ITV (TV network) – Wikipedia

television receiver network in the United Kingdom

ITV, legally known as Channel 3, is a british free-to-air television network. It was launched in 1955 as Independent Television to provide contest to BBC Television ( established in 1932 ). [ 1 ] ITV is the oldest commercial network in the UK. Since the pass of the Broadcasting Act 1990, its legal name has been Channel 3 to distinguish it from the early analogue channels at the clock, BBC1, BBC2 and Channel 4. ITV was for four decades a network of separate companies which provided regional television receiver services and besides shared programmes between each other to be shown on the integral network. Each franchise was primitively owned by a different company. After several mergers, the fifteen regional franchises are now held by two companies : ITV plc, which runs the ITV channel, and STV Group, which runs the transmit STV.

The ITV network is a divide entity from ITV plc, the company that resulted from the fusion of Granada plc and Carlton Communications in 2004. ITV plc holds the Channel 3 circulate licences for every region except for central and northerly Scotland, which are held by STV Group. today ITV plc plainly commissions the network agenda centrally – programmes are made by its own auxiliary ITV Studios and autonomous production companies. regional program remains in news program and some stream affairs series. In Northern Ireland, ITV plc used the trade name name UTV as the mention of the channel until April 2020. This was the name used by early owner UTV Media ( immediately known as Wireless Group ). ITV plc bought UTV in 2016. Although the ITV network ‘s history goes back to 1955, many regional franchisees changed over the years. Some of the most crucial names in the network ‘s by – notably Thames, ABC and ATV – have no connection with the advanced network .

history [edit ]

Granada Studios, was built in 1954 to house the broadcaster Granada Television. Granada Television opened in 1956 and is the only franchisee to remain an ITV contractor since the creation of the network. The Granada studios closed in 2013. The origins of ITV lie down in the extremely of the Television Act 1954, designed to break the monopoly on television held by the BBC Television Service. [ 1 ] The act created the Independent Television Authority ( ITA, then IBA after the Sound Broadcasting Act ) to heavily regulate the industry and to award franchises. The first six franchises were awarded in 1954 for London, the Midlands and the North of England, with discriminate franchises for Weekdays and Weekends. [ 1 ] The foremost ITV network to plunge was London ‘s Associated-Rediffusion on 22 September 1955, [ 2 ] with the Midlands and North services launching in February 1956 and May 1956 respectively. Following these launches, the ITA awarded more franchises until the whole area was covered by fourteen regional stations, all launched by 1962. The net has been modified respective times through franchise reviews that have taken plaza in 1963, [ 3 ] 1967, [ 4 ] 1974, [ 5 ] 1980 [ 6 ] [ 7 ] and 1991, [ 8 ] during which circulate regions have changed and service operators have been replaced. merely one service operator has ever been declared bankrupt, WWN in 1963, [ 9 ] with all other operators leaving the network as a result of a franchise review. separate weekend franchises were removed in 1968 ( with the exception of London ) [ 3 ] and over the years more services were added ; these included a national breakfast franchise from 1983 onward—operating between 6:00 am and 9:25 am—and a teletext service. [ 6 ] The Broadcasting Act 1990 changed the nature of ITV ; the then regulator the IBA was replaced with a light-touch regulator, the ITC ; companies became able to purchase early ITV regional companies [ 10 ] and franchises were now being awarded based upon a highest-bidder auction, with few safeguards in place. [ 8 ] This heavily knock region of the review saw four operators replaced, and the operators facing different annual payments to the Treasury : cardinal Television, for example, paid only £2,000—despite holding a lucrative and large region—because it was unopposed, while Yorkshire Television paid £37.7 million for a region of the lapp size and condition, owing to big competition. [ 8 ] [ 11 ] Following the 1993 changes, ITV as a network began to consolidate with respective companies doing therefore to save money by ceasing the duplication of services show when they were all break companies. By 2004, ITV was owned by five companies, of which two, Carlton and Granada had become major players by owning between them all the franchises in England, Wales, the scots borders and the Isle of Man. [ 12 ] [ 13 ] [ 14 ] That lapp year, the two merged to form ITV plc [ 12 ] [ 13 ] [ 14 ] with the only subsequent acquisitions being the takeover of Channel Television, the Channel Islands franchise, in 2011 ; [ 15 ] and UTV, the franchise for Northern Ireland, in 2015 .

organization ( other networks ) [edit ]

The ITV network is not owned or operated by one company, but by a number of licensees, which provide regional services while besides broadcasting programmes across the network. Since 2016, the fifteen licences are held by two companies, with the majority held by ITV Broadcasting Limited, part of ITV plc. The network is regulated by the media governor Ofcom who is responsible for awarding the circulate licences. The final major follow-up of the Channel 3 franchises was in 1991, with all operators ‘ licences having been renewed between 1999 and 2002 and again from 2014 without a foster contest. While this has been the longest period that the ITV Network has gone without a major review of its license holders, Ofcom announced ( following reference ) that it would split the Wales and West license from 1 January 2014, creating a home license for Wales and joining the newly separated West region to Westcountry Television, to form a new license for the blown-up South West of England area. All companies holding a license were partially of the non-profit body ITV Network Limited, which commissioned and scheduled net scheduling, with submission previously handled by ITV plc and Channel Television. however, due to amalgamation of several of these companies since the universe of ITV Network Limited ( and given Channel Television is now owned by ITV plc ), it has been replaced by an affiliation system. [ 16 ] Approved by Ofcom, this results in ITV plc commission and funding the network schedule, with STV and UTV paying a fee to broadcast it. [ 16 ] All licensees have the right to opt out of net program ( except for the national newsworthiness bulletins ), however many do not due to pressures from the rear company or because of limited resources. [ 16 ] Prior to the consort system being introduced, STV would frequently ( and sometimes controversially ) opt out of several popular network programmes – such as the master move of the first series of Downton Abbey – citing the want to provide more scottish content to its viewers. [ 17 ] As a public service broadcaster, the ITV network is obliged to broadcast program of public importance, including news, current affairs, children ‘s and religious program a well as party election broadcasts on behalf of the major political parties and political events, such as the Budget. The network besides needs to produce accessible output containing subtitles, signing and audio description. In exchange for this program, the ITV net is available on all platforms free to air and can be found at the top of the EPG of all providers. Since the launch of the platform in 1998, all of the ITV licensees have received gifted capacity on the digital terrestrial television platform. At present, the companies are able to broadcast extra channels and all choose to broadcast the ITV plc owned ITV2, ITV3, ITV4 and CITV in their region. UTV and STV ( once scots Television and Grampian Television ) previously broadcast their own services – UTV2 in Northern Ireland and S2 in central and northern Scotland – until 2002, when they adopted the ITV plc channels. The broadcasters all make consumption of the Digital 3 & 4 multiplex, shared with Channel 4. ITV Encore launched in June 2014 and ITVBe launched in October 2014. ITV Box Office launched in February 2017 .

ITV plc [edit ]

ITV plc owns thirteen of the fifteen franchises and broadcasts to England, Wales, southern Scotland, the Isle of Man, the Channel Islands and Northern Ireland through its subsidiary company company ITV Broadcasting Limited. [ 15 ] The company besides owns the breakfast television license, [ 18 ] which as of January 2020, broadcasts across the network between 6:00 and 10:00am each morning using the Good Morning Britain ( previously Daybreak ) and Lorraine names. The company broadcasts a centralized serve under the ITV post. In Northern Ireland, ITV used the UTV sword appoint as the name of the channel until April 2020. The group besides owns ITV Studios, the product arm of the ship’s company and formed from an amalgamation of all the production departments of the regional licences they own. The company produces a large proportion of ITV ‘s network scheduling ( around 47 %, but previously a high as 66 % according to some reports [ 19 ] ), with the rest coming chiefly from mugwump suppliers ( under the Broadcasting Act 1990, at least 25 % of ITV ‘s total output must be from independent companies ). [ 20 ] ITV plc hopes to increase the sum of in-house program to as close to the 75 % limit as possible. The group cut the number of regional newsworthiness programmes offered from 17 in 2007 to 9 by 2009, resulting respective regions being merged to form one program, including the Border Television and Tyne Tees Television regions, the Westcountry Television and West regions and the removal of submarine regional scheduling, with some regions entirely represented by pre-recorded segments. [ 21 ]

STV Group [edit ]

STV Group plc owns two franchises, covering central and northern Scotland, through subordinate companies STV Central and STV North, broadcasting a central service under the STV brand. The company has had several disputes with ITV plc in holocene years over net scheduling. STV aims to broadcast more scots programmes at acme times and so remove several identify ITV plc programmes from their agenda in July 2009 including The Bill, Midsomer Murders and Lewis. [ 22 ] Despite STV ‘s explanation of expense, ITV plc were angered by the decision, as a recent schedule deepen had made The Bill central to their programming, and broadcast the programmes on ITV3 angstrom well to ensure scots viewers could see the programmes. On 23 September ITV was reported to be in the process of suing STV for £20 million, as ITV plc felt dropping the shows constituted a transgress of net agreements ; [ 23 ] STV subsequently counter-sued ITV plc for £35 million. The dispute was ended in 2011 with STV agreeing to pay ITV plc £18 million. The sign of the new affiliation deal has resulted in STV paying a apartment tip for all network program, and therefore to drop any programmes is improbable due to the big costs involved. [ 24 ]

current licensees [edit ]

There are fifteen regional licences, covering fourteen regions ( there are separate weekday and weekend licences for the London area ), and one home license for the breakfast service. All licences listed here were renewed until the end of 2024. Licences in England and Wales were held by the individual regional ITV plc owned companies anterior to November 2008. [ 25 ] The appointee to provide national newsworthiness for Channel 3 is besides subject to blessing by Ofcom. This appointment has been held by ITN since the channel ‘s origin, and has besides been approved through the end of 2024. [ 26 ]

National Channel 3 licences
Licence service area Licence holder[28] Licence held since Parent company Service name On air name
National breakfast time[Note 11] ITV Breakfast Limited 1993 ITV plc[Note 12] ITV Breakfast ITV

Programming [edit ]

ITV share of viewing 1981–2008 Broadcasters ‘ Audience Research Board figures. For over 60 years of ITV, its homegrown programmes have become among the best remembered adenine well as being extremely successful. Before the 1990s, about all of the subject for the channel was produced by the fifteen franchise licensees : the regional companies. however, in the final decade, and following legislation in the Broadcasting Act 1990 imposing a 25 % quota for commissioning of independent productions, [ 20 ] the count of programmes from freelancer production companies not connected to the traditional ITV Network, has increased quickly. celebrated examples include Talkback Thames ( one half of which, Thames Television, was itself a former ITV franchisee ), producers of The Bill and co-producers of The X Factor, and 2waytraffic ( previously Celador ), producers of Who Wants to Be a Millionaire?. From the belated 1990s, ITV ‘s long-standing commitment to solid stream affairs and documentary program began to diminish with the ending of productions such as World in Action ( Granada Television ), This Week ( Rediffusion London / Thames Television ), First Tuesday ( Yorkshire Television ), Network First, Survival ( Anglia Television ), and Weekend World ( LWT ) and their successor with democrat shows such as Tonight. News at Ten was besides axed in 1999, although it was reinstated in 2001. In December 2009, the final version of ITV ‘s long-running arts program, The South Bank Show was broadcast. ITV ‘s primetime schedules are dominated by its soap operas, such as the flagship Coronation Street and Emmerdale. At the begin of the twenty-first hundred, Independent Television faced criticism for including a bombastic sum of “ reality television ” programmes in the schedule, such as Celebrity Fit Club, Celebrity Wrestling and Celebrity Love Island. In its defense, ITV does continue to show its major strengths in the fields of sports coverage and drama productions, and it continues to schedule national news in primetime .

breakfast [edit ]

television receiver has been broadcast on ITV at breakfast since 1 February 1983. It was initially run by an independent contractile organ – TV-am, and late GMTV – until GMTV Limited became a wholly own auxiliary of ITV plc in November 2009. [ 30 ] historically, ITV aired breakfast programmes from 6am until 9.25am but ITV extended this to 10am on weekdays on 6 January 2020. [ 31 ] and immediately broadcasts two breakfast programmes on weekdays – Good Morning Britain and Lorraine. Good Morning Britain keeps viewers up to go steady with all the latest newsworthiness, sports, features and weather, whilst Lorraine predominantly focuses on fame interviews, recipes, fashion and showbiz. At weekends, ITV Breakfast airs children ‘s scheduling, a simulcast of CITV Breakfast, under the CITV brand .

Daytime program [edit ]

ITV ‘s potent day line-up helped by programmes such as This Morning, Loose Women, Dickinson’s Real Deal and game shows Tipping Point and The Chase are identical popular, achieving the highest audience parcel during the day slot. [ 32 ]

entertainment [edit ]

In recent years the network has tried to use formats that ITV Studios own out-right ( whether they have originated in the UK with their Lifted Entertainment [ 33 ] company or have come from output companies they own abroad ), though some democratic program formats like The Masked Singer have still been acquired from other companies overseas. Currently ITV are behind the formats for Dancing on Ice, The Voice UK ( the format originally coming from their dutch production caller ) and I’m a Celebrity…Get Me Out of Here!, while forthcoming music game show Walk The Line has been co-developed by Simon Cowell ‘s Syco Entertainment and ITV. [ 34 ] [ 35 ] [ 36 ] [ 37 ]

National and international news [edit ]

Since the network started, Independent Television News Limited ( ITN ) has held the condense to produce newsworthiness for the ITV Network, with 30-minute national news bulletins presently broadcast at 1:30 autopsy, 6:30 prime minister, and 10:00 phase modulation. These bulletins were broadcast under the ITN brand from 1955 until 1999, when a newfangled net identity reinforced the ITV stigmatize, resulting in the new bulletins being broadcast under the ITV News trade name. [ 38 ] [ 39 ] ITN has long been respected in the news program industry as a source of dependable information and newsworthiness, and as a result the servicing has won many awards for their programmes, the latest being in May 2011 when News at Ten was named best news broadcast by the Royal Television Society and BAFTA .

weather [edit ]

The ITV National Weather calculate was first air in 1989, using data supplied by the Met Office, and was presented by a number of upwind forecasters. The forecasts are sponsored in which the sponsors message, would appear anterior to and following the prognosis. The forecasts are made immediately after the independent national news bulletins. prior to the creation of the national prognosis, regional bode provided by each regional companies were shown in each region lone. The regional forecasts nowadays are incorporated into the independent regional newsworthiness bulletins, and in the summer months, includes a Pollen Count .

Late-night program [edit ]

presently only modern episodes of long-form news and current affairs programmes like Exposure, [ 40 ] Peston [ 41 ] and On Assignment [ 42 ] are being scheduled after News at Ten, with the latter deed presently only appearing on a month-by-month footing. As the channel carries a simulcast of the Ideal World [ 43 ] patronize net for a couple of hours after midnight, the time between the news and the shopping is normally kept for re-runs, with ITV repeating its primetime entertainment shows or sports programming from ITV4. [ 44 ] [ 45 ] [ 46 ] [ 47 ] ITV continues with its regularly scheduled programming after Ideal World at around 3am with showbiz newsworthiness bulletin FYI Extra [ 48 ] and repeats, many of which have on-screen BSL sign language for the deafen residential district. [ 49 ] Replacing the information based ITV Nightscreen slot in 2021 was Unwind With ITV, [ 50 ] program produced in association with the Campaign Against Living Miserably. At around 4am each night this mindfulness course of study shows calming shots of natural landscapes and relaxing animations for around an hour, [ 51 ] [ 52 ] with versions of the footage besides seen on ITV2, ITV3 and ITV4 .

regional program [edit ]

The regional ITV companies are required to provide local news as share of their franchise agreement together with local weather forecasts, with the main local bulletin at 6pm and regional bulletins located after each national news program. In summation to this, traditionally ITV companies would provide other regional program based on current affairs, entertainment or drama. however, apart from a monthly political broadcast, most non-news regional scheduling in the english regions was dropped by ITV plc in 2009, although it continues in Wales and the Channel Islands, deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as on STV and UTV and ITV Border in Scotland from 2014 to cover chiefly scottish politics whilst ITV Border in England air network programming. [ 53 ] On 14 January 2013, ITV plc regional news programmes titles were discontinued in privilege of more generic brand under the ITV News title with the region listed as the subheading. however some “ inheritance ” brand names were retained including Calendar, Granada Reports and Lookaround. On 28 June 2014, ITV Cymru Wales News returned to its historic identify of Wales at Six .

stream regional news programmes [edit ]

ITV News regions since 2013

Former programmes [edit ]

Sports [edit ]

Children ‘s program [edit ]

The network broadcasts children ‘s programming under the CITV ( Children ‘s ITV ) maroon. Children ‘s program was in the first place provided during weekday afternoons and weekend mornings, however following the launch of the CITV Channel in 2006, all children ‘s programming, with the exception of the weekend ITV Breakfast slot, were relocated from the ITV line-up to the CITV groove in 2007, a move which was challenged by Ofcom in April 2007 .

Schools programming [edit ]

Schools programming on the network began in 1957 in some regions and expanded as more regions began broadcasting. It was a contractual obligation for some ITV companies to broadcast schools programming, and this was initially broadcast as separate of the normal schedule. The programmes were moved into a segment for broadcast during the day in the 1960s, under the standard Independent Television for Schools and Colleges and from 1987 were broadcast on Channel 4 in the ITV Schools on Channel 4 segment. In 1993, this segment became Channel 4 Schools and late in 2000 4Learning. These strands of programming consisted of schools programming from all the ITV companies or from autonomous sources. The schools strand itself is now defunct, with no detail post segment used .

Teletext supplier [edit ]

The Public Teletext Licence [ 67 ] allows the holder to broadcast a text-based information service around the clock on Channel 3 ( american samoa well as Channel 4 and S4C ) frequencies. Teletext on ITV was provided by ORACLE from 1974 until 1993 and from 1993 to 2010 by Teletext Ltd., whose news program, sport and television listings pages rivalled the BBC ‘s offering, Ceefax on mundane and BBC Red Button on digital. Teletext Ltd. besides provided digital teletext for the Channel 3 services, equally well as the text end product for both Channel 4 and S4C under the same license and Channel 5. however, the license was revoked by Ofcom on 29 January 2010 for failing to provide news and local anesthetic non-news information on ITV and there is presently no teletext license holder for ITV. [ 68 ]

Availability outside the UK [edit ]

ITV ( as UTV ) is widely available in Ireland, where it is received immediately in areas bordering Northern Ireland, or in coastal areas from Wales ( as ITV Cymru Wales ). Until 2015, it was besides carried on cable, when it was replaced by UTV Ireland, which was itself replaced by be3, now Virgin Media Three. ITV program is besides available to irish viewers on Virgin Media One ( including soap operas Emmerdale and Coronation Street ). ITV is besides available on cable television and IPTV in Switzerland and Liechtenstein. Since 27 March 2013, it has been offered by the british Forces Broadcasting Service ( BFBS ) to members of HM Forces and their families around the world, replacing the BFBS3 TV impart, which already carried a survival of ITV programmes. [ 69 ]

criticism [edit ]

Since the launch of ITV, there have been concerns from politicians and the weight-lift that ITV faced a dispute concerning program audiences and advertisers. As advertisers are reluctant to buy advertising outer space about low viewing programmes, there is a pressure on ITV to broadcast more popular programmes in top out times. This has become more profound in recent years following a relaxation in regulation and significantly more competition in the advertising marketplace following the huge increase in commercial channels. In recent years, programmes have started to dominate from the reality television genre including the fame and talent show subgenres. This has led to accusations of ITV ‘dumbing down ‘ their programmes and appealing to the ‘ lowest common denominator ‘, accusations that are at odds with the net ‘s status as a populace service broadcaster. [ 70 ] [ 71 ] ITV was/is besides heavily criticised for scaling back its regional programmes, including regional newsworthiness, besides ITV has been criticised ( since 2010 ) for showing Emmerdale and Coronation Street at the 8:30 weekday slot ( except Tuesdays ) .

Awards and nominations [edit ]

Year Association Category Nominee(s) Result
2017 Diversity in Media Awards Broadcaster of the Year ITV Nominated

On-air identity [edit ]

On-screen stigmatization, in the ITV-branded regions only :

See besides [edit ]

Notes [edit ]

References [edit ]

parent companies [edit ]

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