in the Market Square, witnessed by an calculate 60,000 people, Clinton spoke of “ a new day in Dundalk and a raw day in Ireland ”. [ 89 ]

twenty-first hundred [edit ]

U.S. President Bill Clinton in Dundalk, 2000 U.S. President Bill Clinton in Dundalk, 2000 The town was slow to benefit from a ‘peace dividend ‘, and in the first decade of the raw millennium the remaining brake shoe factory, the two Diageo-owned breweries, and the Carroll ‘s tobacco factory were among a phone number of factories to close—finally severing the links to the township ‘s industrial past. [ 90 ] [ 91 ] [ 92 ] By 2012, the town was being painted as one of Ireland ‘s “ most deprive areas ” after the global downturn following the Financial crisis of 2007–2008. [ 93 ] autochthonal industry started to recover, with the Great Northern Brewery being reopened as ‘the Great Northern Distillery ‘ in 2015 by John Teeling, who had established and later sold the Cooley Distillery ; [ 94 ] and locally-driven initiatives led to a bustle of alien direct investment announcements in the latter half of the 2010s, peculiarly in the technology and pharmaceutical sectors. [ 95 ] [ 96 ] The township ‘s association football club, Dundalk F.C., first formed in 1903 by the workers of the Great Northern Railway, received European-wide recognition when it became the first irish side to win points in the group degree of european contest in the 2016–17 UEFA Europa League. [ 97 ] [ 98 ] The club again qualified for the group stage in the 2020–21 season .

geography [edit ]

Dundalk is situated where the Castletown River flows into Dundalk Bay on the east coast of Ireland, with the town center on the south side of the river. It is in County Louth, which shares borders with County Armagh to the union ( in Northern Ireland ), County Monaghan to the west, and County Meath to the south. It is near the frame with Northern Ireland ( which is 7 kilometer ( 4.3 michigan ) from the township center by road and 3.5 kilometer ( 2.2 secret intelligence service ) at the nearest points by atmosphere ), and is equidistant between Dublin and Belfast ( 80 kilometer ( 50 nautical mile ) from both ). The town came to be nicknamed the ‘Gap of the North ‘ where the northernmost point of the state of Leinster meets the province of Ulster, [ 99 ] although the actual ‘gap ‘ is the Moyry Pass 8 kilometer to the north at the frame with Northern Ireland. Following the abolition of ‘legal towns ‘ under the local Government Reform Act 2014, Dundalk is partially of the across-the-board Dundalk Municipal District for the purposes of local anesthetic politics, which is approximately equivalent to the pre- 1898 baronies of Dundalk Lower and Dundalk Upper, i.e. roughly the northern one-third of the county by area including the Cooley peninsula. [ 2 ] The erstwhile legal town and its environs ( approximately the area north of the River Fane ( including Blackrock ), south of die 18 on the M1, bordered by the M1 to the west and the Irish Sea to the east ; and incorporating Knockbridge to the west of the M1 ) is now the ‘census township ‘. [ 100 ]

landscape [edit ]

Dundalk Aerial Photo aeriform view of Dundalk from the north, looking south The independent part of the census town lies at sea grade. Dún Dealgan Motte at Castletown is the highest point in the urban area at an elevation of 60 metres ( 200 foot ). [ 101 ] The municipal zone includes the Cooley Mountains, with Slieve Foy the highest of the peaks at an elevation of 589 metres ( 1,932 foot ). [ 102 ] The urban area straddles two geographic areas. A landscape of drumlins and undulate cultivated land form a crescent around the town ‘s forbidden limits. This area contains contorted ordovician and silurian slates and shales. The directly, low-lying coastal complain of the chief part of the urban area consists of alluvial clays, laid down as the sea retreated following the last Ice Age. The subsequent country reclamation was both a natural process and a man-made one—in finical as a resultant role of the drain schemes undertaken in the eighteenth hundred by James Hamilton, the first Earl of Clanbrassil. This has meant that the topography of the zone has changed extensively since the sphere was first inhabited and besides since the constitution of the original Norman settlements .

Street layout [edit ]

Clanbrassil Street, Dundalk, County Louth Clanbrassil Street, Dundalk, County Louth The layout of Dundalk is based around three principal street systems leading to the open, central Market Square. Running union from the square to the bridge over the Castletown River is Clanbrassil Street and Bridge Street ; with the Castletown Road running west from Bridge Street towards Castletown Mount—the original Norman settlement of Dundalk. Running east from the feather towards the erstwhile Quay Street railroad track place, the army barracks and the Port of Dundalk is Jocelyn Street, Seatown Place and Barrack Street. Running south out of the town to the Dublin Road is Park Street, Dublin Street, and Hill Street. [ 39 ]

climate [edit ]

like to much of northwest Europe, Dundalk experiences an oceanic climate and does not suffer from the extremes of temperature experienced by many other locations at similar latitude. [ 103 ] Summers are typically cool and partially cloudy and the winter is typically cold, moisture, long-winded, and largely cloudy. Over the class of the year, the temperature typically varies from 2 to 19 °C ( 36 to 66 °F ) and is rarely below −2 °C ( 28 °F ) or above 23 °C ( 73 °F ). [ 104 ]

Climate data for Dundalk, Leinster
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 7.3
(45.1)
7.6
(45.7)
9.5
(49.1)
11.6
(52.9)
14.4
(57.9)
16.9
(62.4)
18.5
(65.3)
17.9
(64.2)
16.1
(61.0)
12.9
(55.2)
9.5
(49.1)
7.6
(45.7)
12.5
(54.5)
Average low °C (°F) 3.0
(37.4)
2.8
(37.0)
3.6
(38.5)
5.3
(41.5)
8.0
(46.4)
10.8
(51.4)
12.5
(54.5)
12.3
(54.1)
10.8
(51.4)
8.3
(46.9)
5.4
(41.7)
3.5
(38.3)
7.2
(44.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 78
(3.1)
64
(2.5)
65
(2.6)
71
(2.8)
76
(3.0)
82
(3.2)
83
(3.3)
88
(3.5)
71
(2.8)
85
(3.3)
85
(3.3)
79
(3.1)
927
(36.5)
Source: [105]

demography [edit ]

Dundalk is the eighth largest urban area in Ireland and the third gear largest town ( behind Drogheda and Swords ), with a population of 39,004 as of the 2016 census. [ 106 ] Dundalk is the biggest township in Louth, however, because approximately 15 % of the population of Drogheda is in County Meath. [ 2 ] The population concentration of the census town of Dundalk was measured at 1,651 inhabitants per straight kilometer ( 4,280/sq secret intelligence service ) in 2016. [ 107 ]

population statistics [edit ]

Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1821 9,256 —    
1831 10,078 +8.9%
1841 10,782 +7.0%
1851 9,842 −8.7%
1861 10,360 +5.3%
1871 11,327 +9.3%
1881 11,913 +5.2%
1891 12,449 +4.5%
1901 13,076 +5.0%
1911 13,128 +0.4%
1926 13,996 +6.6%
1936 14,684 +4.9%
1946 18,562 +26.4%
1951 19,678 +6.0%
1956 21,687 +10.2%
1961 21,228 −2.1%
1966 21,678 +2.1%
1971 23,816 +9.9%
1981 29,135 +22.3%
1986 30,695 +5.4%
1991 30,061 −2.1%
1996 30,195 +0.4%
2002 32,505 +7.7%
2006 35,090 +8.0%
2011 37,816 +7.8%
2016 39,004 +3.1%
[108][100][3][109][110]

Population density per km2 of each small area (SA) in County Louth based on 2016 Census data Population concentration per km2 of each small area ( SA ) in County Louth based on 2016 Census data

Population by place of birth
Location 2006[108] 2011[100] 2016[3]
Ireland 28,095 29,114 29,430
UK 3,488 3,839 3,791
Poland 252 555 602
Lithuania 421 633 657
Rest of EU 692 1,119 1,508
Rest of World 1,804 2,269 2,652
Population by ethnic or cultural background
Ethnicity or culture 2006[108] 2011[100] 2016[3]
White Irish 29,840 30,645 29,872
White Irish Traveller 325 441 535
Other White 1,802 2,987 3,572
Black or Black Irish 1,276 1,669 1,785
Asian or Asian Irish 372 687 988
Other 380 389 682
Not stated 757 711 1,206
Population by religion
Religion 2006[108] 2011[100] 2016[3]
Roman Catholic 30,677 31,790 30,187
Other stated religions 2,472 3,350 4,248
No religion 1,158 1,971 3,331
Not stated 778 705 1,238
Population by principal economic status
Economic status 2006[108] 2011[100] 2016[3]
At work 14,301 12,875 14,312
Looking for first regular job 424 412 463
Unemployed 1,892 4,238 3,308
Student 2,985 3,747 3,842
Looking after home / family 3,036 2,634 2,453
Retired 3,204 3,903 4,332
Unable to work 1,483 1,536 1,552
Other 95 121 112

speech [edit ]

The beginning language of the majority of ‘white Irish ‘ residents of Dundalk is English ( a.k.a. Hiberno-English ). approximately 4 % of the population speak the irish speech on a daily basis outside of the education system. [ 108 ] [ 100 ] [ 3 ] The Omeath area in Cooley, within the municipal district, was a humble Gaeltacht area, with the last loudspeaker of a ‘Louth Irish ‘ dialect die in 1960. [ 111 ]

Politics and government [edit ]

National and european [edit ]

Dundalk is the county town ( the administrative kernel ) of the county of Louth in Ireland. It is represented at the national horizontal surface in Dáil Éireann as function the Louth parliamentary constituency, which was created under the terms of the Electoral Act 1923, and first used at the 1923 general election. [ 112 ] anterior to the Act of Union, which came into power on 1 January 1801, Dundalk was a Parliament of Ireland constituency. Following the Act of Union, Dundalk was a UK Parliament constituency until 1885. In 1885, the constituency was combined with the northerly separate of the County Louth constituency to become North Louth. In 1918, the North Louth constituency was combined with South Louth to form a single County Louth constituency for the whole county—the harbinger of the constituency formed following the universe of Dáil Éireann. [ 113 ] Dundalk is represented in the European Parliament within the Midlands–North-West constituency. [ 114 ]

local anesthetic government [edit ]

Louth County Council ( irish : Comhairle Contae Lú ) is the authority responsible for local government in Dundalk. [ 115 ] As a county council, it is governed by the local Government Act 2001. [ 116 ] For administrative purposes, the council is sub-divided into three areas, centred around the three independent towns in the county—Dundalk, Drogheda and Ardee. The Dundalk Municipal District comprises all of the county to the north of a line running approximately east-to-north west, from the seashore to the Monaghan border, across the villages of Castlebellingham and Knockbridge. [ 117 ] The county council has 29 elected members, 13 of whom are from the Dundalk area. Elections are held every five years and are by single assignable vote. For the purpose of elections, the Dundalk Municipal District is sub-divided into two local electoral areas : Dundalk- Carlingford ( 6 Seats ) and Dundalk South ( 7 Seats ). [ 118 ]

coat of arms [edit ]

Dundalk Corporation Seal in 1837 [119] Dundalk Corporation Seal in 1837. The coat of arms of Dundalk was officially granted by the Office of the Chief Herald at the National Library of Ireland in 1968, and is a rejoinder of the seal matrix of the ‘New Town of Dundalk ‘, which itself dates to the fourteenth Century. [ 30 ] The cachet is based on the coat of arms of the de Furnivall kin. Thomas de Furnivall had obtained a big depart of the bring and place of Dundalk and zone in about 1309 by marriage to Joan de Verdun—daughter of Theobald de Verdun, 2nd Baron Verdun, and Matilda Mortimer. A bend between six martlets forms the harbor. The ermine boar patron is derived from the arms of the Ó hAnluain ( O’Hanlon ) syndicate, Kings of Airthir, the main Gaelic Irish family in the area. The accurate origins of the leo passant guardant and the foot soldier with his spear and sword are not known. The leo is represented in the style of those on the Royal Arms adopted by Richard I of England. It has been said that it comes from the Mortimer family, [ 30 ] but a leo is not incorporated in the Mortimer family arms. The soldier is presumably related to the township ‘s origins as a Norman stronghold. [ 26 ] previously, the town ‘s coat of arms was a simple “ three martlets proper on a blue field ”, dating to at least when the Corporation of Dundalk had been granted a charter by Charles II in 1673. [ 120 ] It appears as the Corporation Seal in a town design date 1675. The Corporation Seal can be seen carved in pit on the Town Hall, which was built in the mid-1800s. [ 122 ] It can not be stated definitively if there is a liaison between the fourteenth hundred seal and the seventeenth hundred sealing wax. however, another Anglo-Norman syndicate, the Dowdalls, were besides influential landowners in Dundalk in the Middle Ages, having moved to Louth in the fourteenth hundred, and their family coat of arms contains three martlets proper on a field. The townland of Dowdallshill lies to the north of the Castletown River. In December 1929, the town council proposed to remove the “ three black crows ” from the seal of the town due to its English origins. [ 123 ] This form of the coat of arms continued to be used as the logo of several companies and organisations in the town—for exemplar, the Dundalk Race Company Limited ( the party that ran Dundalk Racecourse ), the Macardle Moore and Company brewery, and Dealgan Milk Products ( a dairy company formed in the town in 1960 ). It besides became the cap of Dundalk Football Club in 1927, prior to the cabaret severing its links with the Great Northern Railway ( Ireland ). The cabaret ‘s current crest retains the purpose of three martlets proper but on a red field. [ 124 ]

economy [edit ]

diligence [edit ]

Great Northern Distillery, Dundalk, County Louth Great Northern Distillery Linen was the beginning industry established in Dundalk in the mid eighteenth century, but the cambric and damask businesses had failed by the conclusion of the century, with the factories becoming abandoned ship. It would be the adjacent century before new industries established themselves : mills, tanneries, a foundry, a distillery, and breweries. During James Hamilton ‘s improvements to the town during the eighteenth century, the Port of Dundalk was established and became the one-eighth largest in Ireland in terms of exports. [ 125 ] [ 126 ] The latter half of the nineteenth hundred saw the population of Dundalk increase by 30 % ( despite the population of Ireland as a whole drop in the same period ) as the township ‘s industries thrived prior to the partition of Ireland. The Malcolm Brown & Co. Dundalk Distillery was established c.1780 at Roden Place and operated successfully throughout the nineteenth hundred. Brewing was besides a key industry in the town, with eight breweries in mathematical process by the end of the 1830s. The famine of the 1840s left fair two breweries in operation, which merged to become the Macardle Moore & Co. brewery at Cambricville. The Great Northern Brewery opened later, in 1896. [ 127 ] The Dundalk Iron Works was established in 1821 and by the end of the hundred had expanded to become a lead employer in the township under the ownership of A.E. Manisty. [ 128 ] The P.J. Carroll tobacco factory, started on a humble scale in the 1820s, grew throughout the 19th and early on twentieth centuries. The Great Northern Railway ( Ireland ) works established in 1881 became the “ backbone of the township ”. [ 129 ] The township ‘s industries suffered after partition and again from the Anglo-Irish trade war. The imposition of tariffs and duties in April 1923 and the establishment of customs checks on the boundary line affected exports and trade with the Newry district, which was now in a different jurisdiction. The distillery, which the Distillers Company of Scotland had acquired in 1912, was the first major Dundalk industry to close. It reopened temporarily, before it was closed permanently in 1926. [ 130 ] The Dundalk Iron Works, besides known as A.E. Manisty & Co., went into liquidation in 1928. protectionism gave the town ‘s industries breathing space, and by 1950 they had recovered from the effects of partition and the trade war. The two breweries were successful, the Dundalk Linen Company was expanding for the first base time in decades, and there were 1,800 people working in horseshoe manufacture in three factories—Rawson ‘s, Halliday ‘s and Connolly ‘s. 2,000 jobs were by this point dependent on the railway works and 500 jobs were dependent on the Carroll ‘s tobacco factory. [ 131 ] The town was besides a thrive commercial center, as the increase in bus traffic brought shoppers in from a wide spoke. [ 129 ] This was a acme period, however. The Northern Ireland government ‘s decision to close many of the G.N.R. lines north of the surround made the company nonviable, and it was dissolved in 1958. With it went the works in Dundalk. It was replaced by Dundalk Engineering Works Ltd ( DEW ) —a government-backed first step to keep the 980 remaining workers in use. [ 132 ] Against that backdrop, Clarks, who had formed a partnership with Halliday ‘s and would take full control of the company in 1971, demanded in 1959 that the town ‘s Athletic Grounds be sold to them for a new factory, or they would pull out of the town wholly. Afraid of the potential loss of 900 jobs, the council agreed to the sale, over considerable resistance. [ 133 ] Carroll ‘s besides continued to expand and modernise, opening a new factory on the Dublin Road in 1970, which was designed by Ronnie Tallon of Michael Scott & Partners, which subsequently won architectural awards for its design. [ 134 ] adenine belated as 1969, the town was still in a position to boast of its industrial art, with the engineering companies at the DEW booming. [ 135 ] The pressures of trade liberalization introduced by Ireland ‘s accession to the EEC in 1973 caused many of them to falter during the 1970s and 1980s. The most at-risk diligence proved to be shoe manufacture. Rawson ‘s had already gone into extermination in 1967 after the factory was destroyed by fire, with the personnel casualty of 500 jobs. [ 136 ] Lower-cost imports made the Clark ‘s factory unprofitable and after years of cutbacks it closed in 1985 with the passing of the remaining 370 jobs. besides closing permanently in 1985 was the Weyenberg Shoe Company factory, which had opened in 1969 and hired many ex-Rawson workers but had never reached wax productiveness. only the smallest of the manufacturers—Connolly ‘s, re-branded as Blackthorn—managed to stay in business by specialising its products. It finally closed in 2001. [ 137 ] 1985 proved to be the nadir, besides seeing the closing of the Engineering Works. By this phase unemployment in the town had reached 26 %, [ 79 ] and would reach 27.9 % by 1991. [ 138 ] Pleas to government for aid were unsuccessful. [ 139 ]

The town was behind to benefit from the Celtic Tiger economy that saw an economic boom in Ireland from the mid-1990s and seemed to stagnate with more closures and problem losses. In summation to the surviving breweries and Carroll ‘s, the ECCO ( Electronics Components Company Overseas ) factory opened by General Electric in 1966 had become the town ‘s go employer in the 1970s, employing approximately 1,500 people at its extremum with many thousands more working in companies providing goods and services to it. It, excessively, succumbed to competition and following a hanker period of decline, closed in 2006. [ 92 ] Diageo decided to close both of the town ‘s breweries—Cambricville in 2001, then the Great Northern in 2013 after a decade-long wind down. [ 91 ] besides after a retentive decline, the Carroll ‘s factory closed in 2005. [ 90 ] By 2012, the town was being painted as one of Ireland ‘s “ most deprive areas ” after the global downturn following the Financial crisis of 2007–2008. [ 93 ] Indigenous diligence started to recover, with the Great Northern Brewery being reopened as ‘the Great Northern Distillery ‘ in 2015 by John Teeling, who had established the Cooley Distillery. [ 94 ] Locally-driven initiatives led to a confuse of Foreign Direct Investment announcements in the latter half of the 2010s, particularly in the technology and pharmaceutical sectors. [ 95 ] [ 96 ]

tourism [edit ]

historically, the edge region has not seen the lapp level of tourism as Dublin or the Atlantic coast regions of Ireland, which was primarily the leave of the Troubles and an consociate lack of selling. This began to change in the mid-1990s because of the starting signal of the Northern Ireland peace process, and the increase in government investing in tourism made possible by the ‘ celtic Tiger ‘ period of economic expansion. [ 140 ] The area has since seen a growth in visitor numbers, with 172,000 alien and 179,000 domestic visitors to Louth recorded in 2017. [ 141 ] The Dundalk / North Louth region is marketed as share of the ‘Ireland ‘s Ancient East ‘ campaign. [ 142 ] The ‘ancient east ‘ encompasses Ireland ‘s seashore from the bound with Northern Ireland at Carlingford Lough to Kinsale in County Cork ; inland adenine far as the River Shannon. In contrast to the Wild Atlantic Way, which focuses on landscape, the ‘Ireland ‘s Ancient East ‘ crusade is more concentrate on history and inheritance. [ 143 ] Louth is marketed as the ‘Land of Legends ‘, a campaign which besides refers to a “ rich and ancient history and heritage ” and seeks to increase the count of visitors to the region “ by capitalising on Co Louth ‘s unique location within Ireland ‘s Ancient East, as the hub for the Boyne Valley and the Cooley, Mourne and Gullion Regions ”. [ 144 ] [ 145 ]

transportation [edit ]

Shipping [edit ]

Dundalk Port is a cargo import and export facility. There is no passenger traffic. [ 146 ] Shipping services to Liverpool were provided from 1837 by the Dundalk Steam Packet Company. It took over its rivals to become the Dundalk and Newry Steam Packet Company, which shipped cargo, live animals and passengers. It was forced to go into elimination and allow itself to be taken over by B & I in 1926 following a series of strikes. B & I maintained the Dundalk to Liverpool route as a hebdomadally serve until 1968. [ 147 ]

railway [edit ]

Dundalk rail network c. 1907 Dundalk train net c. 1907Dundalk railway station Dundalk railroad track station Dundalk is the inaugural place on the southern side of the boundary line along the Belfast–Dublin line. The first railroad track links arrived when the Dundalk and Enniskillen Railway opened a line from Quay Street to Castleblayney in 1849, and by 1860 the company operated a path northwest to Derry. The line to Quay Street was extended to Newry and Greenore by the Dundalk, Newry and Greenore Railway, owned by the London and North Western Railway, who operated a hotel in Greenore and from where a ferry servicing operated to Holyhead. It was opened between Greenore and Dundalk in 1873, and extended to Newry in 1876. [ 148 ] besides in 1849, the Dublin and Belfast Junction Railway opened its first base station in Dundalk. Following a series of mergers, both the Dublin and Belfast and Dundalk and Enniskillen lines were incorporated into the Great Northern Railway ( Ireland ) in 1876. [ 44 ] After partition, the G.N.R. had a molding running through its network, with lines crisscrossing it respective times, and the Northern Ireland government wanted to close many of the lines in favor of bus transport. By the 1950s, the G.N.R. ship’s company had ceased to be profitable and Dundalk saw its secondary routes closed—first the occupation to Greenore and Newry in 1951, [ 149 ] and then the line to Derry in 1957. [ 150 ] The G.N.R. was nationalised on both sides of the edge in 1953, and the company was last dissolved in 1958. The closure of the G.N.R. left Dundalk with only one operational line—the Dublin–Belfast “ Enterprise ” service ( angstrom well as Commuter services to and from Dublin ). [ 151 ] The G.N.R. built the current Dundalk railway station in 1894. It was renamed Clarke Station in 1966, in commemoration of Tom Clarke, one of the run leaders of the Easter Rising of 1916. It houses a small museum in the old excellent expect board, and has been called, “ the finest station on the main Dublin–Belfast line ”. [ 152 ] It was used as a film localization for the Walt Disney Pictures film, Disenchanted in May 2021. [ 153 ]

bus topology [edit ]

Dundalk ‘s Bus Station is operated by Bus Éireann and is located on the long base on balls near the township center. The company runs a town service—Route 174. [ 154 ] The company besides operates routes from Dundalk to Dublin, Galway, Newry, Clones, Cavan, and towns in between. [ 155 ] The Dundalk-Blackrock path was one of very few busbar routes not compulsorily purchased by CIÉ under the Transport Acts of 1932 and 1933. [ 156 ] It has been operated by Halpenny Travel since 1920. [ 157 ]

road [edit ]

The M1–N1 / A1 connects Dundalk to Dublin and Belfast. Exits 16, 17, and 18 military service Dundalk South, Dundalk Centre and Dundalk North, respectively. The National Secondary Road N52 from Nenagh, County Tipperary travels through the junction for exit 16 on the M1, runs through the east side of the town, and terminates at the junction for exit 18 of the M1. The N53 from Castleblayney, County Monaghan, which crosses the border doubly, terminates at the articulation for exit 17 on the M1. The R173, which starts and finishes at the junction for exit 18 of the M1, connects the town to the Cooley peninsula. The R171 connects the town to Ardee, the R177 and A29 connect the town to Armagh, and the R178 connects the town to Virginia, County Cavan via Carrickmacross, Shercock, and Bailieborough. [ 158 ]

architecture [edit ]

Dundalk Courthouse Dundalk courthouseTown Hall, Dundalk, County Louth Town HallSt Nicholas's Church St Nicholas ‘s churchSeatown Castle Seatown CastleSt Patrick's Church St Patrick ‘s church many of the buildings of architectural note in the township were built during the nineteenth century. [ 43 ] several buildings on the streets off the Market Square are described as being in the “ Dundalk style ” —ornate buildings, “ testifying to the confidence of Dundalk ‘s merchant class in the latter part of the nineteenth-century ”. [ 159 ] The Courthouse ( completed in 1819 ) was designed by Edward Parke and John Bowden in the Neoclassical style and modelled on the Temple of Hephaestus in Athens. [ 160 ] The Maid of Erin statue, erected in 1898, is located in the Market Square in front of the Court House. [ 51 ] The adjacent Town Hall ( completed in 1865 ), is an elaborate Italianate Palazzo Townhall, originally designed by John Murray as a corn exchange. It was sold to the Town Commissioners on completion. It is inactive used as agency space for the council and besides houses An Táin Arts Centre—a 350-seat main field, a 55-seat studio apartment theater, a ocular arts drift and two workshop spaces. [ 161 ] [ 122 ] The Kelly Monument is located in nearby Roden Place, in front of St Patrick ‘s Church. It was erected in 1879 to commemorate the sink of the Mary Stoddart in Dundalk Bay in 1858 and those who drowned in attempting a rescue. [ 162 ] The Louth County Library is located off Roden space, in a restore build up of what was the Dundalk Distillery. [ 163 ] Further up Jocelyn Street, the County Museum Dundalk, documenting the history of County Louth, is housed in another regenerate build up of the former distillery. [ 164 ] Dundalk Gaol was completed in 1855 and closed as a imprison in the 1930s. It was designed by John Neville, who was the county engineer at the time. [ 165 ] The Governor ‘s House to the movement of the Gaol became the Garda Station, and the two prison wings were belated restored and divided between the ‘Oriel Centre ‘ and the Louth County Archive. [ 166 ] [ 167 ] The neighbor Louth County Infirmary ( completed in 1834 ) was designed by English architect Thomas Smith in a neo-Tudor expressive style with a central entrance-way flanked by two deep-set grind floor arcades. It was purchased by Dundalk Grammar School in 2000. [ 168 ] The two oldest buildings in the town centre are Saint Nicholas ‘s Church of Ireland church and Seatown Castle. Saint Nicholas ‘s was primitively built c. 1400. It comprises elements of fourteenth- seventeenth- and eighteenth-century church buildings, having been extended, damaged, rebuilt over the centuries, and finally reworked by Francis Johnston. [ 169 ] It is known locally as the green Church due to its greens copper steeple. It contains an epitaph erected to the memory of Scotland ‘s National Bard, Robert Burns. His sister, Agnes Burns, is buried in the church ‘s cemetery. [ 170 ] Seatown Castle is at the junction of Mill Street and Castle Street. It is region of what was a franciscan friary in the first place founded in the thirteenth hundred. A baptismal font in St. Nicholas ‘s is reputed to have come from the friary. [ 171 ] further out from the township center are Dún Dealgan Motte and Castle Roche. The former is besides known as Cú Chulainn Castle and Byrne ‘s Folly. It sits on the site of the manor house built in the belated twelfth hundred by Bertram de Verdun when the Normans reached the sphere. The embattled house now located on the web site was built in 1780 by a local pirate named Patrick Byrne. It is a National Monument. [ 172 ] Castle Roche was built by Bertram ‘s granddaughter, Roesia, and completed by her son, John, in the deep thirteenth century. [ 173 ] A twentieth hundred construction, which has won architectural awards, [ 134 ] [ 174 ] is the Carroll ‘s tobacco factory on the Dublin Road. It was called “ a ground breaking irish factory purpose ”. The design, by Ronnie Tallon, is in the Miesian idiom. The first of the Louis lupus erythematosus Brocquy Táin illustrations was commissioned for the factory. It became separate of the Dundalk Institute of Technology campus in the 2010s. The ‘sails ‘ sculpture to the front was designed by Gerda Frömel. [ 175 ] many of the churches in the town were besides built in the nineteenth century, including the presbyterian church ( 1839 ), the early Methodist church ( 1834 ), and the Roman Catholic churches of St Patrick ( 1847 ), St Malachy ( 1862 ), St Nicholas ( 1860 ), and St Joseph ( 1890 ). [ 43 ] St Patrick ‘s was designed by Thomas Duff, and modelled on King ‘s College Chapel, Cambridge. It was completed in 1847. Duff besides designed the presbyterian church on Jocelyn Street. [ 176 ] The bell tugboat at St Patrick ‘s was added in 1903, modelled by George Ashlin on that of another English church, Gloucester Cathedral. [ 177 ] Ashlin besides designed the granite-built St Joseph ‘s Redemptorist monastery and church ( finished in 1880 and 1892, respectively ). [ 178 ]

Public spaces [edit ]

Ice House Hill, Dundalk, County Louth repository to the Garda Síochána, Ice House HillMillennium Sundial (Blackrock) Millennium Sundial ( Blackrock )The Sea God Managuan and Voyagers, Dundalk, County Louth The Sea God Managuan and Voyagers, Soldiers Point The largest park in the township center is Ice House Hill. It is approximately 8 hectares ( 20 acres ). The site was once separate of Dundalk House domain ( the courtly home of the Earl of Clanbrassil ). Dundalk House itself was demolished in the early twentieth hundred to make way for an extension of the original P.J. Carroll tobacco factory. [ 99 ] The master Ice House, built c. 1780, remains in the park and can be viewed from the outside. [ 179 ] The smaller St. Helena Park is approximately 0.7 hectares ( 1.7 acres ) and was first laid out in the 1800s. The bandstand was erected in the early 1920s. Most of the land which the park is on was reclaimed from the Castletown River. [ 180 ] St Leonard ‘s Garden in Seatown is a little park restored in the 1960s from a cemetery that was closed in 1896 and allowed to become overgrown. Within the parking lot are the ruin remains of stone walls from the friary founded by Bertram de Verdun in the twelfth hundred. [ 181 ] The Navvy Bank ( from ‘navigator ‘ ) is an artificial embankment constructed in the 1840s to facilitate the introduction of shipping to Dundalk Port. It is approximately two km ( 1.2 mile ) long and runs from Soldiers Point at the entrance to Dundalk Harbour, to near the contemporary quay. It is now a populace walk. Along its road, there is a memorial to those who died in the sink of the S.S. Dundalk during World War I. [ 58 ] At Soldiers Point there is a tan sculpture called The Sea God Managuan and Voyagers after a Celtic idol of the ocean. [ 182 ] adjacent to the town of Dundalk is the village of Blackrock ( five km ( 3.1 secret intelligence service ) from the town center ), which has three public beaches. Blackrock was a fish village before it became popular as a repair destination in the late nineteenth century. [ 183 ] The parade and sea wall, in the first place built in 1851, run along the length of the main beach and main street of the greenwich village. There are wetlands on both the north and south sides of the village, which are wildlife sanctuaries. [ 184 ] In 2000, to mark the millennium year, a sundial / statue was erected in Blackrock on the amble. The three kilometer ( 1.9 mile ) high gnomon is a bronze sculpt of a female dive figure, which was subsequently named ‘Aisling ‘. [ 185 ] seven-spot km ( 4.3 secret intelligence service ) to the southwest of the town, between Haggardstown and Knockbridge, is Stephenstown Pond—a nature park. It was originally commissioned by Matthew Fortescue, owner of the nearby Stephenstown House, which nowadays is in ruins. It was designed by William Galt, husband of Agnes Burns. [ 186 ] eleven kilometer ( 6.8 secret intelligence service ) to the union of the town, within the municipal zone, is Ravensdale forest. It is assorted forest rising steeply to the peak of Black Mountain ( 506 kilometer [ 314 mi ] ) with many kilometres of forest roads and tracks. There are three way-marked trails in the forest, the Táin Trail, the Ring of Gullion and the shorter Ravensdale Loop. It is managed by the Irish Forestry Service, Coillte. [ 187 ]

education [edit ]

primary schools [edit ]

elementary schools in Dundalk include a count of irish lyric -medium schools ( Gaelscoileanna ) like Gaelscoil Dhún Dealgan. [ 188 ] There are approximately 20 English-medium national schools in the area, the largest of which include Muire na nGael National School ( besides known as Bay Estate National School ) and Saint Joseph ‘s National School, which ( as of early 2020 ) had an registration of over 670 and 570 pupils respectively. [ 189 ] [ 190 ] [ 191 ]

secondary coil schools [edit ]

secondary schools in the township include Coláiste Lú ( an Irish medium secondary school or Gaelcholáiste ), [ 192 ] De la Salle College, Dundalk Grammar School, St. Mary ‘s College ( besides known as the Marist ), O’Fiaich College, [ 193 ] Coláiste Rís, St. Vincent ‘s secondary School, [ 194 ] St. Louis Secondary School, and Coláiste Chú Chulainn. [ 195 ]

third education [edit ]

Dundalk Institute of Technology ( abbreviated to DkIT ) is the focal steer for higher education and research on the Belfast-Dublin corridor, serving the North Leinster, South Ulster area. [ 196 ] It was established in 1970 as the Regional Technical College, offering chiefly technician and apprenticeship courses. [ 197 ] The Ó Fiaich Institute of Further Education besides offers further education courses. [ 198 ]

culture [edit ]

music and arts [edit ]

Dundalk has two centres for the arts— An Táin Arts Centre, an independent arts quad in the former Táin Theatre, Town Hall, Crowe Street ; [ 161 ] and The Oriel Centre in the former Dundalk Gaol, a regional center for Comhaltas Ceoltóirí Éireann. The Oriel Centre is a resource center and performance space, and has facilities for teach, archives, recording, rehearsal, and performance. [ 199 ] The Spirit Store, located at George ‘s Quay in the Port of Dundalk, is a gig venue in the township. [ 200 ] [ 201 ] Dundalk Institute of Technology Department of Creative Arts, Media and Music has a number of groups and ensembles, including the Ceol Oirghiallla Traditional Music Ensemble, the DkIT Choir, the Music Theatre Group, the Oriel Traditional Orchestra and the Fr. McNally Chamber Orchestra. [ 202 ] The Cross Border Orchestra of Ireland ( CBOI ) is a youth orchestra based at Coláiste Chu Chulainn, Dundalk. It was started as a peace inaugural. Since 1996, it has toured internationally and has played at venues such as Carnegie Hall and the Royal Albert Hall. [ 203 ] The Dundalk Brass Band was established in 1976 and comprises 25-30 members who perform a cross-section of big band and brass music. [ 204 ] The town has two photography clubs, Dundalk Photographic Society and the Táin Photographic Club. [ 205 ] [ 206 ]

Festivals [edit ]

Mural of King Edward Bruce, 'Seek Dundalk' urban art festival. Mural of King Edward Bruce, ‘Seek Dundalk ‘ urban artwork festival. The Dundalk Show ( besides known as the Dundalk Agricultural Show and the Co. Louth Agricultural Show ) has run since the nineteenth hundred at a issue of locations. It was originally held at the Dundalk racetrack in Dowdallshill, before moving to the Fair Green, the grounds of St Mary ‘s College, Bellingham Castle, and recently Bellurgan Park. [ 207 ] In 2019, the town had its inauguration urban artwork festival, ‘Seek Dundalk ‘. The street murals painted include Edward Bruce, the mastermind Peter Rice, and Cú Chulainn. [ 208 ] other festivals include the Frostival Winter Festival, held at the end of November, [ 209 ] and the St. Gerard Majella Annual Novena, an annual religious festival held over nine days in St. Joseph ‘s Redemptorist Church in Dundalk. It runs from 8 to 16 October. [ 210 ] A patron takes place on 15 August at Ladywell Shrine, during the Feast of the Assumption. [ 211 ] The Knockbridge Vintage Club besides run public events during the year. [ 212 ] The Seatown Patron is held per annum on the 29th June ( the feast day of Saint Peter, who is the patron ideal of Seatown ). The patron is celebrated by night bonfires, which is a custom believed to have originated in chivalric times. [ 214 ] St. Peter ‘s Well ( irish : Tobar Pheadair ) is located under the now creaky Dundalk Windmill in Seatown. [ 215 ] The Dundalk Maytime Festival was the township ‘s largest festival and run for 40 years starting in 1965. It started out as a ‘Grape and Grain ‘ festival before late centring around amateur drama. It finally ceased because of difficulties in securing sponsorship. [ 216 ] Within the wide Dundalk Municipal District, festivals and events include : the arcadian Field Music and Arts Festival—a three-day boutique festival begun in 2016 on the grounds of Bellurgan Park, [ 217 ] the Táin March festival, established in 2011—a walking festival held in June, which seeks to commemorate the fabled Cattle Raid of Cooley ( Táin Bó Cúailnge ), [ 218 ] the All-Ireland Poc Fada Championship held every year since 1960 on Annaverna Mountain on the Cooley Peninsula, [ 219 ] and the Brigid of Faughart Festival ( held annually in the first workweek of February ). [ 220 ] The township of Carlingford besides has a number of festivals and events during the year. [ 221 ]

Twin towns [edit ]

Dundalk is twinned with the play along towns :

sport [edit ]

Dundalk Football Club is a professional association football cabaret. The club competes in the League of Ireland Premier Division, the top grade of Irish football. The club was founded in 1903 as Dundalk G.N.R., the works-team of the Great Northern Railway. [ 224 ] They were a junior club until they joined the Leinster Senior League in 1922–23. [ 225 ] They were then elected to the Free State League ( which late became the League of Ireland ) in 1926–27. [ 226 ] [ 227 ] The club has played at Oriel Park since moving from its original home at the Dundalk Athletic Grounds in 1936. [ 228 ] Gaelic football clubs in the town include Dundalk Gaels GFC, Seán O’Mahony ‘s GFC, Clan na Gael, Na Piarsaigh, Dowdallshill and Dundalk Young Irelands. [ 229 ] Young Irelands ( representing Louth ) contested the first All-Ireland football final examination in 1888, losing to the Commercials clubhouse, representing Limerick. [ 230 ] The two hurl clubs in the town are Knockbridge GAA and Naomh Moninne H.C., who are the leading club in Louth with 22 county titles as of 2020. [ 231 ] A founding penis of Naomh Moninne, Father Pól Mac Sheáin, introduced the All-Ireland Poc Fada Championship in 1960. [ 232 ] Dundalk R.F.C. is an amateur Irish Rugby football club who compete in Division 1A of the Leinster League. The baseball club beginning formed in 1877 and became founder members of the Provincial Towns Union, which then merged into what became the Northern Branch of the Irish Rugby Football Union. They moved to their present home plate labor at Mill Road in 1967. [ 233 ] The Dundalk Racecourse was reopened as Dundalk Stadium in 2007 and now holds both knight race and greyhound rush meetings. It is Ireland ‘s foremost all-weather cavalry racing track. The stadium besides hosts the Dundalk International greyhound race. [ 234 ]
Greenore golf course Greenore golf naturally golf was foremost played in Dundalk when a nine-hole course was laid out at Deer Park in 1893. The Dundalk Golf Club was founded in December 1904 at Deer Park, then moved to its present location in Blackrock in 1922. The current layout was designed by Peter Alliss and completed in 1980. [ 235 ] The Ballymascanlon Hotel besides has a park course. [ 236 ] Greenore Golf Club ( which is within the municipal district ) was opened in October 1896 by the London and North Western Railway company, who owned a hotel in Greenore and the Dundalk, Newry and Greenore Railway. The members bought the club when the railway caller closed the line and pulled out of Ireland. The modern class layout was designed by Eddie Hackett. [ 237 ] Dundalk has several game angling waters including the Dee, Glyde, Fane, Ballymascanlan and Castletown rivers. All of these rivers flow into the irish sea at Dundalk Bay. These rivers contain dear stocks of wilderness brown trout equally good as salmon and sea trout. [ 238 ] There is a Salmon Anglers Association and a Brown Trout Anglers Association. [ 239 ] Sea Angling is available in several locations in the broad Municipal District and there is besides a Sea Angling Club. [ 240 ] The Dundalk Lawn Tennis and Badminton Club was established in 1913. It is located at the Ramparts in the township center. The club has nine tennis courts, two Olympic-standard badminton courts and two squash courts. [ 241 ] A Dundalk and District Snooker League has been active since the 1940s. It was re-branded as the Dundalk Snooker League in 2010 and plays in the Commercial Club in the town center. [ 242 ] The amateur boxing baseball club, Dealgan ABC, was founded in 1938. [ 243 ] The stream Dundalk Cricket Club was established in 2009. [ 244 ] They play in Hiney Park, the former Dundalk F.C. train grate. [ 245 ] There are a number of athletics clubs, including St. Gerards A.C., St. Peter ‘s A.C, Dun Dealgan A.C. and Blackrock A.C., [ 246 ] and a triathlon clubhouse ( Setanta Triathlon Club ). [ 247 ] Cuchulainn Cycling Club was formed in 1935. [ 248 ] The Louth Mavericks American Football Club is based in Dundalk and was established in 2012. They play in AFI Division 1, train at DKIT, and play their matches at Dundalk Rugby Club. [ 249 ]

Media [edit ]

Dundalk ‘s local newspapers are the Dundalk Democrat ( established as the Dundalk Democrat and People’s Journal in 1849 ), [ 250 ] The Argus ( established as the Drogheda Argus and Leinster Journal in 1835 ), [ 251 ] and the Dundalk Leader, a freely distributed newspaper. [ 252 ] Online-only newsworthiness media include Louth Now. [ 253 ] Older long-established publications no longer in print include the Dundalk Examiner and Louth Advertiser ( 1880–1960 ), [ 254 ] and The Dundalk Herald ( 1868–1914 ). [ 255 ] There are no local or regional television receiver services. In radio, Dundalk is serviced by regional stations LMFM ( Louth-Meath FM ) on 96.5 FM, [ 256 ] and iRadio ( NE and Midlands ) on 106.2 FM. [ 257 ] The local radio station is Dundalk FM, broadcasting on 97.7 FM. [ 258 ]

See besides [edit ]

  1. ^[1] 80 legal towns were abolished under the local anesthetic Government Reform Act 2014. Census towns which previously combined legal towns and their environs have been newly defined using the standard census town criteria ( with the 100 metres proximity rule ). For some towns the shock of this has been to lose area and population, compared with previous computations. 2011 census data for the 80 legal towns and their environs is available individually in table CD109 .
  2. ^[2] The rural area is defined as being the Dundalk Municipal District, created under the local Government Reform Act 2014 .

References [edit ]

Bibliography
  • Gosling, Paul (1991). “From Dún Delca to Dundalk: The Topography and Archaeology of a Medieval Frontier Town A.D. c. 1187-1700”. Journal of the County Louth Archaeological and Historical Society. 22 (3): 221–353. doi:10.2307/27729714. JSTOR 27729714.
  • Hall, Donal (2010). “Partition and County Louth”. Journal of the County Louth Archaeological and Historical Society. 27 (2): 243–283. JSTOR 41433023.
  • D’Alton, John (1864). The History of Dundalk, and Its Environs: From the Earliest Historic Period to the Present Time, with Memoirs of Its Eminent Men. William Tempest. ISBN 1297871308.
  • McQuillan, Jack (1993). Railway Town : The Story of the Great Northern Railway Works and Dundalk. Dundalgan Press. ISBN 0852211201.
  • Oram, Hugh (2006). Old Dundalk and Blackrock. Stenlake Publishing. ISBN 978-1840333756.
  • O’Sullivan, Harold (1997). Dundalk and North Louth: Paintings and Stories from Cuchulainn’s Country. Dundalgan Press. ISBN 978-1900935067.
  • Sexton, Daniel (2020). Dundalk Football Club: In Black And White. Amazon. ISBN 979-8639712814.
Citations

Dundalk travel guide from Wikivoyage

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