Capitol Records – Wikipedia

American record label
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Capitol Records, LLC ( known legally as Capitol Records, Inc. until 2007 ) is an american record label owned by Universal Music Group through its Capitol Music Group imprint. It was founded as the first West Coast-based record label of note in the United States [ 1 ] in 1942 by Johnny Mercer, Buddy DeSylva, and Glenn E. Wallichs. Capitol was acquired by british music pudding stone EMI as its north american english subsidiary company in 1955. [ 2 ] EMI was acquired by Universal Music Group in 2012, and was merged with the caller a year late, making Capitol and the Capitol Music Group both a partially of UMG. The label ‘s circular headquarters construction is a recognized landmark of Hollywood, California. Capitol is good known as the U.S. record label of the Beatles, specially during the years of Beatlemania in America from 1964 to 1967. Capitol ‘s roll has included Nat King Cole, Frank Sinatra, Judy Garland, Peggy Lee, Dinah Shore, Tina Turner, Garth Brooks, Paul McCartney, Ringo Starr, the Beach Boys, Brian Wilson, Bee Gees, Megadeth, The Knack, NF, Everclear, Katy Perry, Mary J. Blige, Halsey, Duran Duran, Beastie Boys, Juice Newton, The Kingston Trio, Neil Diamond, Iron Maiden, Richard Thompson, Minnie Riperton, Luscious Jackson, Linda Ronstadt, Eagles, Beck, Avenged Sevenfold, Don Henley, Yellowcard, Sam Smith, Sparklehorse, Migos, Emeli Sandé, Queen Naija, Helena Paparizou, 5 Seconds of Summer, Brian Courtney Wilson, Niall Horan, and Fletcher.

history [edit ]

Founding [edit ]

Songwriter Johnny Mercer founded Capitol Records in 1942 [ 3 ] with fiscal help from songwriter and film producer Buddy DeSylva and the commercial enterprise acumen of Glenn Wallichs, owner of Wallichs Music City. Mercer raised the mind of starting a record party while golfing with Harold Arlen and Bobby Sherwood and with Wallichs at Wallichs ‘s phonograph record store. On February 2, 1942, Mercer and Wallichs met DeSylva at a restaurant in Hollywood to talk about investing by Paramount Pictures. On March 27, 1942, the three men incorporated as liberty Records ( not Capitol ‘s future sister label Liberty Records ). In May, the lotion was amended to change the label ‘s name to Capitol Records. [ 4 ] On April 6, 1942, Mercer supervised Capitol ‘s first record session where Martha Tilton recorded the birdcall “ Moon Dreams ”. On May 5, Bobby Sherwood and his orchestra recorded two tracks in the studio. On May 21, Freddie Slack and his orchestra recorded three tracks in the studio : matchless with the orchestra, one with Ella Mae Morse called “ Cow-Cow Boogie “ and “ Air-Minded executive ” supervised by Mercer. On June 4, Capitol opened its inaugural position in a second-floor room south of Sunset Boulevard. On that same day, Wallichs presented the company ‘s first free record to Los Angeles disk jockey Peter Potter. On June 5, Paul Whiteman and his Orchestra recorded four songs at the studio apartment. On June 12, the orchestra recorded five more songs in the studio, including “ Trav’lin ‘ Light ” with Billie Holiday. On June 11, Tex Ritter recorded “ ( I Got Spurs That ) Jingle Jangle Jingle “ and “ Goodbye My Little Cherokee ” for his foremost Capitol record session, and the songs comprised Capitol ‘s hundred-and-tenth produced criminal record. The earliest record artists included co-owner Mercer, Johnnie Johnston, Morse, Jo Stafford, the Pied Pipers, Tex Ritter, Tilton, Paul Weston, Whiteman, and Margaret Whiting. [ 3 ] Capitol ‘s first gold single was Morse ‘s “ Cow Cow Boogie ” in 1942. Capitol ‘s first album was Capitol Presents Songs by Johnny Mercer, a three disk set with recordings by Mercer, Stafford and the Pied Pipers, all with Weston ‘s orchestra. The label ‘s early 1940s musicians included Les Baxter, Les Brown, Jimmy Bryant, Billy Butterfield, Nat King Cole, Sammy Davis Jr., Dinning Sisters, Tennessee Ernie Ford, Mary Ford, Benny Goodman, Skitch Henderson, Betty Hutton, Stan Kenton, Peggy Lee, Billy May, Les Paul, Alvino Rey, Andy Russell, Smilin ‘ Jack Smith, Kay Starr, Speedy West, and Cootie Williams. Musicians on the Capitol Americana label included Lead Belly, Cliffie Stone, Hank Thompson, Merle Travis, Wesley Tuttle, Jimmy Wakely, and Tex Williams. Capitol was the first gear major west coast label to compete with major labels on the east coast such as RCA Victor, Columbia, and Decca. In summation to its Los Angeles recording studios, Capitol owned a moment studio in New York City and occasionally sent mobile recording equipment to other cities .

early genres [edit ]

In 1946, writer-producer Alan W. Livingston created Bozo the Clown for the company ‘s children ‘s commemorate library. Examples of luminary Capitol albums for children during that earned run average are Sparky’s Magic Piano and Rusty in Orchestraville. Capitol besides developed a noted sleep together catalogue that included the Capitol Jazz Men and issued the Miles Davis ‘s album Birth of the Cool. [ citation needed ] Capitol released a few authoritative albums in the 1940s, some of which contained fine-looking heavily embossed, leather-like covers. These recordings appeared on the 78 revolutions per minute format and were subsequently reissued on the new LP format in 1949. Among the recordings : brazilian composer Heitor Villa-Lobos ‘ Choros No. 10, with contributions from a Los Angeles chorale group and the Janssen Symphony Orchestra ( 1940–1952 ), conducted by Werner Janssen ; Symphony No. 3 by Russian composer Reinhold Moritzovich Glière ; and César Franck ‘s Symphony in D minor, with Willem Mengelberg and the Concertgebouw Orchestra. [ citation needed ] In 1949, Capitol opened a branch office in Canada and purchased KHJ Studios on Melrose Avenue adjacent to Paramount in Hollywood. [ citation needed ] By the 1950s, Capitol had become a huge label that concentrated primarily on democratic music. The label ‘s roll at that time included the Andrews Sisters, Ray Anthony, Shirley Bassey, June Christy, Tommy Duncan, Tennessee Ernie Ford, the Four Freshmen, the Four Knights, the Four Preps, Jane Froman, Judy Garland, Jackie Gleason, Andy Griffith, Dick Haymes, Harry James, the Louvin Brothers, Dean Martin, Al Martino, Skeets McDonald, Louis Prima, Nelson Riddle, Dinah Shore, Frank Sinatra, and Keely Smith. [ citation needed ] Capitol began recording rock and wind acts such as The Jodimars and Gene Vincent. There were comedy records by Stan Freberg, Johnny Standley, and Mickey Katz. Children listened to Capitol ‘s Bozo the Clown albums. Although respective people played Bozo the Clown on television, Capitol used the voice of Pinto Colvig, who was besides the voice of Goofy in Walt Disney cartoons. Don Wilson besides released children ‘s records. In June 1952, Billboard cartridge holder contained a history of the tag ‘s first ten years in business. [ 6 ]

ownership under EMI [edit ]

[7] Revived in 2017.[8] Capitol logo from 1969 to 1978, designed by Roland Young.Revived in 2017. In 1955, the british phonograph record company EMI ended its 55-year reciprocal distribution agreement with RCA Victor and acquired 96 % of Capitol ‘s stock for $ 8.5 million. EMI built a studio at Hollywood and Vine to match its state-of-the-art Abbey Road Studios in London. In 1957, EMI ‘s classical label Angel was merged into Capitol. Some authoritative recordings were issued in high fidelity and stereophonic voice. These included William Steinberg and the Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra, Leopold Stokowski with assorted orchestras ( including the Los Angeles Philharmonic Orchestra ) and Sir Thomas Beecham and the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra, equally well as light classical music albums by Carmen Dragon and the Hollywood Bowl Orchestra and albums of film music conducted by Hollywood composers such as Alfred Newman. The Capitol of the World series introduced in 1956 and active into the 1970s encompassed German Beer Drinking Songs, Honeymoon in Rome, Australian Aboriginals, and Kasongo! Modern Music of the Belgian Congo. many were produced by Dave Dexter Jr. This series contained over 400 albums. [ 9 ] [ 10 ] In October 1979, EMI merged with Thorn Electrical Industries to form Thorn EMI [ 11 ] and, due to business models increasingly diverging, on August 16, 1996, Thorn EMI ‘s shareholders voted to demerge. The resulting media company was then known as the EMI Group. [ 12 ]

ownership under Universal Music Group [edit ]

In 2012, the record music operations of EMI were sold to the Universal Music Group and the world headquarter were re-established in the Capitol Tower in Hollywood as separate of the subsequent reorganization of the Capitol Music Group. Steve Barnett, previously an employee of Columbia, was hired as chair and CEO of the division. [ 13 ] [ 14 ] Capitol filed a lawsuit against Vimeo, an on-line video-sharing web site, for sound recording copyright violation. Capitol filed the claim after users were visibly lip-synch to some of their tracks. [ 15 ] Following legal legal action by Capitol against the ReDigi.com on-line ship’s company in April 2013, the latter was found to have violated copyright jurisprudence. Capitol Records claimed that ReDigi was guilty of copyright misdemeanor due to a commercial enterprise mannequin that facilitated the creation of extra copies of Capitol ‘s digital music files, whereby users could upload the files for downloading or streaming to the new buyer of the file. ReDigi argued that the resale of MP3/digital music files is permitted under certain doctrines ( “ fair function ” and “ first sale ” ) but the court maintained that the doctrines ‘ application “ was limited to substantial items that the copyright owner put into the flow of commerce. ” [ 16 ] In 2014, PGH Live Music joined the team and Katy Perry founded the phonograph record label Metamorphosis Music, starting a tag speculation with Capitol. [ 17 ] The list of the label was late changed to Unsub Records in 2016. [ 18 ]

besides that class, Capitol rose to phone number two commercialize share and won four categories at the Grammy Awards for music by Beck and Sam Smith. [ 19 ] In 2018, Capitol ‘s electronic class Astralwerks relaunched with a modern team and moved its entire operations to Capitol ‘s column in Los Angeles. [ 20 ] In December 2019, Jeff Vaughn was named President of Capitol Records, assuming his situation as of January 1, 2020, and is based in Hollywood at the iconic Capitol Tower. [ 21 ]

Headquarters [edit ]

Capitol Records headquarters building Designed by Welton Becket with Louis Naidorf, a young architect from Becket ‘s office, serving as project designer [ 22 ] [ 2 ] the thirteen-story, earthquake-resistant Capitol Records Tower was the world ‘s first circular agency build and it is the base for several recording studios. Although not intended as a tribute to record players, its broad curved awnings and tall constrict tower mimic the appearance of a push-down storage of gramophone records atop a record player. The construct was commissioned by EMI after its acquisition of Capitol Records in 1955 and was completed in April 1956. The build is north of the intersection of Hollywood and Vine and is the center of the company ‘s amalgamate West Coast operations. It was nicknamed “ The House That Nat Built ” after the fiscal success of Capitol singer Nat King Cole. The rectangular ground floor is a separate structure joined to the tower after it was completed. In September 2006, EMI announced that it had sold the column and adjacent properties for $ 50 million to New York-based developer Argent Ventures. [ 23 ] In mid-2008, a controversy erupted over a design to build a condominium building complex following door, igniting fears that the construction ‘s acoustic properties, specifically its metro echo chambers, would be compromised. It was announced in November 2012 that Steve Barnett would become president and CEO of Capitol Music Group and would be based at the Capitol Records Building. [ 24 ] Capitol and artist Richard Wyatt Jr. restored his Hollywood Jazz Mural on the south wall of the Capitol Records Building. [ 25 ]

Studios [edit ]

Capitol ‘s recording studios were designed to minimize make noise and shaking, then newly important goals in the high-fidelity sound earned run average. An inside wall floating on layers of rubber and phellem was erected inside the building ‘s 10-inch-thick ( 250 millimeter ) concrete outside walls, leaving a one-inch atmosphere opening to provide complete sound isolation. [ 26 ] The facility besides features subterranean echo chambers that allow engineers to add repercussion during the record process. Eight trapezoidal chambers are located 30 feet ( 9.1 meter ) underground, with 10-inch concrete walls and 12-inch-thick ( 300 millimeter ) concrete ceilings. Speakers on one side and microphones on the other permit an echo impression of up to five seconds. Studios A and B can be combined for the record of orchestral music and symphonic film soundtracks. The first album recorded in the column was Frank Sinatra Conducts Tone Poems of Color .

International operations [edit ]

Capitol modified albums that were primitively released in other countries on other labels. Albums released in the United States contained fewer tracks, normally no more than 11 or 12, compared to albums released in the United Kingdom due to differences in the method of publishing royalties were calculated in the two countries. [ 27 ] besides, in the american market it was expected that albums would include the current hit individual, whereas british albums typically did not duplicate songs released as singles .

The Beatles [edit ]

possibly the best-known treatment of an international artist ‘s recordings was the label ‘s release model for assorted albums by the Beatles. This began with Capitol ‘s release of Meet the Beatles!, the first album by the isthmus to be released by Capitol in the United States. It was based on the british album With the Beatles, which contained 14 tracks and a campaign fourth dimension of around 35 minutes. Capitol removed five tracks ( “ Money ”, “ You ‘ve truly Got A Hold On Me ”, “ Devil in Her Heart ”, “ Please Mister Postman ”, and “ Roll Over Beethoven ” ) and added both sides of the band ‘s foremost american shoot single ( “ I Want To Hold Your Hand ” c/w “ I Saw Her Standing There ” ) and the british individual ‘s B-side, “ This Boy ”. “ I Saw Her Standing There ” was on the Beatles ‘ first gear british album, Please Please Me. This resulted in Capitol releasing Meet the Beatles as a 12-track album with a duration of around 30 minutes and made it comparable with other american english toss off albums. It besides provided Capitol with unreleased tracks for use in later US Beatles albums such as The Beatles’ Second Album. Capitol besides issued “ duophonic “ stereo releases of some recordings where the original chief was monophonic. Capitol engineers split the single master mono track into two, boosted the bass on the right distribution channel, boosted double on the leftover groove and added a split-second delay between channels to produce a “ stereophonic ” release. This duophonic procedure meant that the Beatles ‘ american fans occasionally heard a slightly different sung from that hear by the rest of the populace if they listened to the stereo version. [ 28 ] This swerve in the Beatles ‘ american discography continued until 1967 when a newly recording contract with EMI was signed. unhappy with the means Capitol in the US and other companies around the world were issuing their work in about unrecognizable forms, beginning in 1967 the Beatles gained full approval of album titles and cover art, track list and running order in North America. Starting with Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band, Beatles ‘ albums were released unmodified. The emergence of 45 RPM singles featuring album tracks was besides stopped. rather, non-album tracks were issued as singles between album releases .

United Kingdom [edit ]

Beginning in 1948, Capitol Records were released in the UK on the Capitol tag by Decca. After its 1955 acquisition of Capitol, EMI took over distribution in 1956. [ 29 ] EMI ‘s Parlophone unit handled Capitol tag marketing in the UK in late years. [ 30 ] In 2012, EMI was sold to Universal Music Group. Universal Music started Capitol as an autonomous label in the UK with the rights to the Beatles ‘ catalog. [ 31 ] This marks the first time that Capitol in the UK operated as an autonomous pronounce. [ 32 ]

Canada [edit ]

Capitol Records of Canada was established in 1949 by businessman W. Lockwood Miller. Capitol broke with Miller ‘s company and formed Capitol Record Distributors of Canada Limited in 1954. EMI acquired this company when it acquired Capitol. The ship’s company was renamed Capitol Records of Canada Ltd. in 1958 after Miller ‘s rights to the mention expired. In 1959, Capitol of Canada picked up distribution rights for EMI ‘s labels Angel, Pathé, Odeon, and Parlophone. [ 33 ] In 1957, Paul White joined Capitol of Canada and in 1960 established an A & R department independent of the american company to promote talent for the canadian grocery store. [ 34 ] The division found native endowment such as Anne Murray and EMI musicians from other countries. Beginning in 1962, Capitol of Canada issued albums by british musicians such as Cliff Richard, Helen Shapiro and Frank Ifield. They accepted the Beatles farseeing earlier the american company. By 1967, they were distributing non-EMI labels such as twentieth Century Fox, Buena Vista Records, Disneyland, and Pickwick. [ 34 ] The company was renamed Capitol Records-EMI of Canada in 1974, before the EMI Music Canada name was adopted in 1993. [ 35 ] [ 36 ] [ 37 ] EMI Music Canada was absorbed into Universal Music Canada in 2012. In 2016, Universal Music Canada donated the EMI Music Canada archives to the University of Calgary. [ 38 ]

other countries [edit ]

Capitol Latin focuses on Latin music artists in Latin America and the United States. It was founded in 1989 as EMI Latin and was renamed to Capitol Latin in 2009. [ 39 ] [ 40 ] Capitol Latin was merged with Universal Music Latin Entertainment in 2013. [ 41 ] Capitol Music Germany was founded by EMI Music Germany and inherited most of EMI ‘s german artists catalogue. In 2013, Capitol Germany was acquired by Universal and merged with UMG ‘s Vertigo Berlin domestic division. The new label is called Vertigo/Capitol. Capitol Music Group Sweden was relaunched in 2015 after UMG rebranded the Lionheart Music Group label. It primitively existed as a division of EMI Music Sweden during the 90 ‘s and mid-2000 ‘s. EMI ‘s swedish offices were included in the Parlophone Label Group sale and were acquired by Warner Music Group, which owns the Capitol Sweden ‘s back catalog. In France, Capitol Label Services ( once Capitol Music France ) exists as a division of Universal Music France, and bears the 70 ‘s Capitol “ C ” logo .

See besides [edit ]

References [edit ]

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