Post-punk ( primitively called new musick ) is a broad genre of rock music that emerged in the deep 1970s as musicians departed from the raw chasteness and traditionalism of hood rock, rather adopting a variety show of avant-garde sensibilities and non-rock influences. Inspired by punk ‘s energy and DIY ethic but determined to break from rock cliches, artists experimented with styles like funk, electronic music, jazz, and dance music ; the production techniques of dub and disco ; and ideas from art and politics, including critical theory, modernist art, film and literature. [ 2 ] These communities produced freelancer commemorate labels, ocular art, multimedia performances and fanzines. The early post-punk vanguard was represented by groups including Siouxsie and the Banshees, Wire, Public Image Ltd, the Pop Group, Cabaret Voltaire, Magazine, Pere Ubu, Joy Division, Talking Heads, Devo, Gang of Four, the Slits, the Cure, and the Fall. [ 4 ] The movement was closely related to the development of accessory genres such as gothic rock, neo-psychedelia, no roll, and industrial music. By the mid-1980s, post-punk had dissipated, but it provided a foundation for the New Pop movement and the by and by alternative and freelancer genres.
Reading: Post-punk – Wikipedia
definition [edit ]
Post-punk is a diverse genre [ 5 ] that emerged from the cultural milieu of hood rock in the late 1970s. [ 6 ] [ 7 ] [ 8 ] [ niobium 1 ] originally called “ new musick ”, the terms were first used by respective writers in the late 1970s to describe groups moving beyond punk rock ‘s garage rock candy template and into disparate areas. Sounds writer Jon Savage already used “ post-punk ” in early 1978. [ 11 ] NME writer Paul Morley besides stated that he had “ possibly ” invented the term himself. [ 12 ] At the clock time, there was a feel of renewed exhilaration regarding what the parole would entail, with Sounds publishing numerous preemptive editorials on raw musick. [ nota bene 2 ] Towards the end of the ten, some journalists used “ artwork punk rocker “ as a dyslogistic for garage rock-derived acts deemed excessively sophisticate and out of step with hood ‘s dogma. [ niobium 3 ] Before the early 1980s, many groups nowadays categorized as “ post-punk ” were subsumed under the wide umbrella of “ new brandish “, with the terms being deployed interchangeably. “ Post-punk ” became differentiated from “ fresh wave ” after their styles perceptibly narrowed. [ 17 ] The writer Nicholas Lezard described the terminus “ post-punk ” as “ so many-sided that alone the broadest use … is potential ”. [ 5 ] Subsequent discussion has failed to clarify whether contemporary music journals and fanzines conventionally understand “ post-punk ” the means that it was discussed in later years. music historian Clinton Heylin places the “ true starting-point for english post-punk ” somewhere between August 1977 and May 1978, with the arrival of guitarist John McKay in Siouxsie and the Banshees in July 1977, Magazine ‘s first album, Wire ‘s new musical direction in 1978 and the formation of Public Image Ltd. [ 19 ] Music historian Simon Goddard wrote that the debut albums of those bands layered the foundations of post-punk. [ 20 ] Simon Reynolds ‘ 2005 ledger Rip It Up and Start Again is widely referenced as post-punk doctrine, although he has stated that the book merely covers aspects of post-punk that he had a personal tendency toward. [ 6 ] Wilkinson characterized Reynolds ‘ readings as “ apparent revisionism and ‘rebranding ‘ ”. Author/musician Alex Ogg criticized : “ The trouble is not with what Reynolds left out of Rip It Up …, but, paradoxically, that besides much was left in ”. [ 6 ] [ niobium 4 ] Ogg suggested that post-punk pertains to a arrange of artistic sensibilities and approaches preferably than any unite vogue, and disputed the accuracy of the condition ‘s chronological prefix “ position ”, as respective groups normally labeled “ post-punk ” predate the kindling rock motion. [ 6 ] Reynolds defined the post-punk era as occurring approximately between 1978 and 1984. [ 22 ] He advocated that post-punk be conceived as “ less a music genre of music than a space of hypothesis ”, [ 6 ] indicate that “ what unites all this activeness is a fit of open-ended imperatives : initiation ; willful oddity ; the willful jettison of all things precedented or ‘rock’n’roll ‘ ”. [ 22 ] AllMusic employs “ post-punk ” to denote “ a more adventurous and arty form of punk rocker ”. [ 7 ] Reynolds asserted that the post-punk period produced significant innovations and music on its own. [ 23 ] Reynolds described the period as “ a fair match for the sixties in terms of the bluff measure of great music created, the spirit of venture and high-mindedness that infused it, and the means that the music seemed inextricably connected to the political and social turbulence of its era ”. Nicholas Lezard wrote that the music of the period “ was avant-garde, open to any melodious possibilities that suggested themselves, united only in the sense that it was very much cerebral, concocted by brainy youthful men and women interested as much in disturbing the audience, or making them think, as in making a pop birdcall ”. [ 5 ]
Characteristics [edit ]
many post-punk artists were initially inspired by punk ‘s DIY ethic and energy, [ 7 ] but ultimately became disillusioned with the manner and drift, feeling that it had fallen into a commercial formula, rock convention, and self-parody. They repudiated its democrat claims to handiness and raw simplicity, alternatively of seeing an opportunity to break with musical tradition, sabotage commonplaces and challenge audiences. [ 7 ] Artists moved beyond kindling ‘s stress on the concerns of a largely white, male, wage-earning population [ 27 ] and abandoned its proceed reliance on established rock and hustle tropes, such as three-chord progressions and Chuck Berry -based guitar riffs. These artists alternatively defined punk rock as “ an imperative to ceaseless change ”, believing that “ revolutionary content demands radical shape ”. Though the music varied wide between regions and artists, the post-punk motion has been characterized by its “ conceptual attack ” on rock conventions [ 23 ] [ 5 ] and rejection of aesthetics perceived of as hidebound, [ 6 ] hegemonic [ 23 ] or rockist [ 30 ] in favor of experiment with production techniques and non-rock musical styles such as dub, [ 8 ] funk, electronic music, [ 8 ] disco, [ 8 ] noise, world music, [ 7 ] and the avant-garde. [ 7 ] [ 27 ] Some former musical styles besides served as touchstones for the motion, including detail brands of krautrock, [ 33 ] glam, artwork rock, art pop [ 35 ] and other music from the 1960s. [ niobium 5 ] Artists once again approached the studio as an musical instrument, using newfangled recording methods and pursuing fresh sonic territories. Author Matthew Bannister wrote that post-punk artists rejected the high cultural references of 1960s rock artists like the Beatles and Bob Dylan equally well as substitution class that defined “ rock as liberal, as artwork, as ‘sterile ‘ studio perfectionism … by adopting an avant-garde aesthetic ”. [ nota bene 6 ] According to musicologist Pete Dale, while groups wanted to “ rip up history and start again ”, the music was hush “ inescapably tied to traces they could never amply scat ”. [ niobium 7 ] Nicholas Lezard described post-punk as “ a fusion of art and music ”. The era saw the robust annexation of ideas from literature, artwork, film, philosophy, politics and critical theory into musical and pop cultural context. [ 23 ] Artists sought to refuse the common eminence between high and broken culture [ 44 ] and returned to the art school tradition found in the knead of artists such as Roxy Music and David Bowie. [ 27 ] [ 35 ] Reynolds noted a preoccupancy among some post-punk artists with issues such as alienation, repression, and technocracy of western modernity. [ 46 ] Among major influences on a diverseness of post-punk artists were writers William S. Burroughs and J. G. Ballard, avant-garde political scenes such as Situationism and Dada, and cerebral movements such as postmodernism. many artists viewed their shape in explicitly political terms. additionally, in some locations, the initiation of post-punk music was closely linked to the development of efficacious subcultures, which played important roles in the production of art, multimedia performances, fanzines and autonomous labels related to the music. many post-punk artists maintained an anti-corporatist approach to recording and rather seized on alternate means of producing and releasing music. [ 5 ] Journalists besides became an significant element of the culture, and popular music magazines and critics became immersed in the motion .
1977–79 : early years [edit ]
background [edit ]
During the punk rock era, a assortment of entrepreneurs concern in local punk-influenced music scenes began founding independent criminal record labels, including Rough Trade ( founded by record patronize owner Geoff Travis ), Factory ( founded by Manchester -based television personality Tony Wilson ), and Fast Product ( co-founded by Bob concluding and Hilary Morrison ). [ 51 ] [ 52 ] By 1977, groups began pointedly pursuing methods of releasing music independently, an estimate disseminated in particular by Buzzcocks ‘ dismissal of their Spiral Scratch EP on their own pronounce ampere well as the self-released 1977 singles of Desperate Bicycles. These DIY imperatives would help form the production and distribution infrastructure of post-punk and the indie music scene that late blossomed in the mid-1980s. As the initial hood campaign dwindled, vibrant fresh scenes began to coalesce out of a kind of bands pursuing experimental sounds and wider conceptual territory in their exploit. By late 1977, british acts like Siouxsie and the Banshees and Wire were experimenting with sounds, lyrics, and aesthetics that differed importantly from their punk contemporaries. savage described some of these early developments as exploring “ harsh urban scrapings ”, “ controlled white make noise “ and “ massively stressed drumming ”. Mojo editor Pat Gilbert said, “ The first gear rightfully post-punk ring were Siouxsie and the Banshees ”, noting the influence of the band ‘s use of repeat on Joy Division. [ 57 ] John Robb similarly argued that the very beginning Banshees gig was “ proto post-punk ” due to the hypnotic rhythm section. [ 58 ] In January 1978, singer John Lydon ( then known as Johnny Rotten ) announced the break-up of his pioneering hood band the Sex Pistols, citing his disenchantment with kindling ‘s musical predictability and cooption by commercial interests, american samoa well as his desire to explore more diverse territory. In May, Lydon formed the group Public Image Ltd [ 60 ] with guitarist Keith Levene and bassist Jah Wobble, the latter who declared “ rock candy is disused ” after citing reggae as a “ natural influence ”. [ 61 ] however, Lydon described his fresh sound as “ sum pop with deep meanings. But I do n’t want to be categorised in any other term but punk ! That ‘s where I come from and that ‘s where I ‘m staying. ” [ 62 ]
United Kingdom [edit ]
Around this time, acts such as populace Image Ltd, the Pop Group and the Slits had begun experimenting with dance music, dub production techniques and the avant-garde, while punk-indebted Manchester acts such as Joy Division, the Fall, the Durutti Column and A Certain Ratio developed alone styles that drew on a similarly disparate crop of influences across music and modernist art. Bands such as Scritti Politti, Gang of Four, Essential Logic and This Heat integrate Leftist political doctrine and their own artwork school studies in their work. The unorthodox studio production techniques devised by producers such as Steve Lillywhite, [ 66 ] Martin Hannett, and Dennis Bovell became crucial component of the emerging music. Labels such as Rough Trade and Factory would become important hubs for these groups and help facilitate releases, artwork, performances, and promotion. [ 67 ] credit for the first post-punk record is disputed, but strong contenders include the debuts of Magazine ( “ Shot by Both Sides “, January 1978 ), Siouxsie and the Banshees ( “ Hong Kong Garden “, August 1978 ), public Image Ltd ( “ Public Image “, October 1978 ), Cabaret Voltaire ( Extended Play, November 1978 ) and Gang of Four ( “ Damaged Goods “, December 1978 ). [ nota bene 8 ] A variety of groups that predated punk rock, such as Cabaret Voltaire and Throbbing Gristle, experimented with magnetic tape machines and electronic instruments in bicycle-built-for-two with performance art methods and charm from transgressive literature, ultimately helping to pioneer industrial music. Throbbing Gristle ‘s independent label Industrial Records would become a hub for this scene and provide it with its namesake. A initiate hood scene in Australia during the mid-1970s besides fostered influential post-punk acts like the Birthday Party, who finally relocated to the UK to join its burgeoning music scene. As these scenes began to develop, british music publications such as NME and Sounds developed an influential separate in the nascent post-punk culture, with writers like Savage, Paul Morley and Ian Penman developing a dense ( and often playful ) dash of criticism that drew on doctrine, radical politics and an eclectic variety show of other sources. In 1978, UK magazine Sounds celebrated albums such as Siouxsie and the Banshees ‘ The Scream, Wire ‘s Chairs Missing and american band Pere Ubu ‘s Dub Housing. [ 71 ] In 1979, NME championed records such as PiL ‘s Metal Box, Joy Division ‘s Unknown Pleasures, Gang of Four ‘s Entertainment!, Wire ‘s 154, the Raincoats ‘ self-titled debut and American group Talking Heads ‘ album Fear of Music. [ 72 ] Siouxsie and the Banshees, Joy Division, Bauhaus and the Cure were the main post-punk bands who shifted to dark overtones in their music, which would belated spawn the gothic rock scene in the early 80s. [ 74 ] Members of Siouxsie and the Banshees and the Cure worked on records and toured together regularly until 1984. Neo-psychedelia grew out of the british post-punk scene in the late 1970s. [ 75 ] The music genre late flourished into a more widespread and international movement of artists who applied the liveliness of psychedelic rock to new sounds and techniques. [ 76 ] early styles such as avant-funk and industrial dub besides emerged around 1979. [ 2 ] [ 46 ]
United States [edit ]
Devo performing in 1978.Talking Heads were one of the only American post-punk bands to reach both a large cult audience and the mainstream. In the mid-1970s, assorted american english groups ( some with ties to Downtown Manhattan ‘s punk rock scene, including television receiver and Suicide ) had begun expanding on the vocabulary of punk rocker music. midwestern groups such as Pere Ubu and Devo drew divine guidance from the area ‘s bedraggled industrial environments, employing conceptual art techniques, musique concrète and unconventional verbal styles that would presage the post-punk drift by several years. A kind of subsequent groups, including the Boston -based Mission of Burma and the New York-based Talking Heads, combined elements of punk rock with art school sensibilities. In 1978, the latter band began a series of collaborations with british ambient pioneer and ex- Roxy Music member Brian Eno, experimenting with Dadaist lyric techniques, electronic sounds, and African polyrhythms. San Francisco ‘s vibrant post-punk scene was centered on such groups as Chrome, the Residents, Tuxedomoon and MX-80, whose influences extended to multimedia experiment, cabaret and the dramatic theory of Antonin Artaud ‘s Theater of Cruelty.
besides emerging during this time period was downtown New York ‘s no wave movement, a ephemeral art, and music view that began in region as a reaction against punk rocker ‘s recycle of hidebound rock tropes and frequently reflected an abrasive, confrontational and nihilistic worldview. [ 82 ] [ 83 ] No brandish musicians such as the Contortions, Teenage Jesus and the Jerks, Mars, DNA, Theoretical Girls, and Rhys Chatham alternatively experimented with make noise, noise and atonality in summation to non-rock styles. The former four groups were included on the Eno-produced No New York compilation ( 1978 ), often considered the quintessential testament to the picture. [ 85 ] The decadent parties and artwork installations of venues such as Club 57 and the Mudd Club would become cultural hubs for musicians and ocular artists alike, with figures such as Jean-Michel Basquiat, Keith Haring and Michael Holman frequenting the view. According to Village Voice writer Steve Anderson, the fit pursued an abrasive reductionism that “ undermined the power and mystique of a rock vanguard by depriving it of a custom to react against ”. [ 87 ] Anderson claimed that the no wave picture represented “ New York ‘s death stylistically cohesive avant-rock apparent motion ”. [ 87 ]
1980–84 : further developments [edit ]
UK picture and commercial ambitions [edit ]
british post-punk entered the 1980s with documentation from members of the critical community—American critic Greil Marcus characterised “ Britain ‘s postpunk pop avant-garde ” in a 1980 Rolling Stone article as “ sparked by a tension, humor and common sense of paradox plainly singular in contemporary pop music ” [ 88 ] —as good as media figures such as BBC DJ John Peel, while respective groups, such as PiL and Joy Division, achieved some success in the popular charts. [ 89 ] The network of supportive criminal record labels that included Y Records, Industrial, Fast, E.G., Mute, Axis/4AD, and Glass continued to facilitate a large output of music. By 1980-1981, many british acts, including Maximum Joy, Magazine, Essential Logic, Killing Joke, the Sound, 23 Skidoo, Alternative television receiver, the Teardrop Explodes, the Psychedelic Furs, Echo & the Bunnymen and the Membranes besides became function of these fledgling post-punk scenes, which centered on cities such as London and Manchester. however, during this period, major figures and artists in the fit began leaning away from underground aesthetics. In the music press, the increasingly esoteric writing of post-punk publications soon began to alienate their readerships ; it is estimated that within several years, NME suffered the personnel casualty of half its circulation. Writers like Morley began advocating “ overground brightness ” alternatively of the experimental sensibilities promoted in the early years. [ 90 ] Morley ‘s own musical collaboration with engineer Gary Langan and programmer J. J. Jeczalik, the Art of Noise, would attempt to bring sample and electronic sounds to the pop mainstream. Post-punk artists such as Scritti Politti ‘s Green Gartside and Josef K ‘s Paul Haig, previously engaged in avant-garde practices, turned away from these approaches and pursued mainstream styles and commercial success. These new developments, in which post-punk artists attempted to bring revolutionist ideas into the pop mainstream, began to be categorized under the market term New Pop. [ 23 ]
several more pop-oriented groups, including ABC, the Associates, Adam and the Ants and Bow Wow Wow ( the latter two managed by early Sex Pistols director Malcolm McLaren ) emerged in bicycle-built-for-two with the growth of the New Romantic subcultural scene. Emphasizing hex, fashion and escape in eminence to the experimental seriousness of earlier post-punk groups, the club-oriented scene drew some suspicion from denizens of the movement but besides achieved commercial success. Artists such as Gary Numan, Depeche Mode, the Human League, Soft Cell, John Foxx and Visage helped pioneer a new synthpop stylus that drew more heavily from electronic and synthesizer music and benefited from the lift of MTV .
Downtown Manhattan [edit ]
In the early 1980s, Downtown Manhattan ‘s no roll view transitioned from its harsh origins into a more dance-oriented sound, with compilations such as ZE Records ‘ Mutant Disco ( 1981 ) highlighting a newly playful sensitivity borne out of the city ‘s clash of hip hop, disco and punk styles, american samoa well as knight reggae and world music influences. Artists such as ESG, Liquid Liquid, the B-52s, Cristina, Arthur Russell, James White and the Blacks and Lizzy Mercier Descloux pursued a convention described by Lucy Sante as “ anything at all + disco penetrate ”. other no wave-indebted artists such as Swans, Glenn Branca, Lydia Lunch, the Lounge Lizards, Bush Tetras, and Sonic Youth rather continued exploring the early fit ‘s forays into randomness and more abrasive district .
Mid-1980s : refuse [edit ]
The original post-punk motion ended as the bands associated with the movement turned away from its aesthetics, frequently in party favor of more commercial sounds ( such as new wave ). many of these groups would continue recording as partially of the fresh pop bowel movement, with entryism becoming a popular concept. In the United States, driven by MTV and modern rock radio stations, a issue of post-punk acts had an determine on or became separate of the Second British Invasion of “ New Music “ there. [ 99 ] Some shifted to a more commercial fresh roll sound ( such as Gang of Four ), [ 100 ] [ 101 ] while others were fixtures on american college radio and became early examples of alternative rock, such as Athens, Georgia band R.E.M. . One band to emerge from post-punk was U2, [ 102 ] which infused elements of religious imagination and political comment into its often anthemic music .
2000s : revival [edit ]
At the turn of the century, the term “ post-punk ” began to appear in the music weigh again, with a number of critics reviving the tag to describe a new typeset of bands that shared some of the aesthetics of the original post-punk era. [ 103 ] During the former ’90s and early 2000s bands surfaced with obligation to post-punk and new wave, these bands included Interpol, Franz Ferdinand, the Strokes, and the Rapture, establishing what journalists dubbed “ post-punk / new wave revival “. [ 104 ] Although on-line database AllMusic argued, the apparent motion was very more analogous to a continuum, one that could be traced back arsenic early as the mid-’80s describe bands like Big Flame, World Domination Enterprises, and Minimal Compact, a bands as natural extensions of post-punk. [ 104 ] AllMusic far listed ; Six Finger Satellite, Brainiac and Elastica as luminary bands “ that recalled the original earned run average [ of post-punk ] ” from the mid-’90s. [ 104 ]
list of bands [edit ]
Notes [edit ]
Citations [edit ]
bibliography [edit ]
foster reading [edit ]
- McNeil, Legs; McCain, Gillian (1997). Please Kill Me: The Uncensored Oral History of Punk. London: Little, Brown Book Group. ISBN 978-0-349-10880-3.
- Byron Coley and Thurston Moore, (2008) No Wave: Post-Punk. Underground. New York 1976–1980, Abrams
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