Mandopop – Wikipedia

Mandarin popular music

Mandopop or Mandapop refers to Mandarin popular music. The music genre has its origin in the jazz-influenced popular music of 1930s Shanghai known as Shidaiqu ; with later influences coming from japanese enka, Hong Kong ‘s Cantopop, Taiwan ‘s Hokkien pop, and in particular the Campus Song family motion of the 1970s. [ 1 ] ‘Mandopop ‘ may be used as a general term to describe democratic songs performed in Mandarin. Though Mandopop predates Cantopop, the english term was coined around 1980 after “ Cantopop “ became a popular term for describing democratic songs in Cantonese. “ Mandopop ” was used to describe Mandarin-language popular songs of that time, some of which were versions of Cantopop songs sing by the like singers with different lyrics to suit the different verse and tonic patterns of Mandarin. [ 2 ] Mandopop is categorized as a subgenre of commercial Chinese-language music within C-pop. Popular music sung in Mandarin was the first variety of popular music in Chinese to establish itself as a viable industry. It originated in Shanghai, and former Hong Kong, Taipei and Beijing besides emerged as important centers of the Mandopop music diligence. [ 3 ] Among the countries where Mandopop is most popular are mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan, South Korea, Japan, Malaysia, Singapore and Vietnam.

history [edit ]

Beginning of recording industry in China [edit ]

The Chinese-language music industry began with the arrival of gramophone, and the earliest gramophone recording in China was made in Shanghai in March 1903 by Fred Gaisberg who was sent by the Victor Talking Machine Company ( VTMC ) in the U.S. to record local music in Asia. [ 4 ] The recordings were then manufactured outside China and re-imported by the Gramophone Company ‘s sales agent in China, the Moutrie ( Moudeli ) Foreign Firm. The Moudeli Company dominated the market before the 1910s until the Pathé Records ( chinese : 百代 ; pinyin : Bǎidài ) took over the leading function. Pathé was founded in 1908 by a Frenchman named Labansat who had previously started a knickknack entertainment occupation using record player in Shanghai around the begin of the twentieth hundred. The ship’s company established a recording studio, and the first gear record-pressing plant in the Shanghai French Concession in 1914, and became the principal record company to serve as the spine for the young industry in China. [ 5 ] It primitively recorded chiefly Peking opera, but late expanded to Mandarin popular music. late early foreign a well as Chinese-own recording companies were besides established in China. early in the twentieth hundred, people in China by and large spoke in their own regional dialect. Although most people in Shanghai then spoke Shanghainese, the recordings of the dad music from Shanghai from the 1920s onwards were done in Standard Mandarin, which is based on the Beijing dialect. Mandarin was then considered as the lyric of the modern, educate class in China, and there was a motion to popularize the consumption of Mandarin as a national linguistic process in the avocation of national one. Those involved in this movement included songwriters such as Li Jinhui working in Shanghai. [ 6 ] The drive to impose linguistic uniformity in China started in the early on twentieth century when the Qing Ministry of Education proclaimed Mandarin as the official language to be taught in modern schools, a policy the modern leaders of the Chinese Republic formed in 1912 were besides committed to. [ 7 ] Sound films in Shanghai which started in the early 1930s were made in Mandarin because of a ban on the use of dialects in films by the then Nanjing government, [ 8 ] consequently popular songs from films were besides performed in Mandarin .
Zhou Xuan, the most celebrated singing ace of the early Shanghai time period .

1920s : give birth of Shidaiqu in Shanghai [edit ]

Mandarin popular songs that started in the 1920s were called shidaiqu ( 時代曲 – meaning music of the time, therefore democratic music ), and Shanghai was the center of its output. The Mandarin popular songs of the Shanghai earned run average are considered by scholars to be the first kind of modern popular music developed in China, [ 9 ] and the prototype of later chinese dad song. [ 10 ] Li Jinhui is broadly regarded as the “ Father of Chinese Popular Music ” who established the genre in the 1920s. [ 11 ] Buck Clayton, the american jazz musician, besides worked aboard Li. Li established the Bright Moon Song and Dance Troupe, and amongst their sing stars were Wang Renmei and Li Lili. There was a close relationship between music and film industries and many of its singers besides became actresses. Around 1927, Li composed the hit birdcall “ The Drizzle ” ( “ 毛毛雨 ” ) recorded by his daughter Li Minghui ( 黎明暉 ), and this sung is often regarded as the first chinese pop sung. [ 12 ] [ 13 ] [ 14 ] The birdcall, with its fusion of jazz and chinese tribe music, exemplifies the early shidaiqu – the tune is in the dash of a traditional pentatonic folk tune, but the instrumentation is similar to that of an american jazz orchestra. [ 15 ] The song however was sung in a high childlike stylus, a dash described uncharitably as sounding like “ strangling cat-o’-nine-tails ” by the writer Lu Xun. [ 16 ] [ 17 ] This early style would soon be replaced by more sophisticate performances from better-trained singers. In the following decades, diverse popular western music genres such as latin dancing music besides become incorporated into chinese popular music, producing a type of music containing both Chinese and western elements that characterized shidaiqu. Popular songs of the time may range from those that were composed in the traditional chinese artistic style but followed a western principle of composing to those that were done largely in a western style, and they may be accompanied by traditional Chinese or western orchestration. An example is “ The Evening Primrose ” by Li Xianglan, a chinese typography set to a latin dancing exhaust .

1930s–1940s : The Seven Great Singing Stars era [edit ]

In 1931, the first sound movie was made in China in a cooperation between the Mingxing Film Company and Pathé. [ 18 ] The film industry took advantage of the sound earned run average and engaged singers for acting and soundtrack roles, and Li Jinhui ‘s Bright Moonlight Song and Dance Troup became the first modern melodious division to be integrated into the taiwanese film industry when it joined Lianhua Film Company in 1931. Amongst the best-known of the singer-actress to emerge in the 1930s were Zhou Xuan, Gong Qiuxia, and Bai Hong. Although late singing stars need not besides have an act career, the close kinship between the record and movie industries continued for many decades. Later Yao Lee, Bai Guang, Li Xianglan, Wu Yingyin besides became democratic, and jointly these seven stars became known as the “ Seven Great Singing Stars “ of the period. other luminary singers of this menstruation include Li Lihua and Chang Loo ( 張露 ). In 1940 Yao Lee recorded “ Rose, Rose, I Love You “ which later became the first taiwanese toss off song to be covered by westerly singers that was a hit. The “ Seven Great Singing Stars “ in the Republic of China period secured the place of the shidaiqu genre in East asian society. Zhou Xuan is by and large considered the most celebrated chinese pop headliner of the earned run average for her highly successful scorch and film career. This generation saw the rise in popularity of female singers from mere “ song girls “ to “ stars ”, [ 11 ] and for the next few decades, female singers would dominate the Mandarin popular music industry. In this period, Pathé Records dominated the record industry. In the belated 1930s to early 1940s, it held about 90 % market share of the Mandarin pop songs. [ 19 ] The era was a disruptive period, with the occupation of Shanghai by the japanese armies during the second Sino-Japanese War from 1937 and to 1945, followed by lengthiness of the civil war between the Nationalists and Communists. In response to the tumult, productions began to shift to Hong Kong, and after the Communist takeover in 1949, many stars moved to Hong Kong which then replaced Shanghai as the center of the entertainment industry in the 1950s. [ 20 ]

1950s–1960s : The Hong Kong era [edit ]

In 1949, the People ‘s Republic of China was established by the Communist party, and in 1952 democratic music was denounced by the PRC government as Yellow Music, a form of pornography. [ 21 ] In the mainland, the communist government began to suppress popular music and promote revolutionary marches. China Record Corporation became the lone music recording diligence body in China, [ 22 ] and for many years Minyue ( National Music ) and revolutionary music were about the only kinds of music to be recorded there. [ 23 ]

“Unforgettable Love” (不了情) (

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The above file’s purpose is being discussed and/or is being considered for deletion. See files for discussion to help reach a consensus on what to do. One of the most popular Mandarin songs of the Hong Kong era from the early 1960s, “ unforgettable Love “ by Koo Mei .

Problems playing this file? See media help.

In 1952, Pathé Records moved its operation from Shanghai to Hong Kong. Stars from Shanghai continued to record songs in Hong Kong, and Shanghai-style music remained democratic in Hong Kong until the mid-1960s. [ 19 ] Although the music is a lengthiness of the shidaiqu style of Shanghai, many of its songwriters did not move to Hong Kong, and many of the musicians employed in the Hong Kong music industry were Filipinos, Mandarin pop music in Hong Kong began to move away from its Shanghai roots. [ 16 ] besides partially as a consequence of having fewer good songwriters, some songs of this period were adaptation of English-language songs, arsenic well as songs from early regions such as the Indonesian birdcall “ Bengawan Solo “ ( as “ 梭羅河之戀 ” ) and the latin-american song “ Historia de un Amor “ ( as “ He is not in my heart ”, “ 我的心裡沒有他 ” ). As the style evolved, the sound of democratic songs from the Hong Kong earned run average consequently became distinct from Shanghai ‘s. Among the recording artists of note to emerge in this period were Tsui Ping, Tsin Ting, Grace Chang ( 葛蘭 ), Fong Tsin Ying ( 方靜音 ) and Liu Yun ( 劉韻 ), some of whom were besides actresses. While some actresses continued to sing in their films, some of the best know songs were dubbed by other singers, for example “ unforgettable Love “ ( “ 不了情 ” ) in the film of the same name starring Lin Dai was sung by Koo Mei ( 顧媚 ). The song was besides recorded with piano and strings orchestration democratic at that clock time. Shanghai-style Mandarin toss off songs however began to decline in popularity around the mid-1960s as western popular music became popular among the youthful, and many Hong Kong performers copied western songs and sang Hong Kong English pop songs. [ 19 ] This in turn gave manner to pop songs recorded in Cantonese as Cantopop became the dominant music genre of music from Hong Kong in the 1970s. After the Communist victory in China, the Kuomintang retreated to Taiwan. There were local stars in Taiwan and Pathé Records did occupation there american samoa well, but the island ‘s recording industry was not initially strong. taiwanese youth were drawn to popular styles from abroad ; as Taiwan was ruled by Japan from 1895 to 1945, taiwanese pop songs in the Hokkien dialect, the actual mother tongue of most of the island ‘s residents, were particularly powerfully influenced by the japanese Enka music. democratic Mandarin songs from Taiwan were similarly influenced, and many popular Mandarin songs of the 1960s were adaptations of japanese songs, for case “ Hard to Forget the Thought ” ( “ 意難忘 ”, in the first place “ Tokyo Serenade ” ( 東京夜曲 ) ) and “ Hate you to the Bone ” ( “ 恨你入骨 ”, from “Hone made aishite” ( 骨まで愛して ) ). democratic songs were necessarily sung in Mandarin as Taiwan ‘s new rulers, which imposed warlike police in Taiwan in 1949, mandated its habit ampere well as restricting the use of min Hokkien and forbidding the practice of japanese. [ 24 ] The Mandarin start music developed in Taiwan that would become modern Mandopop is a blend of traditional Chinese, Japanese, Taiwanese, arsenic well as westerly musical styles. [ 25 ] Zi Wei ( 紫薇 ) was the earliest of the Taiwan-based stars who achieved achiever outside of Taiwan in the late 1950s with the song “ fleeceable Island Serenade “, [ 26 ] followed by early singers such as Mei Dai ( 美黛 ) and Yao Surong ( 姚蘇蓉 ) in the 1960s. [ 27 ] [ 28 ] The 1960s however was a highly politically tense era, many songs such as “ not Going Home Today ” ( “ 今天不回家 ” ) by Yao Surong were banned in Taiwan. [ 29 ] In the 1960s, regional centres of chinese pop music besides started to emerge in abroad taiwanese communities in Malaysia and Singapore, and singers from the region such as Poon Sow Keng ( 潘秀瓊 ) besides achieved wider achiever. [ 30 ]

1970s–1980s : wax of taiwanese Mandopop [edit ]

In the 1970s, Taipei began to take center stage as Cantopop took hold in Hong Kong. In 1966, the Taiwan music industry was generating US $ 4.7 million annually, and this had grown exponentially through the 1970s and 1980s, and by 1996, it peaked at just under US $ 500 million before declining. [ 31 ] The success of the taiwanese film industry besides helped with the popularity of its singers. taiwanese stars such as Tsai Chin, Fei Yu-ching, and Fong Fei Fei became increasingly popular, with Teresa Teng the best know. however, the importance of Hong Kong as a center entail that some of these taiwanese stars such as Teresa Teng were hush Hong Kong-based .
Teresa Teng made Mandopop a true pillar by crossing over to mainland China after Deng Xiaoping came to power and instituted the open door policy in 1978 that allowed cultural products from Hong Kong and Taiwan to enter China. Teng ‘s song became popular there despite an early banish on her songs by the PRC politics for being “ Bourgeois Music ”. [ 32 ] Her “ soft, sugared, frequently whispery and restrained ” singing style in romantic songs such as “ The Moon Represents My Heart “ ( 月亮代表我的心 ) made a firm affect in mainland China where revolutionary songs were previously prevailing. [ 33 ] A coarse construction then was “ By day, Deng Xiaoping rules China. But by night, Deng Lijun ( Teresa Teng ) rules ”. [ 34 ] The ban on Teng was lifted in 1986 and songs from Hong Kong and Taiwan, called gangtai music, became more popular within mainland China. During the 1970s and early 1980s, a different generation of min singers and/or songwriters such as Chyi Yu, Hou Dejian, and Lo Ta-yu emerged, some of whom were influenced by family rock and whose music may be termed “ campus folk music music ”. [ 35 ] One of the most successful songs of the era was Lo Ta-yu ‘s 1985 sung “ Tomorrow Will Be Better “, which was inspired by the American sung “ We Are the World “ and primitively performed by 60 singers. [ 36 ] [ 37 ] It promptly became a strike throughout Asia and established itself as a criterion. Another song soon followed in 1986 in mainland China called “ Let the World be filled with Love ” ( 讓世界充滿愛 ). [ 36 ] Hou Dejian ‘s song “ Descendants of the Dragon “ ( 龍的傳人 ) besides became an hymn for the period. Unlike former eras dominated by female singers, male singers are now popular, and other popular male singers included Liu Wen-cheng and Dave Wong. Wong released his chinese debut album A Game A Dream ( 一場遊戲一場夢 ), which sold over 500,000-copies in December 1987. [ citation needed ] By around 1980, the term Mandopop began to be used for the chinese popular music that had emerged in this period. [ 1 ] many Cantopop songs of the period were besides sung in Mandarin by the same singers. [ 2 ] In South East Asia, popular local stars from the late 60s to the 80s included Sakura Teng ( 樱花 ), Zhang Xiaoying ( 張小英 ) and Lena Lim ( 林竹君 ) from Singapore, and Wong Shiau Chuen ( 黃曉君 ) and Lee Yee ( 李逸 ) from Malaysia. [ 38 ] Some such as Lena Lim achieved some achiever outside the region, and the local labels besides signed singers from outside the region such as long Piao-Piao ( 龍飄飄 ) from Taiwan. The recording industry in Singapore in particular thrive. In 1979, Singapore launched the Speak Mandarin Campaign to promote the use of Mandarin over the stove of chinese dialects spoken by respective segments of the ethnic-Chinese population. Mandarin songs, already a firm presence on radio receiver stations and on television, far eroded the popularity of Hokkien and Cantonese songs in the media. [ 39 ] In the 1980s, a genre of Mandarin ballads called xinyao developed in Singapore by singers/songwriters such as Liang Wern Fook. [ 40 ] In mainland China, the music industry was freed from state restriction in 1978, and regional recording companies were established in Guangzhou, Shanghai and Beijing in the 1980s with local singers. [ 22 ] Pop music in China in this period was dominated by Mandopop songs from Taiwan and Cantopop from Hong Kong, however the 1980s saw the beginning of rock music in China, with the emergence of singer-songwriters such as Cui Jian, followed by others such as He Yong and bands such as Tang Dynasty which became popular in the 1990s. [ 41 ]

1990s [edit ]

A issue of singers in the first place from mainland China such as Faye Wong and Na Ying began to record in Hong Kong and Taiwan. Faye Wong, referred to in the media as the Diva, foremost recorded in Cantonese in Hong Kong, belated recorded in Mandarin. She became the first chinese singer to perform in Budokan, Japan. [ 42 ] [ 43 ] During this period, many Cantopop singers from Hong Kong such as the “ Four Heavenly Kings “ – Aaron Kwok, Leon Lai, Andy Lau and Jacky Cheung – besides began to dominate Mandopop. One of the best-selling Mandarin album was the 1993 album The Goodbye Kiss by Jacky Cheung which sold over 1 million in Taiwan and 4 million in entire Asia-wide. [ 44 ] [ 45 ] Nonetheless, Taiwan has their own popular singers such as Stella Chang, Sky Wu, Wakin Chau ( once Emil Chau ) and Jeff Chang. Independent labels such as Rock Records began to establish themselves in this period as some of the most influential labels. Towards the end of the 90s, other singers such as Leehom Wang and David Tao became popular, and some besides began to perform in the R & B and/or rap genres. In the period from the mid-1990s to early 2000s, Shanghai and Beijing became centers of the music industry in mainland China, with Shanghai focusing on music commemorate print and distribution, while Beijing focused on music record. [ 22 ]

2000s-2010s : growth in Mainland China [edit ]

In Hong Kong, the Four Heavenly Kings faded in the 2000s, but many other new artists such as Nicholas Tse and Eason Chan came to the bow. The 2000s besides began with an explosion of crop up idols, many of whom are from Taiwan. Mainland China besides saw a rapid addition in the total of Mandopop singers, bands, and paragon groups as pop music becomes increasingly mainstream by mid-2000s. The growing Mainland film industry and chinese television receiver play besides increased demand for Mandopop. Since the 2000s, the emergence of indie rock in mainland China and Taiwan had exploded into a thrive indie music view in mainland China and Taiwan, adding assorted newfangled diversities into Mandopop. entry of popular Taiwan-based bands such as Mayday and Sodagreen while in mainland Chinese-based bands such as SuperVC and Milk Coffee had brought a new phase of rock fusion into Mandopop. The music industry in Taiwan, however, began to suffer from music plagiarism in the digital historic period, and its gross plummeted to $ US95 million in 2005. The basal tax income sources in Taiwan music industry shifted to advertising, concerts, KTV ( karaoke ) and movie. The dramatic decline of compact disk sales shifted the marketplace in party favor of mainland China. [ 46 ] While plagiarism was besides austere in mainland China, the share of its digital sales is higher compared to most countries. [ 47 ] 2005 was known as ‘The First year of Digital Music ‘ in China as its digital music sales of $ US57 million pass CDs in 2005, [ 48 ] and it besides overtook Taiwan in term of the retail prize of its music sales. [ 49 ] however, while mainland China became increasingly significant in generating tax income, the dad music industry itself in mainland China was inactive relatively little in the ten of 2000s compared to Taiwan and Hong Kong as popstars from Taiwan and early oversea chinese communities were calm popular in mainland China. [ 46 ] Mandopop singers such as Jay Chou were popular acting in the rhythm and blues and rap music genre, popularising a new fusion style of music known as zhongguofeng. other successful singers include Stefanie Sun and Jolin Tsai. many Cantopop singers besides turned towards the Mandopop industry due to disputes among entertainment and record companies in Hong Kong and to increase their fan al-qaeda. [ citation needed ] In recent years, the burgeoning number of contests have brought an idol concept ( 偶像, ǒuxiàng ) to the Mandopop industry. countrywide singing competitions in mainland China, such as the Super Girl, Super Boy, The Voice of China, Chinese Idol, and The X Factor : Zhongguo Zui Qiang Yin, have greatly boosted Mandopop ‘s influence many contestants emerge as successful singers such as Joker Xue, Jane Zhang, Bella Yao, Chris Lee ( Li Yuchun ), Jason Zhang, Chen Chusheng, Momo Wu Mochou, Laure Shang Wenjie, etc. The lapp phenomenon besides occurred in Taiwan, from the express One Million Star and Super Idol, new talented singers have entered the Mandopop market, including Aska Yang, Yoga Lin, Lala Hsu and therefore on. In Taiwan, the term “ choice idol ” ( 優質偶像, yōuzhì ǒuxiàng ) has entered the popular dictionary, referring to Mandopop singers who are fine-looking, talented and highly educated, among them Wang Leehom and William Wei. [ 50 ] holocene years besides saw the originate in crossing over entreaty of taiwanese bubblegum pop boybands and girl bands to the mainland Chinese picture, such as the very commercially successful acts like S.H.E and Fahrenheit. respective new boybands and girl bands besides have emerged in mainland China such as top Combine, TFBOYS and Idol Producer and Produce Camp boy groups including Nine Percent, NEX7, UNINE, R1SE, INTO1, THE9, Rocket Girls and Oner .

Characteristics [edit ]

Instruments and setups [edit ]

Shidaiqu originated as a fusion of chinese traditional music and european popular music, and consequently instruments from both genres were used from the identical begin of Mandopop. Songs performed in the traditional style employed traditional chinese instruments like the erhu, pipa, and sanxian, such as in the record of “ The Wandering Songstress “ ( 天涯歌女 ) by Zhou Xuan, whereas more western orchestral instruments such as trumpets, violins, and piano were used in songs like “ Shanghai Nights ” ( 夜上海 ), besides by Zhou Xuan. Big band and jazz instruments and orchestrations from the swing era were common in the early years. taiwanese and western instruments were besides combined in some recordings. In the 1960s, the electric guitar began to be used. Starting around the 1970s, electronic organs / synthesizers began to be heavily featured, which characterized the Mandopop music of the era. today ‘s Mandopop arrangements are broadly westernized, covering many musical styles, including R & B, hep hop, ballads, and Pop. Mandopop switched from bare imitation to adjusting the melodies and lyrics creatively in short time. Some pop stars became celebrated because they were presented to meet the Chinese aesthetics standard and culture features. [ 51 ] A few chinese crop up musicians—most notably Jay Chou, Lin Jun Jie, David Tao, Leehom Wang —have experimented with blend traditional chinese instruments with western styles ( such as hep hop beats and progressive rock ) all over again in a new dash known as China Wind music ( zhongguofeng ), influencing many asian singers worldwide .

diligence [edit ]

Labels [edit ]

popular music record labels includes independent labels such as JVR Music, Linfair Records, B’In Music and subsidiaries of major labels such as Sony Music Taiwan, Universal Music Taiwan, Warner Music Taiwan. In the past few years, mainland labels such as EE-Media, Huayi Brothers, Taihe Rye Music, Show City Times, Idol Entertainment, and Tian Hao Entertainment have besides emerged .

music distribution outside Asia [edit ]

Mandopop titles are besides available outside of Asia. chinese communities established in North America have made Mandopop music accessible through local anesthetic businesses. In the United States, Canada and Australia they are easily found in many major urban areas, such as San Francisco Bay Area, Los Angeles, San Diego, New York City, Vancouver, Toronto, Sydney, and Melbourne [ citation needed ] .

Charts [edit ]

The Global Chinese Pop Chart is a read chart organised since 2001 by 7 radio receiver stations from Beijing, Shanghai, Guangdong, Hong Kong, Singapore, Taipei and Kuala Lumpur.

In Taiwan, G-Music Chart ( chinese : 風雲榜 fēngyúnbǎng ) is the most democratic music ranking. [ 52 ] [ 53 ] [ 54 ] [ 55 ] [ 56 ] [ 57 ] It was beginning officially published on 7 July 2005, and compiled the circus tent physically sold candle releases in Taiwan ( including both albums and physically released singles ). only the peak 20 positions are published, and rather of sales, a percentage rank is listed future to each free .

Awards [edit ]

Mandopop radio stations [edit ]

See besides [edit ]

References [edit ]

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