Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender ( LGBT ) people in Russia face legal and social challenges not experienced by non-LGBT. Although sexual activeness between same – sex couples was legalised in 1993 ; [ 1 ] homosexuality is disapproved of by most Russians, and same-sex couples and households headed by same-sex couples are ineligible for the legal protections available to opposite-sex couples. There are presently no separate laws prohibiting discrimination based on sexual orientation in Russia. transgender people are allowed to change their legal gender following arouse reassignment surgery ; however, there are presently no laws prohibiting discrimination based on sex identity or expression, and late laws could discriminate against transgender residents. Homosexuality has been declassified as a mental illness since 1999, and although gay and lesbian individuals are legally allowed to serve openly in the military, there is a de facto “ Do n’t ask, do n’t tell “ policy. Russia has long held powerfully negative views regarding homosexuality, with holocene polls indicating that a majority of Russians are against the adoption of homosexuality and have shown documentation for laws discriminating against homosexuals. Despite receiving international criticism for the holocene increase in social discrimination, crimes, and violence against homosexuals, larger cities such as Moscow [ 6 ] and Saint Petersburg [ 7 ] have been said to have a boom LGBT residential district. however, there has been a historic resistance to gay pride parades by local governments ; despite being fined by the european Court of Human Rights in 2010 for interpreting it as discrimination, the city of Moscow denied 100 individual requests for permission to hold Moscow Pride through 2012, citing a risk of violence against participants.
Reading: LGBT rights in Russia – Wikipedia
Since 2006, numerous regions in Russia have enacted varying laws restricting the distribution of materials promoting LGBT relationships to minors ; in June 2013, a federal jurisprudence criminalizing the distribution of materials among minors in defend of non-traditional sexual relationships was enacted as an amendment to an existing child auspices jurisprudence. [ 8 ] The jurisprudence has resulted in the numerous arrests of russian LGBT citizens publicly opposing the law and there has reportedly been a surge of anti-gay protests, ferocity, and even hate crimes. It has received international criticism from homo rights observers, LGBT activists, and media outlets and has been viewed as de facto means of criminalizing LGBT culture. [ 9 ] The law was ruled to be inconsistent with protective covering of exemption of formula by the european Court of Human Rights but as of 2021 has not been repealed. [ 10 ] In a report issued on 13 April 2017, a jury of five expert advisors to the United Nations Human Rights Council — Vitit Muntarbhorn, Sètondji Roland Adjovi ; Agnès Callamard ; Nils Melzer ; and David Kaye —condemned the roll of torment and killings of gay men in Chechnya. [ 11 ] [ 12 ]
history [edit ]
current site [edit ]
- The Russian constitution guarantees the right of peaceful association. Nevertheless, organs of authority in Russia refuse to register LGBT organizations.
public opinion [edit ]
populace opinion in Russia tends to be hostile toward homosexuality and the grade of intolerance has been rising. [ 21 ] A 2013 review found that 74 % of Russians said homosexuality should not be accepted by company ( up from 60 % in 2002 ), compared to 16 % who said that homosexuality should be accepted by company. [ 22 ] A 2015 survey found that 86 % of Russians said homosexuality should not be accepted by club. [ 23 ] In a 2007 view, 68 % of Russians said homosexuality is always amiss ( 54 % ) or about always improper ( 14 % ). [ 24 ] In a 2005 pate, 44 % of Russians were in favor of making homosexual acts between consenting adults a condemnable act ; [ 25 ] at the same time, 43 % of Russians supported a legal ban on discrimination on the footing of sexual orientation. [ 25 ] In 2013, 16 % of Russians surveyed said that gay people should be isolated from society, 22 % said they should be forced to undergo treatment, and 5 % said homosexuals should be “ liquidated ”. In russian psychiatry, soviet brain about homosexuality has endured into the deliver day. [ 27 ] For case, in malice of the removal of homosexuality from the terminology of mental disorders, 62.5 % of 450 survey psychiatrists in the Rostov Region view it as an illness, and improving to three-quarters horizon it as immoral demeanor. [ 27 ] The psychiatrists sustain the objections to pride parades and the use of veiled schemes to lay off openly lesbian and homosexual persons from schools, child wish centres, and other public institutions. [ 27 ] A russian motorbike golf club called the Night Wolves, which is closely associated with Russian President Vladimir Putin and which suggests “ Death to faggots ” as an alternate name for itself, [ 28 ] organized a large Anti-Maidan call up in February 2015 at which a popular motto was “ We do n’t need western political orientation and gay parades ! ” [ 29 ]
Same-sex unions [edit ]
Neither same-sex marriages nor civil unions of same-sex couples are allowed in Russia. In July 2013, Patriarch Kirill, the leader of the russian Orthodox Church, of which approximately 71 % of Russians are adherents, [ 30 ] said that the theme of same-sex marriage was “ a very dangerous signboard of the Apocalypse ”. [ 31 ] At a 2011 weigh conference, the head of the Moscow Registry Office, Irina Muravyova, declared : “ Attempts by same-sex couples to marry both in Moscow and elsewhere in Russia are doomed to fail. We live in a civil club, we are guided by the federal law, [ and ] by the Constitution that distinctly says : marriage in Russia is between a man and a womanhood. Such a marriage [ same-sex ] can not be contracted in Russia. ” [ 32 ] The huge majority of the russian populace are besides against same-sex marriage. [ 25 ] [ 33 ] In July 2020, russian voters approved a Constitution amendment banning same-sex marriage. [ 34 ] In the 2021 event Fedotova and Others v. Russia, the european Court of Human Rights ruled that it was a misdemeanor of human rights for Russia not to offer any form of legal realization to same-sex relationships. [ 35 ]
military servicing [edit ]
Before 1993, homosexual acts between consenting males were against the law in Russia, [ 1 ] and homosexuality was considered a mental perturb until adoption of ICD-10 in 1999, [ 36 ] but even after that military medical expertness legislative act was in force out to continue considering homosexuality a mental disorder which was a rationality to deny homosexuals to serve in the military. On 1 July 2003, a new military medical expertness legislative act was adopted ; it said people “ who have problems with their identity and sexual preferences ” can merely be drafted during war times. [ 37 ] however, this clause contradicted another article of the same legislative act which stated that different sexual orientation should not be considered a deviation. This ambiguity was resolved by the Major-General of the Medical Service Valery Kulikov who clearly stated that new medical legislative act “ does not prevent people of non-standard sexual orientation from serving in the military. ” [ 38 ] however, he added that people of non-standard intimate orientation should not reveal their sexual orientation while serving in the army because “ other soldiers are not going to like that, they can be beaten ”. [ 39 ] President Vladimir Putin said in a U.S. television interview in 2010 that openly gay men were not excluded from military service in Russia. [ 40 ] In 2013, it was reported that the Defense Ministry had issued a road map on judgment of new recruits ‘ mental health that recommends recruits be asked about their intimate history and be examined for certain types of tattoo, particularly genital or buttocks tattoos, that would allegedly indicate a homosexual orientation. [ 40 ] [ 41 ]
Gay pride events [edit ]
LGBT activists in St. Petersburg, Russia, 1 May 2017 There have been celebrated objections to the constitution of gay pride parades [ 42 ] in several russian cities, most prominently Moscow, where authorities have never approved a request to hold a gay pride muster. [ 43 ] Former Moscow mayor Yuri Luzhkov supported the city ‘s refusal to authorize the first two editions of Nikolay Alexeyev ‘s Moscow Pride events, calling them as “ satanic ”. The events still went on as planned, in defiance of their miss of mandate. [ 44 ] [ 45 ] In 2010, Russia was fined by the european Court of Human Rights, ruling that, as alleged by Alexeyev, russian cities were discriminating against the cheery residential district by refusing to authorize pride parades. Although authorities had claimed allowing pride events to be held would pose a risk of ferocity, the Court ruled that their decisions “ efficaciously approved of and supported groups who had called for [ their ] disturbance. ” [ 46 ] In August 2012, contravening the previous rule, the Moscow City Court upheld a govern blocking requests by the organizers of Moscow Pride for authority to hold the parade annually through 2112, citing the possibility of public disorder and a lack of digest for such events by residents of Moscow. [ 47 ] [ 48 ] [ 49 ]
chechnya [edit ]
Anti-gay purges in the Chechen Republic have included storm disappearances — hidden abductions, captivity, and torture — by authorities targeting persons based on their perceived sexual orientation. An stranger number of men, who authorities detained on suspicion of being gay or bisexual, have reportedly died after being held in what human rights groups and eyewitnesses have called concentration camps. [ 50 ] [ 51 ] Allegations were initially reported on 1 April 2017 in Novaya Gazeta, [ 2 ] a Russian-language resistance newspaper, which reported that since February 2017 over 100 men had allegedly been detained and tortured and at least three had died in an extrajudicial killing. The paper, citing its sources in the Chechen particular services, called the brandish of detentions a “ condom cross ”. [ 2 ] [ 3 ] The journalist who first reported on the subject went into hiding. [ 52 ] [ 53 ] There have been calls for reprisals against journalists who report on the situation. [ 54 ] As news spread of Chechen authorities ‘ actions, which have been described as part of a systematic anti- LGBT purge, Russian and external activists scrambled to evacuate survivors of the camps and other vulnerable Chechens but were met with difficulty obtaining visas to conduct them safely beyond Russia. [ 55 ] The reports of the persecution were met with a variety of reactions worldwide. The Head of the Chechen Republic Ramzan Kadyrov denied not lone the occurrence of any persecution but besides the being of cheery men in Chechnya, adding that such people would be killed by their own families. [ 56 ] [ 57 ] Officials in Moscow were disbelieving, although in late May the russian government reportedly agreed to send an fact-finding team to Chechnya. [ 58 ] Numerous national leaders and other public figures in the West condemned Chechnya ‘s actions, and protests were held in Russia and elsewhere. A report released in December 2018 by the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe ( OSCE ) confirmed claims that persecution of LGBT persons had taken target and was ignored by authorities. [ 59 ] [ 60 ] On 11 January 2019, it was reported that another ‘gay purge ‘ had begun in the country in December 2018, with respective gay men and women being detained. [ 61 ] [ 62 ] [ 63 ] [ 64 ] [ 65 ] The Russian LGBT Network believes that around 40 persons were detained and two killed. [ 66 ] [ 67 ] In March 2021, Reuters reported that the European Union imposed economic sanctions on two Chechen officials accused of persecuting LGBT people in Chechnya. [ 68 ]
public opinion [edit ]
accompaniment for same-sex marriage in the russian Federation ( 2019 poll ) [ 69 ]
Against ( 87 % )
For ( 7 % )
early ( 6 % )
Russia has traditionally been socially conservative on LGBT rights, with 2013 polls indicating a large majority of Russians oppose legal recognition of same-sex marriage, and support for laws restricting the distribution of “ propaganda ” that promotes non-traditional intimate relationships. [ 70 ] [ 71 ] In 2019, a review showed that 47 % of russian respondents agreed that “ gays and lesbians should enjoy the same rights as other citizens, ” while 43 percentage disagree, a heighten from 39 % in 2013. This marks the highest level of corroborate in 14 years. [ 72 ] [ 73 ] In 2019, a poll showed that only 2 % would show concern and a willingness to communicate if the neighbor was a homosexual couple or a extremity of a religious sect, the survive of the category of people presented. [ 74 ] According to a 2019 poll carried out by the russian Public Opinion Foundation ( FOM ), 7 % of Russians agreed that same-sex marriages should be allowed in Russia, while 87 % opposed the estimate. [ 69 ]
|Demographics||Support for same-sex marriage|
|60 and older||3%||88%|
employment discrimination [edit ]
Anton Krasovsky, a television news program anchor at government-run KontrTV, was immediately fired [ 75 ] [ 76 ] from his subcontract in January 2013 when he announced during a alive air that he is brave and disgusted by the home anti-gay propaganda legislation that had been proposed although had not yet passed. [ 31 ] [ 77 ] In September 2013, a Khabarovsk teacher and brave rights activist, Alexander Yermoshkin, was fired from his two jobs as educate teacher and university research worker. [ 78 ] A week early, he had been attacked by members of a local neo-Nazi group “ Shtolz Khabarovsk ”. [ 79 ] An activist group called “ Movement against the propaganda of intimate perversions ” had campaigned for his dismissal. [ 80 ]
Viewpoints of political parties [edit ]
The federal law banning LGBT propaganda among minors was passed unanimously by the russian Duma ; as the beak amended an existing child protection jurisprudence, it is difficult to know whether or not all of the MPs, and their respective political parties, supported every aspect of the bill or not. A few political parties without members in the Duma have expressed some limited corroborate for LGBT rights. Yabloko is a penis of the Liberal International, and has organized public demonstrations against intolerance under the banner of building a “ Russia without pogroms ”. [ 81 ] The Libertarian Party of Russia, formed in 2007, has objected to the government ban on “ homosexual propaganda ” as a trespass of people ‘s right to freedom of speech. [ 82 ] In 2016, two openly cheery men ran for seats in the russian duma. While they admit that they credibly will not win a seat, they were supported by a liberal coalescence. They are besides credibly the beginning openly gay candidates to run for seats in the russian parliament. [ 83 ] The LGBT rights arrangement Gayrussia.ru has been monitoring homophobic political parties since 2011. [ 84 ] In the in-between of 2013 their list included : [ 85 ] United Russia, Communist Party of russian Federation, Narodnaya Volya, National Bolshevik Party, National Bolshevik Front, Patriots of Russia, Eurasian Youth Union and Fair Russia .
Hate crimes [edit ]
On 20 January 2013, six demonstrating LGBT activists in the provincial capital of Voronezh were attacked by over 500 people. The protest by these agitators, who appeared with Hitler salutes and hate slogans and threw snowballs, bottles and other objects at the demonstrators and then beat them up, was not registered. The patrol assigned 10 officers to this consequence. The employees of the nearby Adidas sports workshop staged its mannequins with Hitler salutes in solidarity with the beat. At least three LGBT activists, including women, were injured and hospitalized during the resistance. On the same day, the writer of the Petersburg law against ‘homosexual propaganda ‘, Vitaly Milonov, posted on his chitter that “ Voronezh is great ” .
Activists in Madrid protest LGBT rights violations in Russia Unlike in many westerly nations, LGBT persons in Russia are not protected by specific legal protections. Violent criminal acts carried out against these persons are prosecuted as condemnable offences under russian law, but the fact that these crimes are motivated by the sexual orientation or gender identity of the victim is not considered an aggravating component when the court determines the sentence. Among the more poisonous crimes that would qualify as hate crimes outside of Russia and are reported in the press would include the following ;
- On 9 May 2013, after Victory Day parades in Volgograd, the body of a 23-year-old man was found tortured and murdered by three males who stated anti-homosexual motivations, even though family and friends state the victim had no behavior inclination.
- On 29 May 2013, the body of 38-year-old deputy director of Kamchatka airport Oleg Serdyuk (rus: Олег Сердюк) was found in his burned-out car, having been beaten and stabbed the previous day. Local authorities said the murder was motivated by homophobia. Three suspects (who were local residents) were tried and sentenced to prison terms of 9 to 12 years.
- From October 2013 – February 2014, anti-gay attacks targeting the LGBT community in Moscow were reported at Russia’s largest gay nightclub Central Station, including gunfire and gas attacks. Several attacks and victim responses were documented in an ABC News Nightline special “Moscow is Burning”. Several employees subsequently left the country.
Transgender issues [edit ]
In Tsarist Russia, young women would sometimes pose as men or act like tomboys. This was often tolerated among the educated middle classes, with the assumption that such behavior was asexual and would stop when the daughter married. [ 93 ] however, cross-dress was wide seen as sexually base behavior, penal by God promoted through the Church and late criminalized by the government. [ 93 ] In soviet Russia, sex reassignment surgeries were beginning tried during the 1920s [ citation needed ] but became prohibited until the 1960s. late they were performed by Irina Golubeva, an endocrinologist, authorized by psychiatrist Aron Belkin, who was the strongest soviet recommend for transgender people until his death in 2003. [ 93 ]
On 29 December 2014, Russia passed a road base hit law, allowing the politics to deny driver ‘s licenses to people with several classes of mental disorders according to ICD-10. [ 94 ] Class “ F60-69 Disorders of adult personality and demeanor ” includes “ F64 Transsexualism ” [ 95 ] russian and extraneous critics perceived the jurisprudence as a ban on transgender drivers : diarist Yelena Masyuk questioned the relevance of a person ‘s transgender identity in regards to their ability to drive. [ 96 ] [ 97 ] On 14 January 2015, Russia ‘s Health Ministry clarified the police, stating that it would only deny licenses to those with disorders that would impair their ability to drive safely, and explicitly stated that one ‘s sexual orientation would not be considered a factor under the law, as it is not considered a psychiatric disorder. [ 98 ] The World Health Organization ICD-11 classification lists this condition as “ sex incongruence ”, under “ conditions related to sexual health ”, coded into three conditions : [ 99 ]
- Gender incongruence of adolescence or adulthood (HA60): replaces F64.0
- Gender incongruence of childhood (HA61): replaces F64.2
- Gender incongruence, unspecified (HA6Z): replaces F64.9
The former ICD-10 translation listed there explicitly transsexualism, intimate maturation gender identity disorderliness, along with dual-role transvestism [ 100 ] which have been since removed. [ 101 ] ICD-11 defines sex incongruence as “ a mark and dogged incongruence between an individual ’ s experienced gender and the assign arouse ”, with presentations similar to the DSM-V definition, but does not require meaning distress or deterioration .
“ Propaganda ” bans [edit ]
are countries where homosexuality is not illegal, but where freedom of speech and expression is generally censored or prohibited. Russia, as well as other countries, namely Displayed inare countries where homosexuality is not illegal, but where exemption of address and expression is by and large censored or prohibited. Russia, equally well as other countries, namely China and Iraq, are listed in this category. Federal laws passed on 29 June 2013 ban the distribution of “ propaganda ” to minors which promotes “ non-traditional intimate relationships ”. [ 102 ] Critics contend the police makes illegal holding any kind of public demonstration in privilege of brave rights, address in defense of LGBT rights, and distribute material related to LGBT culture, or to state that same-sex relationships are equal to heterosexual relationships. [ 103 ] [ 104 ] [ 105 ] [ 106 ] Additionally the laws have received international conviction from human rights campaigners, and media outlets that flush display of LGBT symbols, such as the rainbow sag, have resulted in arrests, and incited homophobic ferocity, like is documented in the Channel 4 documentary Hunted which followed anti-gay groups as they lured unseasoned gay men into traps where they were humiliated, with the footage late posted on-line. [ 8 ]
Regional laws [edit ]
Ban on the promotion of homosexuality, bisexuality and transgenderism
Ban on the promotion of homosexuality and bisexuality
Ban on the promotion of homosexuality Ten russian regions passed laws banning the distribution of “ propaganda ” relating to homosexuality, and/or other LGBT relationships, to minors. between 2006 and 2013, ten regions enacted a ban on “ propaganda of homosexuality ” among minors. The laws of nine of them prescribe punishments of administrative sanctions and/or fines. The laws in some of the regions besides forbid alleged “ propaganda of bisexualism and transgenderism ” to minors. As of May 2013 the regions that had enacted these versatile laws, and the years in which they had passed the laws, included : Ryazan Oblast ( 2006 ), Arkhangelsk Oblast ( 2011 ), Saint Petersburg ( 2012 ), Kostroma Oblast ( 2012 ), Magadan Oblast ( 2012 ), Novosibirsk Oblast ( 2012 ), Krasnodar Krai ( 2012 ), Samara Oblast ( 2012 ), Bashkortostan ( 2012 ), [ note 4 ] and Kaliningrad Oblast ( February 2013 ). [ eminence 5 ] then, Arkhangelsk ( 2013 ) and Saint Petersburg ( 2014 ) removed the law. In 2019, Russia cut and censored gay sex scenes in the movie musical Rocketman based on the life of british singer Elton John, a decision he criticized, saying it is “ cruelly unaccepting of the sexual love between two people. ” [ 107 ]
National laws [edit ]
In June 2013 the national fantan ( the State Duma ) unanimously adopted, and President Vladimir Putin signed, [ 108 ] a nationally law banning the distribution of materials promoting LGBT relationships among minors. [ 9 ] [ 102 ] [ 109 ] [ 110 ] [ 111 ] The jurisprudence does not explicitly mention the word “ homosexuality ”, but alternatively uses the euphemism “ non-traditional sexual relationships ”. [ 9 ] [ 112 ] Under the legislative act it is effectively illegal to perform any of the watch in the presence of minors : hold cheery pride events, speak in favor of brave rights, or say that gay relationships are equal to heterosexual relationships. [ 9 ] [ 106 ] [ 109 ] [ 110 ] [ 111 ] The police subjects russian citizens found guilty to fines of up to 5,000 rubles and public officials to fines of up to 50,000 rubles. [ 113 ] Organizations or businesses will be fined up to 1 million rubles and be forced to cease operations for up to 90 days. Foreigners may be arrested and detained for up to 15 days then deported, equally well as fined up to 100,000 rubles. russian citizens who have used the Internet or media to promote “ non-traditional relations ” will be fined up to 100,000 rubles. [ 9 ] The legislative act amended a law that is said to protect children from pornography and other “ harmful data ”. [ 108 ] One of the authors of the codified, Yelena Mizulina, who is the president of the Duma ‘s Committee on Family, Women, and Children and who has been described by some as a moral reformer, [ 114 ] [ 115 ] [ 116 ] told lawmakers as the bill was being considered, “ traditional sexual relations are relations between a serviceman and a woman …. These relations need particular protection ”. [ 106 ] Mizulina argued that a recent pate had shown 88 % of the public were in back of the bill. [ 117 ]
Commenting on the poster anterior to its passage, President Putin said, during a visit to Amsterdam in April 2013, “ I want everyone to understand that in Russia there are no infringements on sexual minorities ‘ rights. They ‘re people, just like everyone else, and they enjoy fully rights and freedoms ”. [ 112 ] He went on to say that he amply intended to sign the charge because the russian people demanded it. [ 106 ] As he put it, “ Can you imagine an constitution promoting pedophilia in Russia ? I think people in many russian regions would have started to take up arms …. The lapp is true for intimate minorities : I can barely imagine same-sex marriages being allowed in Chechnya. Can you imagine it ? It would have resulted in human casualties. ” [ 106 ] Putin besides mentioned that he was concerned about Russia ‘s low birth-rate and that same-sex relationships do not produce children. [ 108 ] Critics say that the codified is written so broadly that it is in effect a accomplished prohibition on the gay rights movement and any public expression of LGBT culture. [ 31 ] [ 106 ] [ 112 ] In July 2013, four dutch tourists were arrested for allegedly discussing gay rights with russian youths. The four were arrested for allegedly spreading “ propaganda of nontraditional relationships among the under-aged ” after talking to teens at a camp in the northern city of Murmansk. [ 118 ] In March 2018 the russian authorities forbade the biggest gay web site Gay.ru because of “ propaganda of nontraditional sexual relationships ”. [ 119 ]
domestic reactions [edit ]
Saint Petersburg, 1 May 2014 According to a survey conducted in June 2013 by the russian Public Opinion Research Center ( VTsIOM ), at least 90 % of those surveyed were in party favor of the law. [ 31 ] [ 120 ] russian historian and human rights activist Lyudmila Alexeyeva has called it “ a gradation toward the Middle Ages “. [ 9 ] In January 2016, the State Duma rejected a proposal by the Communist Party to punish people who publicly express their homosexuality with fines and arrests. [ 121 ]
International reactions and boycott [edit ]
Activists painted the pedestrian sidewalk in front of the russian Embassy in Finland with rainbow colors to protest Russian ‘s anti-LGBT mawkishness and legislation. like activism has been done in Sweden. International human rights organisations and the governments of develop democracies around the world have powerfully condemned this russian jurisprudence. [ 122 ] [ 123 ] [ 124 ] [ 125 ] The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights has condemned this russian codified and another alike one in Moldova ( which was late repealed ) as prejudiced and has made clear that the Russian codified in interrogate is a misdemeanor of international homo rights law, including the right of brave children to receive proper information. [ 126 ] [ 127 ] [ 128 ] [ 129 ] [ 130 ] The European Parliament has condemned Russia for homophobic discrimination and censoring [ 131 ] and the Council of Europe has called on Russia to protect LGBT rights by rights. [ 132 ] The european Court of Human Rights had previously fined Russia for other infringements of LGBT rights. [ 133 ] In 2012 the UN Human Rights Committee ruled that a similar codified in the Russia ‘s Ryazan Region was discriminatory, infringed on exemption of construction, and was inadmissible under international law—a russian court in Ryazan late agreed and struck it down. [ 134 ] [ 135 ] Some members of the homosexual community commenced a boycott of russian goods, particularly russian vodka. [ 136 ] many western celebrities and activists are openly opposed to the law and have encouraged a boycott of russian products—notably Russian vodka—as well as a boycott of the 2014 Winter Olympic Games, which were scheduled to be held in Sochi, unless the Games were relocated out of Russia. [ 137 ] [ 138 ] [ 139 ] [ 140 ]
political figures [edit ]
United States President Barack Obama said that while he did not favour boycotting the Sochi Olympics over the law, “ cipher ‘s more hurt than me about some of the anti-gay and lesbian legislation that you ‘ve been seeing in Russia ”. [ 141 ] Obama subsequently, in September 2013, met with Russian gay rights activists during a visit to St. Petersburg to attend a converge of the G-20 nations ‘ leaders. Obama said that he was gallant of the influence the activists were doing. His aides had said that Obama ‘s opposition to the anti-gay propaganda police was one reason Obama had canceled a meeting previously planned to have been held with russian President Putin during the trip. [ 141 ] The law was besides condemned by German Chancellor Angela Merkel and german cabinet secretaries, [ 142 ] british Prime Minister David Cameron, [ 143 ] Australian Foreign Minister Bob Carr, [ 144 ] a good as canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper and Foreign Affairs Minister John Baird. [ 145 ]
Summary board [edit ]
See besides [edit ]
Notes [edit ]
Sources [edit ]
References [edit ]
Sources with multiple references [edit ]
further read [edit ]
- Engle, Eric Allen (2013). “Gay Rights in Russia? Russia’s Ban on Gay Pride Parades and the General Principle of Proportionality in International Law”. Journal of Eurasian Law. 6 (2): 165–186. SSRN 2296803
- Clark, F. (2014). “Discrimination against LGBT people triggers health concerns.” Lancet, 383(9916), 500–502.