Hiberno-English – Wikipedia

Set of English dialects natively written and spoken within the island of Ireland
“ english in Ireland ” redirects here. For english rule, see british rule in Ireland. For people of English origin living in Ireland and their descendants, see Anglo-Irish people

Speech example (




) An model of a serviceman with a non-local Dublin supraregional accent ( Dara Ó Briain ) .

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Speech example (




) An model of a man with a new Dublin accent ( Donal MacIntyre ) .

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Hiberno-English ( from Latin Hibernia : “ Ireland ” ) or Irish English [ 3 ] ( Ulster Scots : Erse Inglis, irish : Béarla na hÉireann ) is the place of English dialects natively written and spoken within the island of Ireland ( including both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland ). [ 4 ] Old English or Anglo-Norman was brought to Ireland as a result of the Anglo-Norman invasion of Ireland of the late twelfth century ; this became the Forth and Bargy dialect, which is not mutually comprehensible with Modern English. A second curl of the English lyric was brought to Ireland in the sixteenth hundred Elizabethan period, making the variety of English speak in Ireland the oldest external of Great Britain and phonologically more button-down to Elizabethan English. [ 5 ] [ 6 ] Initially, Norman-English was chiefly spoken in an area known as the Pale around Dublin, with largely the irish speech spoken throughout the pillow of the state. Some little pockets remained of speakers who predominantly continued to use the English of that time ; because of their sheer isolation these dialects developed into late ( now-extinct ) English-related varieties known as Yola in Wexford and Fingallian in Fingal, Dublin. These were no longer mutually intelligible with other english varieties. By the Tudor time period, irish culture and language had regained most of the territory lost to the invaders : even in the Pale, “ all the common folk… for the most contribution are of Irish birth, irish habit, and of irish terminology ”. [ 7 ] however, the Tudor conquest and colonization of Ireland in the sixteenth century led to the second gear roll of immigration by english speakers along with the push suppression and decay in the condition and use of the irish speech. By the mid-19th century English had become the majority lyric spoken in the nation. [ a ] It has retained this status to the present sidereal day, with even those whose first terminology is irish being eloquent in English a well. today, there is little more than one percentage of the population who speaks the irish speech natively, [ 9 ] though it is required to be taught in all state-funded schools. Of the 40 % of the population who self-identified as speaking some Irish in 2016, 4 % speak irish day by day outside the education system. [ 10 ] In the Republic of Ireland, English is one of two official languages ( along with Irish ) and is the state ‘s de facto working lyric. irish English ‘s write standards align with British quite than american English. [ 11 ] however, Irish English ‘s diverse accents and some of its grammatical structures are alone, with some influence by the irish terminology and some instances of phonologically button-down features : features no longer common in the accents of England or North America. Phonologists nowadays often watershed irish English into four or five overarch dialects or accents : [ 12 ] [ 13 ] Ulster accents, West and South-West Irish accents ( like the widely discussed Cork accent ), versatile Dublin accents, and a non-regional standard emphasis expanding since only the concluding quarter of the twentieth century ( outside of Northern Ireland ) .

Ulster English [edit ]

Ulster English ( or Northern Irish English ) here refers jointly to the varieties of the Ulster province, including Northern Ireland and neighbouring counties outside of Northern Ireland, which has been influenced by Ulster Irish equally well as the Scots terminology, brought over by scots settlers during the Plantation of Ulster. Its independent subdivisions are Mid-Ulster English, South Ulster English and Ulster Scots, the latter of which is arguably a separate language. Ulster varieties distinctly pronounce :

luminary lifelong native speakers [edit ]

West and South-West Irish English [edit ]

West and South-West Irish English here refers to broad varieties of Ireland ‘s West and South-West Regions. Accents of both regions are known for :

  • The backing and slight lowering of sass towards [ɐʊ~ʌʊ]
  • The more open starting point for north and thought of [ɑːɹ~äːɹ][ɑː~ä]
  • The preservation of capricorn as monophthongal [oː]
  • /θ/ and /ð/, respectively, as [t~tʰ][d]
  • In the West, /s/ and /z/ may respectively be pronounced by older speakers as /ʃ/ and /ʒ/ before a consonant, so fist sounds like fished, castle like cashle, and arrest like arresht.[20]

South-West Irish English ( often known, by specific county, as Cork English, Kerry English, or Limerick English ) besides features two major defining characteristics of its own. One is the pin–pen amalgamation : [ 21 ] the recruit of DRESS to [ ɪ ] when before /n/ or /m/ ( as in again or pen ). The other is the intonation form of a slenderly higher pitch followed by a meaning flatten in pitch on stress long-vowel syllables ( across multiple syllables or even within a single matchless ), [ 22 ] which is popularly heard in rapid conversation, by speakers of other english dialects, as a noticeable kind of undulating “ sing-song ” form. [ 23 ]

celebrated lifelong native speakers [edit ]

Dublin English [edit ]

Dublin English is highly internally divers and refers jointly to the irish English varieties immediately surrounding and within the metropolitan area of Dublin. Modern-day Dublin English largely lies on a phonological continuum, [ citation needed ] ranging from a more traditional, lower-prestige, local urban stress on the one end to a more recently developing, higher-prestige, non-local ( regional and even supraregional ) dialect on the early end, whose most advance characteristics lone inaugural emerged in the recently 1980s and 1990s. [ 34 ] The emphasis that most strongly uses the traditional wage-earning features has been labelled by linguists as local Dublin English. Most speakers from Dublin and its suburb, however, have stress features falling variously along the integral middle a good as the newer end of the spectrum, which in concert form what is called non-local Dublin English, spoken by middle- and upper-class natives of Dublin and the greater easterly irish region surrounding the city. A subset of this kind, whose middle-class speakers largely range in the middle section of the continuum, is called mainstream Dublin English. Mainstream Dublin English has become the basis of an dialect that has otherwise become supraregional ( see more below ) everywhere except in the north of the area. The majority of Dubliners born since the 1980s ( led particularly by women ) has shifted towards the most innovative non-local dialect, hera called new Dublin English, which has gained ground over mainstream Dublin English and which is the most extreme diverseness in rejecting the local anesthetic accent ‘s traditional features. [ 35 ] The varieties at either extreme of the spectrum, local and new Dublin English, are both discussed in further detail under. In the most general terms, all varieties of Dublin English have the follow identify sounds that are frequently distinct from the lie of Ireland, pronounce :

  • mouth as fronted and/or raised [æʊ~ɛʊ~eʊ]
  • monetary value as retracted and/or centralised [əɪ~ɑɪ]
  • capricorn as a diphthong in the range (local to non-local) of [ʌʊ~oʊ~əʊ]

Local Dublin English [edit ]

Local Dublin English ( or popular Dublin English ) hera refers to a traditional, broad, propertyless variety show spoken in the Republic of Ireland ‘s capital city of Dublin. It is the only irish English variety that in earlier history was non-rhotic ; however, it is today weakly rhotic, [ 13 ] [ 36 ] Known for diphthongisation of the GOAT and FACE vowels, the local Dublin emphasis is besides known for a phenomenon called “ vowel break ”, in which MOUTH, PRICE, GOOSE and FLEECE in close syllables are “ crack ” into two syllables, approximating [ ɛwə ], [ əjə ], [ uwə ], and [ ijə ], respectively. [ 37 ]

New Dublin English [edit ]

Evolving as a fashionable process of the mainstream non-local Dublin English, new Dublin English ( besides, advanced Dublin English and, once, fashionable Dublin English ) is a youthful variety show that in the first place began in the early 1990s among the “ avant-garde “ and now those aspiring to a non-local “ urban sophism ”. [ 38 ] New Dublin English itself, beginning associated with affluent and middle-class inhabitants of southside Dublin, is probably nowadays spoken by a majority of Dubliners born since the 1980s. [ 34 ] It has replaced ( yet was largely influenced by ) stagnant D4 English ( much known as “ Dublin 4 ” or “ DART talk ” or, jeeringly, “ Dortspeak ” ), which originated around the 1970s from Dubliners who rejected traditional notions of Irishness, regarding themselves as more trendy and sophisticated ; [ 39 ] however, detail aspects of the D4 stress became cursorily noticed and ridiculed as sound affected, causing these features to fall out of fashion by the 1990s. [ 40 ] New Dublin English can have a fur–fair fusion, horse–hoarse, and witch–which mergers, while resisting the traditionally irish English cot–caught fusion. This stress has since spread South to parts of East Co. Wicklow, West to parts of North Co. Kildare and parts of South Co. Meath. The stress can be besides heard among the middle to upper classes in most major cities in the Republic nowadays .

Standard Irish English [edit ]

Supraregional Southern Irish English ( sometimes, merely Supraregional Irish English or Standard Irish English [ 41 ] ) refers to a variety show spoken peculiarly by educated and middle- or higher-class irish people, crossing regional boundaries throughout all of the Republic of Ireland, except the union. As mentioned earlier, mainstream Dublin English of the early- to mid-twentieth hundred is the aim influence and catalyst for this variety, [ 42 ] coming approximately by the suppression of certain markedly irish features ( and retention of other Irish features ) ampere well as the borrowing of sealed standard British ( i.e., non-Irish ) features. [ 43 ] The resultant role is a shape of features that is silent unique ; in other words, this dialect is not simply a sweeping shift towards british English. Most speakers born in the 1980s or later are showing fewer features of this late-twentieth-century mainstream supraregional imprint and more characteristics aligning to a quickly spreading new Dublin emphasis ( see more above, under “ Non-local Dublin English ” ). [ 44 ] Ireland ‘s supraregional dialect pronounces :

  • trap as quite open [a]
  • price along a possible spectrum [aɪ~äɪ~ɑɪ]voiced consonants,[36] notably including /r/.
  • talk as starting fronter and often more raised than other dialects: [ aʊ~æʊ~ɛʊ ].
  • start may be [äːɹ] (

    ), with a backer vowel than in other Irish accents, though still relatively fronted.

  • think as [ɒː]
  • north as [ɒːɹ] force out [oːɹ]war and wore, or horse and hoarse, pronounced distinctly.
  • choice as [ɒɪ]
  • capricorn as a diphthong, approaching [oʊ] (

    ), as in the mainstream United States, or [əʊ] (

    ), as in mainstream England.

  • tittup as higher, fronter, and often rounder [ ə~ʊ ].

overview of pronunciation and phonology [edit ]

The surveil charts list the vowels distinctive of each Irish English dialect a well as the several classifiable consonants of irish English. [ 12 ] [ 13 ] Phonological characteristics of overall irish english are given a well as categorisations into five major divisions of Hiberno-English : northern Ireland ( or Ulster ) ; West & South-West Ireland ; local Dublin ; new Dublin ; and supraregional ( southerly ) Ireland. Features of mainstream non-local Dublin English fall on a range between “ local Dublin ” and “ new Dublin ” .

saturated vowels ( monophthongs ) [edit ]

The defining monophthongs of Irish English: The take after pure vowel sounds are defining characteristics of irish English :

  • strut is typically centralised in the mouth and often somewhat more rounded than other standard English varieties, such as Received Pronunciation in England or General American in the United States.
  • There is a partial trap-bath split in most Irish English varieties (cf. Variation in Australian English).
  • There is inconsistency regarding the lot–cloth split and the cot–caught merger; certain Irish English dialects have these phenomena while others do not. The cot-caught merger by definition rules out the presence of the lot-cloth split.
  • Any and many are pronounced to rhyme with nanny, Danny, etc. by very many speakers, i.e. with each of these words pronounced with /æ/.[45]

All pure vowels of various Hiberno-English dialects:

Ulster West &
South-West Ireland
Example words
flat /æ/ [ äː~a ] [ æ ] [ a ] [ æ~a ] add, land, trap
/ɑː/ and broad /æ/ [ äː~ɑː ] [ æː~aː ] [ aː ] bath, calm, dance
conservative /ɒ/ [ ɒ ] [ ä ] [ ɑ~ɒ~ɔ ] [ ɑ ] lot, top, wasp
divergent /ɒ/ [ ɔː~ɒː ] [ aː~ä ] [ ɔː ] [ ɒ ] loss, off
/ɔː/ [ ɔː~ɒː ] [ aː~ä ] [ ɒː~ɔː~oː ] [ ɒː ] all, bought, saw
/ɛ/ [ ɛ ] dress, met, bread
/ə/ [ ə ] about, syrup, arena
/ɪ/ [ ë~ɘ~ɪ̈ ] [ ɪ ] hit, skim, tip
/iː/ [ iodine ( ː ) ] beam, chic, fleet
/ʌ/ [ ʌ̈~ʊ ] [ ʊ ] [ ɤ~ʊ ] [ ʌ̈~ʊ ] bus, flood
/ʊ/ [ ʉ ( ː ) ] [ ʊ ] book, put, should
/uː/ [ ʊu~uː ] [ ʊu~ʉu ] food, glue, new

Footnotes: ^1 In southside Dublin ‘s once-briefly fashionable “ Dublin 4 “ ( or “ Dortspeak ” ) accent, the “ /ɑː/ and broad /æ/ ” set become polish as [ ɒː ]. [ 40 ] ^2 In South-West Ireland, DRESS before /n/ or /m/ is raised to [ ɪ ]. [ 46 ] ^3 Due to the local anesthetic Dublin accent ‘s phenomenon of “ vowel break ”, /iː/ may be realised in this emphasis as [ ijə ] in a close syllable, and, in the like environment, /uː/ may be realised as [ ʊuwə ]. ^4 The HAPPY vowel is rather clear [ e~ɪ ] in Ulster accents, uniquely among irish accents. [ 36 ] Other notes:

  • In some highly conservative Irish English varieties, words spelled with ea and pronounced with [ iː ] in RP are pronounced with [ eː ], for example meat, beat, and leaf.
  • In words like took where the spelling “oo” usually represents /ʊ/, conservative speakers may use /uː/. This is most common in local Dublin and the speech of north-east Leinster.

Gliding vowels ( diphthongs ) [edit ]

The defining diphthongs of Hiberno-English: The following glide vowel ( diphthong ) sounds are defining characteristics of irish English :

  • The first element of the diphthong mouth, as in ow or doubt, may move forward in the mouth in the east (namely, Dublin) and supraregionally; however, it may actually move backwards throughout the entire rest of the country. In the north alone, the second element is particularly moved forward, as in Scotland.
  • The first element of the diphthong choice, as in boy or choice, is slightly or significantly lowered in all geographic regions except the north.
  • The diphthong front, as in rain or bay, is most commonly monophthongised to [eː] /ɛ/ in words such as gave and came (sounding like “gev” and “kem”).[ citation needed]

All diphthongs of various Hiberno-English dialects:

Ulster West &
South-West Ireland
Example words
/aɪ/ [ ɛɪ~ɜɪ ] [ æɪ~ɐɪ ] [ əɪ~ɐɪ ] [ ɑɪ~ɐɪ ] [ aɪ~ɑɪ ] bright, ride, try
/aʊ/ [ ɐʏ~ɛʉ ] [ ɐʊ~ʌʊ ] [ ɛʊ ] [ aʊ~ɛʊ ] now, ouch, scout
/eɪ/ [ eː ( ə ) ] [ eː ] [ eː~eɪ~ɛɪ ][47] lame, rein, stain
/ɔɪ/ [ ɔɪ ] [ əɪ~ɑɪ ] [ aɪ~äɪ ] [ ɒɪ~oɪ ] [ ɒɪ ] boy, choice, moist
/oʊ/ [ oː ] [ ʌo~ʌɔ ] [ əʊ ] [ oʊ~əʊ ] goat, oh, show

Footnotes: ^1 Due to the local Dublin accent ‘s phenomenon of “ vowel break ”, /aɪ/ may be realised in that emphasis as [ əjə ] in a closed syllable, and, in the lapp environment, /aʊ/ may be realised as [ ɛwə ] .

R -coloured vowels [edit ]

The defining r-coloured vowels of Hiberno-English: The surveil r -coloured vowel features are defining characteristics of Hiberno-English :

  • Rhoticity: Every major accent of Hiberno-English pronounces the letter “r” whenever it follows a vowel sound, though this is weaker in the local Dublin accent due to its earlier history of non-rhoticity. Rhoticity is a feature that Hiberno-English shares with Canadian English and General American but not with Received Pronunciation.
  • The distinction between /ɔːr/ and /oʊr/ is almost always preserved, so that, for example, horse and hoarse are not merged in most Irish accents.

All r-coloured vowels of various Hiberno-English dialects:

Ulster West &
South-West Ireland
Example words
/ɑːr/ [ ɑɻ~ɑɹ ] [ æːɹ~aɹ ] [ äːɹ~ɑɹ ] car, guard, park
/ɪər/ [ iːɹ~iɚ ] fear, peer, tier
/ɛər/ [ ( ɛ ) ɚː ] [ ɛːɹ~eɹ ] bare, bear, there
/ɜːr/ [ ɚː ] [ ɛːɹ ] or [ ʊːɹ ] [ ɚː ] burn, first, learn

[ ɚ ] doctor, martyr, pervade
/ɔːr/ [ ɒːɚ~ɔːɹ ] [ äːɹ~ɑːɹ ] [ ɒːɹ~oːɹ ] for, horse, war
[ oːɚ~oːɹ ] [ ɔːɹ ] [ ɒːɹ ] [ oːɹ ] four, hoarse, wore
/ʊər/ [ uːɹ~uɚ ] moor, poor, tour
/jʊər/ [ juːɹ~juɚ ] cure, Europe, pure

Footnotes: ^1 In older varieties of the conservative accents, like local Dublin, the “ roentgen ” sound before a vowel may be pronounced as a solicit [ ɾ ], preferably than as the typical approximant [ ɹ̠ ]. ^2 Every major stress of irish English is rhotic ( pronounces “ radius ” after a vowel sound ). The local Dublin dialect is the lone one that during an earlier time was non-rhotic, though it normally identical thinly rhotic today, [ 48 ] with a few minor exceptions. The rhotic consonant in this and most other irish accents is an approximant [ ɹ̠ ]. ^3 The “ r ” sound of the mainstream non-local Dublin dialect is more precisely a velarised approximant [ ɹˠ ], while the “ r ” healthy of the more recently emerging non-local Dublin ( or “ raw Dublin ” ) dialect is more precisely a retroflex approximant [ ɻ ]. ^4 In southside Dublin ‘s once-briefly fashionable “ Dublin 4 “ ( or “ Dortspeak ” ) stress, /ɑr/ is realised as [ ɒːɹ ]. ^5 In non-local Dublin ‘s more recently emerging ( or “ new Dublin ” ) emphasis, /ɛər/ and /ɜr/ may both be realised more attack as [ øːɻ ]. ^6 The NURSE mergers have not occurred in local anesthetic Dublin, West/South-West, and other very bourgeois and traditional irish English varieties ranging from the south to the north. Whereas the vowels corresponding to historical /ɛr/, /ɪr/ and /ʊr/ have merged to /ɜr/ in most dialects of English, the local Dublin and West/South-West accents retain a bipartisan distinction : /ɛr/ versus /ʊr/. The distribution of these two in these accents does not constantly align to what their spell suggests : /ʊr/ is used when after a labial consonant ( e.g. fern ), when spelled as “ ur ” or “ or ” ( e.g. word ), or when spelled as “ inland revenue ” after an alveolar end ( e.g. dirt ) ; /ɛr/ is used in all other situations. [ 49 ] however, there are apparent exceptions to these rules ; John C. Wells describes prefer and per as falling under the /ɛr/ class, despite the vowel in question following a labial consonant. [ 50 ] The distribution of /ɛr/ versus /ʊr/ is listed below in some other example words :


  • certain [ ˈsɛːɹtn̩ ]
  • chirp [ ˈtʃʰɛːɹp ]
  • circle [ ˈsɛːɹkəl ]
  • earn [ ɛːɹn ]
  • earth [ ɛːɹt ]
  • girl [ ɡɛːɹl ]
  • germ [ dʒɛːɹm ]
  • heard or herd [ hɛːɹd ]
  • Hertz [ hɛːɹts ]
  • irk [ ɛːɹk ]
  • tern [ tʰɛːɹn ]

  • bird [ bʊːɹd ]
  • dirt [ dʊːɹt ]
  • first [ fʊːɹst ]
  • hurts [ hʊːɹts ]
  • murder [ ˈmʊːɹdɚ ]
  • nurse [ ˈnʊːɹs ]
  • turn [ tʰʊːɹn ]
  • third or turd [ tʰʊːɹd ]
  • urn [ ʊːɹn ]
  • work [ wʊːɹk ]
  • world [ wʊːɹld ]

Non-local Dublin, younger, and supraregional irish accents do feature the broad NURSE mergers to [ ɚː ], as in american english English. ^7 In rare few local Dublin varieties that are non-rhotic, /ər/ is either lowered to [ ɐ ] or backed and raised to [ ɤ ]. ^8 The eminence between /ɔːr/ and /oʊr/ is wide preserved in Ireland, so that, for example, horse and hoarse are not merged in most irish english dialects ; however, they are normally merged in Belfast and newly Dublin. ^9 In local Dublin, due to the phenomenon of “ vowel break ” [ ( joule ) uːɹ ] may in fact be realised as [ ( joule ) uʷə ( ɹ ) ] .

Consonants [edit ]

The defining consonants of Hiberno-English: The consonants of Hiberno-English by and large align to the typical English accordant sounds. however, a few irish English consonants have classifiable, varying qualities. The follow consonant features are defining characteristics of Hiberno-English :
Unique consonants in various Hiberno-English dialects:

English diaphoneme Ulster West &
South-West Ireland
Example words
/ð/ [ ð ] [ five hundred ] [ d̪ ] this, writhe, wither
syllable-final /l/ [ liter ] or [ ɫ ] [ liter ] [ lambert ] or [ ɫ ] ball, soldier, milk
/r/ [ ɻ ] [ ɹˠ ] prevocalic/intervocalic: [ ɹˠ ] or [ ɾ ]
postvocalic: [ ∅ ] or [ ɹˠ ]
[ ɻ ] [ ɹˠ ] or [ ɻ ] rot, shirt, tar
intervocalic /t/ [ ɾ ], [ ʔ ], or [ ∅ ] [ ɾ ] or [ θ̠ ] [ ʔh ] [ ɾθ̠ ] [ ɾ ] or [ θ̠ ] battle, Italy, water
word-final /t/ [ thyroxine ] or [ ʔ ] [ θ̠ ] [ hydrogen ] or [ ∅ ] [ θ̠ ] cat, get, right
/θ/ [ θ ] [ thymine ] [ t̪ ] lethal, thick, wrath
/hw/ [ w ] [ ʍ ] [ west ] [ ʍ ] or [ watt ] awhile, whale, when

Footnotes: ^1 In traditional, button-down Ulster English, /k/ and /ɡ/ are palatalised before a low front vowel. [ 52 ] ^2 Local Dublin besides undergoes cluster simplification, so that break consonant sounds occurring after fricatives or sonorants may be left unpronounced, resulting, for example, in “ poun ( five hundred ) ” and “ las ( metric ton ) ”. [ 46 ] ^3 Rhoticity : Every major stress of irish English is powerfully rhotic ( pronounces “ gas constant ” after a vowel fathom ), though to a weaker degree with the local Dublin accent. [ 53 ] The accents of local Dublin and some smaller eastern towns like Drogheda were historically non-rhotic and now only very lightly rhotic or variably rhotic, with the rhotic consonant being an alveolar approximant, [ ɹ ]. In highly traditional and button-down accents ( exemplified, for case, in the manner of speaking of older speakers throughout the country, even in South-West Ireland, such as Mícheál Ó Muircheartaigh and Jackie Healy-Rae ), the rhotic consonant, before a vowel good, can besides be an alveolar wiretap, [ ɾ ]. The rhotic consonant for the northerly Ireland and newly Dublin accents is a retroflex approximant, [ ɻ ]. Dublin ‘s retroflex approximant has no precedent outside of northern Ireland and is a actual initiation of the 1990s and 2000s. A guttural / uvular [ ʁ ] is found in northeast Leinster. [ 54 ] Otherwise, the rhotic consonant of about all other irish accents is the postalveolar approximant, [ ɹ ]. ^4 The symbol [ θ̠ ] is used here to represent the aphonic alveolar non-sibilant fricative, sometimes known as a “ slit fricative ”, [ 53 ] whose articulation is described as being apico – alveolar. [ 55 ] ^5 Overall, /hw/ and /w/ are being increasingly merged in supraregional irish English, for exemplar, making wine and whine homophones, as in most varieties of English around the world. [ 55 ] other phonological characteristics of irish English include that accordant clusters ending in /j/ before /u/ are distinctive : [ 56 ] [ 57 ]

  • /j/ is dropped after coronal sonorants and fricatives, e.g. new sounds like noo, and sue like soo.
  • /dj/ becomes /dʒ/, e.g. dew/due, duke and duty sound like “jew”, “jook” and “jooty”.
  • /tj/ becomes /tʃ/, e.g. tube is “choob”, tune is “choon”
  • The following show neither dropping nor coalescence: /kj/ (as in cute), /mj/ (as in mute), and /hj/ (as in huge; though the /h/ can be dropped in the South-West of Ireland).

The name of the letter H as “ haitch ” is standard. due to Gaelic influence, an epenthetic schwa is sometimes inserted, possibly as a feature of older and less careful speakers, e.g. film [ ˈfɪləm ] and form [ ˈfɒːɹəm ] .

vocabulary [edit ]

loanword words from irish [edit ]

A number of Irish-language loan words are used in Hiberno-English, particularly in an official express capability. For case, the head of government is the Taoiseach, the deputy heading is the Tánaiste, the fantan is the Oireachtas and its lower family is Dáil Éireann. Less formally, people besides use loanword words in daily speech, although this has been on the wane in late decades and among the young. [ 58 ]

Example loan words from Irish[ needs IPA]
Word Part of speech Meaning
Abú Interjection Hooray! Used in sporting occasions, espec. for Gaelic games – Áth Cliath abú! – ‘hooray for Dublin!’
Amadán[59] Noun Fool
Fáilte Noun Welcome – often in the phrase Céad míle fáilte ‘A hundred thousand welcomes’
Flaithiúlach[60] Adjective Generous
Garsún[61] / gasúr[62] Noun Boy
Gaeltacht Noun Officially designated region where Irish is the primary spoken language
Grá[63] /ɡrɑː/ Noun Love, affection, not always romantic – ‘he has a great grá for the dog’
Lúdramán[64] Noun Fool
Plámás[65] Noun Smooth talk, flattery
Sláinte[66] Interjection [To your] health!/Cheers!

Derived words from irish [edit ]

Another group of Hiberno-English words are those derived from the irish language. Some are words in English that have entered into general use, while others are singular to Ireland. These words and phrases are much anglicise versions of words in Irish or aim translations into English. In the latter case, they often give meaning to a parole or phrase that is by and large not found in wide-eyed English use .

Example words derived from Irish
Word or Phrase Part of Speech Original Irish Meaning
Arra[67]/ och / musha / yerra[68] Interjection Ara / Ach / Muise / (conjunction of “A Dhia, ara”) “Yerra, sure if it rains, it rains.”
Bockety[69] Adjective Bacach (lame) Unsteady, wobbly, broken
Boreen Noun Bóithrín Small rural road or track
Ceili/Ceilidh /ˈkeɪli/[70] Noun Céilidhe Music and dancing session, especially of traditional music
Colleen Noun Cailín Girl, young woman
Fooster Verb Fústar[71] to busy oneself in a restless way, fidget
Gansey[72] Noun Geansaí[73] Jumper (Sweater)
Give out[74] Verb Tabhair amach (lit.) Tell off, reprimand[75]
Gob[76] Noun Gob Animal’s mouth/beak (Béal = human mouth)
Gombeen[70] Noun Gaimbín Money lender, profiteer. Usually in the phrase ‘Gombeen man’
Guards[77] Noun Garda Síochána Police
Jackeen[78] /dʒæˈkiːn/ Noun Nickname for John (i.e. Jack) combined with Irish diminutive suffix “-ín” A mildly pejorative term for someone from Dublin. Also ‘a self-assertive worthless fellow’.[79] Derived from a person who followed the Union Jack during British rule after 1801, a Dublin man who supported the crown. See Shoneen
Shoneen[80] Noun Seoinín (diminutive of Seán – ‘John’) An Irishman who imitates English ways – see Jackeen
Sleeveen[81] Noun Slíbhín An untrustworthy, cunning person
Soft day[82] Phrase Lá bog (lit.) Overcast day (light drizzle/mist)

Derived words from Old and Middle English [edit ]

Another class of vocabulary found in Hiberno-English are words and phrases common in Old and Middle English, but which have since become obscure or disused in the modern English speech generally. Hiberno-English has besides developed particular meanings for words that are still in common use in English by and large .

Example Hiberno-English words derived from Old and Middle English
Word Part of speech Meaning Origin/notes
Amn’t[83] Verb Am not
Childer[84] Noun Child Survives from Old-English, genitive plural of ‘child'[85]
Cop-on[86] Noun, Verb shrewdness, intelligence, being ‘street-wise'[70] Middle English from French cap ‘arrest’
Craic / Crack[87] /kræk/ Noun Fun, entertainment. Generally now[ quotation needed] with the Gaelic spelling in the phrase – ‘have the craic’ from earlier usage in Northern Ireland, Scotland and northern England with spelling ‘crack’ in the sense ‘gossip, chat’ Old English cracian via Ulster-Scots into modern Hiberno-English, then given Gaelic spelling[88]
Devil[89] Noun Curse (e.g., “Devil take him”)[90][91] Negation (e.g., for none, “Devil a bit”)[92][93] middle English
Eejit[94] /ˈiːdʒət/ Noun Irish (and Scots) version of ‘idiot’, meaning foolish person[95] English from Latin Idiōta; has found some modern currency in England through the broadcasts of Terry Wogan
Hames[96] Noun a mess, used in the phrase ‘make a hames of'[97] Middle English from Dutch
Grinds[98] Noun Private tuition[99] Old English grindan
Jaded[100] Adjective physically tired, exhausted[101] Not in the sense of bored, unenthusiastic, ‘tired of’ something Middle English jade
Kip[102] Noun Unpleasant, dirty or sordid place[103] 18th-century English for brothel
Mitch Verb to play truant[104] Middle English
Sliced pan[105] Noun (Sliced) loaf of bread Possibly derived from the French word for bread (pain) or the pan it was baked in.
Yoke[106] Noun Thing, object, gadget[107] Old English geoc
Wagon/Waggon[108] Noun an unpleasant or unlikable woman[109] Middle English
Whisht[110] Interjection Be quiet[111] (Also common in Northern England and Scotland) Middle English

other words [edit ]

In summation to the three groups above, there are besides extra words and phrases whose origin is disputed or unknown. While this group may not be unique to Ireland, their usage is not widespread, and could be seen as characteristic of the lyric in Ireland .

Example Hiberno-English words of disputed or unknown origin
Word Part of speech Meaning Notes
Acting the maggot[112] Phrase To behave in an obstreperous or obstinate manner.
Banjaxed[113] Verb Broken, ruined, or rendered incapable of use. Equivalent in meaning to the German “kaput”.
Bogger Noun Someone from the countryside or near a bog
Bowsie[70] Noun a rough or unruly person. Cf. Scots Bowsie[114]
Bleb[115][116] Noun, Verb blister; to bubble up, come out in blisters.
Bucklepper[117] Noun An overactive, overconfident person from the verb, to bucklep (leap like a buck) Used by Patrick Kavanagh and Seamus Heaney[118]
Chiseler[119] Noun Child
Cod[70] Noun Foolish person Usually in phrases like ‘acting the cod’, ‘making a cod of himself’. Can also be used as a verb, ‘I was only codding him’
Culchie[120] Noun Person from the countryside
Delph[121] Noun Dishware From the name of the original source of supply, Delft in the Netherlands. See Delftware.
Feck Verb, Interjection an attenuated alternative/minced oath (see feck for more details) “Feck it!”, “Feck off”[122]
Gurrier[123] Noun a tough or unruly young man[124] perhaps from French guerrier ‘warrior’, or else from ‘gur cake’ a pastry previously associated with street urchins. Cf. Scots Gurry[125]
Jacks Noun Bathroom/toilet Similar to “jakes” as used in 16th-century England. Still in everyday use, particularly in Dublin.
Messages Noun Groceries
Minerals[126] Noun Soft drinks From mineral Waters
Mot Noun Girl or young woman, girlfriend From the Irish word ‘maith’ meaning good, i.e. good-looking.[127]
Press[128] Noun Cupboard Similarly, hotpress in Ireland means airing-cupboard. Press is an old word for cupboard in Scotland and northern England.
Rake Noun many or a lot. Often in the phrase ‘a rake of pints’. Cf. Scots rake[129]
Runners[130] Noun Trainers/sneakers Also ‘teckies’ or ‘tackies’, especially in and around Limerick.
Shops Noun Newsagents (or small supermarket) E.g. “I’m going to the shops, do you want anything?”
Shore[131] Noun Stormdrain or Gutter. Cf. Scots shore[132]
Wet the tea[133]/The tea is wet[134] Phrase Make the tea/the tea is made

Grammar and syntax [edit ]

The syntax of the irish language is quite different from that of English. respective aspects of irish syntax have influenced Hiberno-English, though many of these idiosyncrasies are disappearing in suburban areas and among the younger population. The other major influence on Hiberno-English that sets it apart from modern English in general is the retentiveness of words and phrases from Old- and Middle-English .

From irish [edit ]

reduplication [edit ]

reduplication is an alleged trait of Hiberno-English powerfully associated with Stage Irish and Hollywood films .

  • the Irish ar bith corresponds to English “at all”, so the stronger ar chor ar bith gives rise to the form “at all at all”.
    • “I’ve no time at all at all.”
  • ar eagla go … (lit. “on fear that …”) means “in case …”. The variant ar eagla na heagla, (lit. “on fear of fear”) implies the circumstances are more unlikely. The corresponding Hiberno-English phrases are “to be sure” and the very rarely used “to be sure to be sure”. In this context, these are not, as might be thought, disjuncts meaning “certainly”; they could better be translated “in case” and “just in case”. Nowadays normally spoken with conscious levity.
    • “I brought some cash in case I saw a bargain, and my credit card to be sure to be sure.”

Yes and no [edit ]

Irish has no words that immediately translate as “ yes ” or “ no ”, and alternatively repeats the verb used in the question, negated if necessary, to answer. Hiberno-English uses “ yes ” and “ no ” less frequently than other english dialects as speakers can repeat the verb, positively or negatively, alternatively of ( or in pleonastic addition to ) using “ yes ” or “ no ” .

  • “Are you coming home soon?” – “I am.”
  • “Is your mobile charged?” – “It isn’t.”

This is not limited entirely to the verb to be : it is besides used with to have when used as an auxiliary ; and, with early verbs, the verb to do is used. This is most normally used for intensification, particularly in Ulster English .

  • “This is strong stuff, so it is.”
  • “We won the game, so we did.”

recent past construction [edit ]

irish indicates recency of an action by adding “ after ” to the salute continuous ( a verb ending in “ -ing ” ), a construction known as the “ hot news program arrant ” or “ after perfect ”. [ 137 ] [ 138 ] The parlance for “ I had done ten when I did Y ” is “ I was after doing x when I did Y ”, modelled on the irish usage of the colonial prepositions i ndiaidh, tar éis, and in éis : bhí mé tar éis / i ndiaidh / in éis X a dhéanamh, nuair a rinne mé Y .

  • “Why did you hit him?” – “He was after giving me cheek.” (he had [just beforehand] been cheeky to me).

A like structure is seen where exclamation is used in describing a late event :

  • “I’m after hitting him with the car!” Táim tar éis é a bhualadh leis an gcarr!
  • “She’s after losing five stone in five weeks!”

When describing less amazing or significant events, a structure resembling the german arrant can be seen :

  • “I have the car fixed.” Tá an carr deisithe agam.
  • “I have my breakfast eaten.” Tá mo bhricfeasta ite agam.

This correlates with an psychoanalysis of “ H1 Irish ” proposed by Adger & Mitrovic, [ 139 ] in a debate parallel to the condition of German as a V2 terminology. late past construction has been directly adopted into Newfoundland English, where it is common in both ball and casual cross-file. In rural areas of the Avalon peninsula, where Newfoundland Irish was spoken until the early twentieth century, it is the grammatical standard for describing whether or not an action has occurred. [ 140 ]

observation for emphasis [edit ]

The automatic adaptation of pronoun is frequently used for stress or to refer indirectly to a particular person, and so forth, according to context. Herself, for example, might refer to the speaker ‘s bos or to the womanhood of the house. use of herself or himself in this way much indicates that the speaker attributes some degree of arrogance or selfishness to the person in motion. notice besides the indirectness of this construction relative to, for case, She’s coming now. This automatic pronoun can besides be used to describe a partner – “ I was with himself last nox. ” or “ How ‘s herself doing ? ”

  • “‘Tis herself that’s coming now.” Is í féin atá ag teacht anois.
  • “Was it all of ye or just yourself?” An sibhse ar fad nó tusa féin a bhí i gceist?

Prepositional pronouns [edit ]

There are some linguistic process forms that stem from the fact that there is no verb to have in Irish. rather, possession is indicated in irish by using the preposition at, ( in Irish, ag. ). To be more accurate, irish uses a prepositional pronoun that combines ag “ at ” and “ me ” to create agam. In English, the verb “ to have ” is used, along with a “ with me ” or “ on me ” that derives from Tá … agam. This gives surface to the patronize

  • “Do you have the book?” – “I have it with me.”
  • “Have you change for the bus on you?”
  • “He will not shut up if he has drink taken.”

person who can speak a terminology “ has ” a speech, in which Hiberno-English has borrowed the grammatical class used in Irish .

  • “She does not have Irish.” Níl Gaeilge aici. literally “There is no Irish at her”.

When describing something, many Hiberno-English speakers use the term “ in it ” where “ there ” would normally be used. This is due to the Irish give voice ann ( pronounced “ oun ” or “ on ” ) fulfilling both meanings .

  • “Is it yourself that is in it?” An tú féin atá ann?
  • “Is there any milk in it?” An bhfuil bainne ann?

Another artistic style is this matter or that thing described as “ this man here ” or “ that man there ”, which besides features in Newfoundland English in Canada .

  • “This man here.” An fear seo. (cf. the related anseo = here)
  • “That man there.” An fear sin. (cf. the related ansin = there)

Conditionals have a greater presence in Hiberno-English due to the leaning to replace the simple give strain with the conditional ( would ) and the simple by strain with the conditional perfective ( would have ) .

  • “John asked me would I buy a loaf of bread.” (John asked me to buy a loaf of bread.)
  • “How do you know him? We would have been in school together.” (We were in school together.)

Bring and take : irish manipulation of these words differs from that of british English because it follows the irish grammar for beir and tóg. english usage is determined by direction ; a person determines irish use. then, in English, one takesfrom here to there ”, and brings it “ to here from there ”. In Irish, a person takes only when accepting a transfer of possession of the object from person else – and a person brings at all early times, regardless of steering ( to or from ) .

  • Don’t forget to bring your umbrella with you when you leave.
  • (To a child) Hold my hand: I don’t want someone to take you.

To be [edit ]

The irish equivalent of the verb “ to be ” has two present tenses, one ( the present tense proper or “ aimsir láithreach ” ) for cases which are by and large true or are true at the time of address and the other ( the accustomed present or “ aimsir ghnáthláithreach ” ) for repeated actions. frankincense, “ you are [ now, or by and large ] ” is tá tú, but “ you are [ repeatedly ] ” is bíonn tú. Both forms are used with the verbal noun ( equivalent to the English stage participle ) to create compound tenses. This is exchangeable to the distinction between ser and estar in Spanish or the function of the ‘habitual be ‘ in African-American Vernacular English. The comparable custom in English is frequently found in rural areas, particularly Mayo / Sligo in the west of Ireland and Wexford in the southeast, Inner-City Dublin and Cork city along with molding areas of the North and Republic. In this shape, the verb “ to be ” in English is like to its use in Irish, with a “ does be/do be ” ( or “ bees ”, although less frequently ) construction to indicate the continuous, or accustomed, present :

  • “He does be working every day.” Bíonn sé ag obair gach lá.
  • “They do be talking on their mobiles a lot.” Bíonn siad ag caint go minic ar a bhfóin póca.
  • “He does be doing a lot of work at school.” Bíonn sé ag déanamh go leor oibre ar scoil.
  • “It’s him I do be thinking of.” Is air a bhíonn mé ag smaoineamh.

This construction besides surfaces in african American Vernacular English, as the celebrated accustomed be .

From Old and Middle English [edit ]

In antique custom, “ it is ” can be freely abbreviated ’tis, even as a standalone prison term. This besides allows the double compression ’tisn’t, for “ it is not ”. Irish has separate forms for the second person singular ( ) and the second person plural ( sibh ). Mirroring irish, and about every other aryan linguistic process, the plural you is besides distinguished from the singular in Hiberno-English, normally by use of the differently antediluvian English news ye [ jiː ] ; the word yous ( sometimes written as youse ) besides occurs, but chiefly only in Dublin and across Ulster. In summation, in some areas in Leinster, north Connacht and parts of Ulster, the hybrid password ye-s, pronounced “ yiz ”, may be used. The pronunciation differs with that of the northwestern being [ jiːz ] and the Leinster pronunciation being [ jɪz ] .

  • “Did ye all go to see it?” Ar imigh sibh go léir chun é a fheicint?
  • “None of youse have a clue!” Níl ciall/leid ar bith agaibh!
  • “Are ye not finished yet?” Nach bhfuil sibh críochnaithe fós?
  • “Yis are after destroying it!” Tá sibh tar éis é a scriosadh!

The news ye, yis or yous, otherwise archaic, is still used in place of “ you ” for the second-person plural. Ye’r, Yisser or Yousser are the genitive forms, e.g. “ Where are yous going ? ” The verb mitch is identical common in Ireland, indicating being truant from school. This discussion appears in Shakespeare ( though he wrote in Early Modern English rather than Middle English ), but is rarely heard these days in british English, although pockets of custom persist in some areas ( notably South Wales, Devon, and Cornwall ). In parts of Connacht and Ulster the mitch is much replaced by the verb scheme, while in Dublin it is frequently replaced by “ on the hop/bounce ”. Another custom familiar from Shakespeare is the inclusion of the second base person pronoun after the imperative form of a verb, as in “ Wife, go you to her ere you go to bed ” ( Romeo and Juliet, Act III, Scene IV ). This is placid coarse in ulster : “ Get youse your homework done or you ‘re no goin ‘ out ! ” In Munster, you will still hear children being told, “ Up to bed, let ye ” [ lɛˈtʃi ]. For influence from Scotland, see Ulster Scots and Ulster English .

early grammatical influences [edit ]

Now is frequently used at the end of sentences or phrases as a semantically evacuate give voice, completing an utterance without contributing any apparent entail. Examples include “ Bye now ” ( = “ Goodbye ” ), “ There you go nowadays ” ( when giving person something ), “ Ah now ! ” ( expressing discouragement ), “ Hold on now ” ( = “ wait a minute ” ), “ now then ” as a mild attention-getter, etc. This usage is universal among english dialects, but occurs more frequently in Hiberno-English. It is besides used in the manner of the italian ‘prego ‘ or german ‘bitte ‘, for case, a bartender might say “ now, Sir. ” when delivering drinks. So is often used for emphasis ( “ I can speak Irish, so I can ” ), or it may be tacked onto the goal of a conviction to indicate agreement, where “ then ” would frequently be used in Standard English ( “ Bye then ”, “ Let ‘s go indeed ”, “ That ‘s fine so ”, “ We ‘ll do that so ” ). The password is besides used to contradict a negative statement ( “ You ‘re not pushing hard adequate ” – “ I am so ! ” ). ( This contradiction of a negative is besides seen in american English, though not american samoa frequently as “ I am excessively ”, or “ Yes, I am ”. ) The rehearse of indicating stress with so and including reduplicating the sentence ‘s subject pronoun and accessory verb ( is, are, have, has, can, etc. ) such as in the initial example, is particularly prevailing in more northerly dialects such as those of Sligo, Mayo and the counties of Ulster. Sure/Surely is much used as a tag parole, emphasising the obviousness of the statement, roughly translating as but/and/well/indeed. It can be used as “ to be certain ” ( but note that the early pigeonhole of “ certain and … ” is not actually used in Ireland. ) Or “ sure, I can just go on Wednesday ”, “ I will not, to be certain. ” The parole is besides used at the end of sentences ( chiefly in Munster ), for case, “ I was lone here five minutes ago, sure ! ” and can express emphasis or indignation. In Ulster, the answer “ Aye, surely ” may be given to show solid agreement. To is frequently omitted from sentences where it would exist in british English. For example, “ I ‘m not allowed go out tonight ”, rather of “ I ‘m not allowed to go out tonight ”. [ citation needed ] Will is much used where british English would use “ shall ” or American English “ should ” ( as in “ Will I make us a cup of tea ? ” ). The distinction between “ shall ” ( for first-person simple future, and second- and third-person emphatic future ) and “ will ” ( second- and third-person simple future, first-person emphatic future ), maintained by many in England, does not exist in Hiberno-English, with “ will ” generally used in all cases. Once is sometimes used in a different way from how it is used in other dialects ; in this use, it indicates a combination of logical and causal conditionality : “ I have no problem laughing at myself once the antic is amusing. ” other dialects of English would credibly use “ if ” in this situation .

See besides [edit ]

Notes [edit ]

  1. ^[8] According to the 1841 census, Ireland had 8,175,124 inhabitants, of whom four million spoke Irish

References [edit ]

bibliography [edit ]

further read [edit ]

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