Memphis, Tennessee – Wikipedia

For other uses, see Memphis City in Tennessee, United States
Memphis is a city along the Mississippi River in southwestern Shelby County, Tennessee, United States. Its 2020 population was 633,104, [ 2 ] making it Tennessee ‘s second-most populous city behind Nashville ; the nation ‘s 28th-largest ; and the largest city proper of those situated along the Mississippi River. Greater Memphis is the 42nd-largest metropolitan area in the United States, with a population of 1,348,260 in 2017. [ 6 ] The city is the anchor of West Tennessee and the greater Mid-South area, which includes portions of neighboring Arkansas, Mississippi, and the Missouri Bootheel. Memphis is the seat of Shelby County, Tennessee ‘s most populous county. One of the more historic and culturally significant cities of the southerly United States, Memphis has a wide kind of landscapes and distinct neighborhoods. The first european explorer to visit the area of contemporary Memphis was spanish conquistador Hernando de Soto in 1541 with his expedition into the New World. The high Chickasaw Bluffs protecting the location from the waters of the Mississippi was then contested by the spanish, french, and the English as Memphis took condition. Modern Memphis was founded in 1819 by three big Americans : John Overton, James Winchester, and future president Andrew Jackson. [ 7 ]

Memphis grew into one of the largest cities of the Antebellum South as a market for agrarian goods, natural resources like lumber, and the American slave trade. After the American Civil War and the conclusion of bondage, the city experienced even faster growth into the twentieth hundred as it became among the largest populace markets for cotton [ 8 ] and lumber. home to Tennessee ‘s largest african-american population, Memphis played a outstanding character in the American civil rights movement and was the web site of Martin Luther King Jr. ‘s 1968 assassination. The city nowadays hosts the National Civil Rights Museum —a Smithsonian consort institution. Since the civil rights earned run average, Memphis has become one of the state ‘s lead commercial centers in fare and logistics. [ 9 ] Its largest employer is the multinational messenger corporation FedEx, which maintains its global breeze hub at Memphis International Airport, making it the busiest cargo airport in the universe. In accession to being the ball-shaped air travel cargo leader, the International Port of Memphis besides hosts the fifth-busiest inland water port in the U.S., with access to the Mississippi River [ 10 ] allowing shipments to arrive from around the world for conversion to train and trucking conveyance throughout the United States, making Memphis a multi-modal hub for trading goods for imports and exports despite its inland placement. Memphis is a regional center for commerce, education, media, artwork, and entertainment. It has long had a big music scene, [ 11 ] with historic blues clubs on Beale Street originating the alone Memphis blues sound in the early twentieth century. The city ‘s music has continued to be shaped by a multicultural mix of influences : the blues, state, rock and roll, soul, and rap. Memphis-style barbeque has achieved international prominence, and the city hosts the World Championship Barbecue Cooking Contest, which attracts over 100,000 visitors to the city per annum .

history [edit ]

early history [edit ]

Occupying a substantial bluff rising from the Mississippi River, the site of Memphis has been a natural localization for human colony by varying cultures over thousands of years. [ 12 ] The area was settled in the first base millennium A.D. by people of the mississippian Culture, who had a network of communities throughout the Mississippi River Valley and its tributaries. They built complexes with boastfully earthwork ceremony and burying mounds as expressions of their sophisticated culture. [ 13 ] The Chickasaw, believed to be their descendants, late inhabited the site. [ 14 ] french explorers led by René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle [ 15 ] and spanish explorer Hernando de Soto [ 16 ] [ 17 ] encountered the Chickasaw in that area in the sixteenth century. J. D. L. Holmes, writing in Hudson ‘s Four Centuries of Southern Indians ( 2007 ), notes that this site was a third gear strategic sharpen in the late eighteenth century through which european powers could control United States impingement and their intervention with indian matters—after Fort Nogales ( contemporary Vicksburg ) and Fort Confederación ( deliver day Epes, Alabama ) : “ Chickasaw Bluffs, located on the Mississippi River at the contemporary location of Memphis. Spain and the United States vied for control of this site, which was a favored of the Chickasaws. ” [ 18 ] : 71 In 1795 the spanish Governor-General of Louisiana, Francisco Luis Héctor de Carondelet, sent his lieutenant governor, Manuel Gayoso de Lemos, to negotiate and secure accept from the local anesthetic Chickasaw so that a spanish fort could be erected on the bluff ; Fort San Fernando De Las Barrancas was the solution. [ 18 ] : 71 [ 19 ] Holmes notes that consent was reached despite resistance from “ defeated Americans and a pro-american faction of the Chickasaws ” when the “ pro-Spanish faction signed the Chickasaw Bluffs Cession and Spain provided the Chickasaws with a trade military post ”. [ 18 ] : 71 Fort San Fernando de las Barrancas remained a focal indicate of spanish activity until, as Holmes summarizes :

[ T ] he Treaty of San Lorenzo or Pinckney ‘s Treaty of 1795 [ implemented in March 1797 ], [ had as its resultant role that ] all of the careful, diplomatic function by spanish officials in Louisiana and West Florida, which has succeeded for a decade in controlling the Indians [ for example, the Choctaws ], was unmake. The United States gained the right to navigate the Mississippi River and won operate over the Yazoo Strip north of the thirty-first parallel. [ 18 ] : 75, 71

The spanish dismantled the fortress, shipping its lumber and iron to their locations in Arkansas. [ 20 ] In 1796, the web site became the westernmost point of the newly admitted state of Tennessee, in what was then called the Southwest United States. The area was hush largely occupied and controlled by the Chickasaw state. Captain Isaac Guion led an american force down the Ohio River to claim the domain, arriving on July 20, 1797. By this time, the spanish had departed. [ 21 ] The fort ‘s ruins went unnoticed 20 years later when Memphis was laid out as a city, after the United States government paid the Chickasaw for country. [ 22 ]

nineteenth century [edit ]

Memphis in the mid-1850s The city of Memphis was founded on May 22, 1819 ( incorporated December 19, 1826 ), by John Overton, James Winchester and Andrew Jackson. [ 23 ] [ 24 ] They named it after the ancient capital of Egypt on the Nile River. [ 25 ] The city ‘s demographics changed dramatically in the 1850s and 1860s under waves of immigration and domestic migration. due to increased immigration since the 1840s and the Great Famine, cultural irish made up 9.9 % of the population in 1850, but 23.2 % in 1860, when the total population was 22,623. [ 26 ] [ 27 ] [ 28 ]
attack on Irving Block by General Forrest in 1864 Tennessee seceded from the Union in June 1861, and Memphis concisely became a Confederate stronghold. Union ironclad gunboats captured it in the naval Battle of Memphis on June 6, 1862, and the city and country were occupied by the Union Army for the duration of the war. Union Army commanders allowed the city to maintain its civil politics during most of this period but bar Confederate veterans from office, which shifted political dynamics in the city as the war went on. [ 29 ] The war years contributed to extra dramatic changes in city population. The Union Army ‘s presence attracted many fleeting slaves who had escaped from surrounding rural plantations. indeed many seek protection behind Union lines that the Army set up bootleg camps to accommodate them. Memphis ‘s black population increased from 3,000 in 1860, when the full population was 22,623, to about 20,000 in 1865, with most settling south of the city limits. [ 30 ]

Postwar years, Reconstruction and Democratic control [edit ]

The rapid demographic changes added to the stress of war and occupation and doubt about who was in charge, increasing tensions between the Irish policemen and black Union soldiers after the war. [ 29 ] In three days of rioting in early May 1866, the Memphis Riots erupted, in which white mobs made up of policemen, firemen, and other largely heathen irish Americans attacked and killed 46 blacks, wounding 75 and injuring 100 ; raped several women ; and destroyed about 100 houses while badly damaging churches and schools in South Memphis. Much of the black village was left in ruins. Two whites were killed in the carouse. [ 30 ] many blacks permanently fled Memphis subsequently, particularly as the Freedmen ‘s Bureau continued to have trouble in protecting them. Their population fell to about 15,000 by 1870, [ 29 ] 37.4 % of the full population of 40,226 .
Historic antenna position of Memphis, 1870 historian Barrington Walker suggests that the Irish rioted against blacks because of their relatively late arrival as immigrants and the uncertain nature of their own claim to “ whiteness ” ; they were trying to separate themselves from blacks in the underclass. The main fight participants were ethnic Irish, decommissioned blacken Union soldiers, and newly emancipated african american freedmen. Walker suggests that most of the syndicate were not in direct economic conflict with the blacks, as by then the Irish had attained better jobs, but were establishing dominance over the freedmen. [ 28 ] In Memphis, unlike disturbances in some other cities, ex-Confederate veterans were generally not separate of the attacks against blacks. The outrages of the riots in Memphis and a like one in New Orleans in September ( the latter did include Confederate veterans ) resulted in Congress ‘s passing the Reconstruction Act and the Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. [ 30 ]

yellow Jack [edit ]

In the 1870s, a series of yellow fever epidemics devastated Memphis, with the disease carried by river passengers along the waterways. During the Yellow Fever Epidemic of 1878, more than 5,000 people were listed in the official register of deaths between July 26 and November 27. The huge majority died of yellow fever, making the epidemic in the city of 40,000 one of the most traumatic and hard in urban U.S. history. Within four days of the Memphis Board of Health ‘s declaration of a yellow fever outbreak, 20,000 residents fled the city. The ensuing panic left the destitute, the work classes, and the african-american residential district at most risk from the epidemic. Those who remained relied on volunteers from religious and doctor organizations to tend to the vomit. By the goal of the year, more than 5,000 were confirmed dead in Memphis. The New Orleans health circuit board listed “ not less than 4,600 ” absolutely. The Mississippi Valley recorded 120,000 cases of yellow fever, with 20,000 deaths. The $ 15 million in losses caused by the epidemic bankrupted Memphis, and as a result its charter was revoked by the state of matter legislature .
Woodcut representing the waterfront of Memphis, c. 1879 By 1870, Memphis ‘s population of 40,000 was about double over that of Nashville and Atlanta, and it was the second-largest city in the South after New Orleans. [ 31 ] Its population continued to grow after 1870, even when the Panic of 1873 hit the US hard, particularly in the South. The Panic of 1873 resulted in expanding Memphis ‘s underclasses amid the poverty and asperity it wrought, giving far credence to Memphis as a grating, shiftless city. Leading up to the outbreak in 1878, it had suffered two yellow fever epidemics, cholera, and malaria, giving it a repute as ailing and dirty. It was unheard of for a city with a population arsenic big as Memphis ‘s not to have any waterworks ; the city still relied for supplies entirely on collecting body of water from the river and rain cisterns, and had no way to remove sewage. [ 31 ] The combination of a swelling population, particularly of lower and working classes, and abysmal health and sanitary conditions made Memphis good for a good epidemic. Kate Bionda, an owner of an italian “ bite family ”, died of the fever on August 13. [ 31 ] Hers was formally reported by the Board of Health, on August 14, as the first gear subject of scandalmongering fever in the city. [ 31 ] A massive panic ensued. The same trains and steamboats that brought thousands into Memphis now in five days carried away over 25,000 Memphians, more than half of the population. [ 31 ] On August 23, the Board of Health last declared a yellow fever epidemic in Memphis, and the city collapsed, hemorrhaging its population. In July of that class, the city had a population of 47,000 ; by September, 19,000 remained and 17,000 of them had jaundiced fever. [ 31 ] The alone people left in the city were the lower classes, such as german and irish immigrant workers and african Americans. none had the means to flee the city, as did the middle and upper classify whites of Memphis, and thus they were subjected to a city of death. immediately following the Board of Health ‘s declaration, a Citizen ‘s Relief Committee was formed by Charles G. Fisher. It organized the city into refugee camps. The committee ‘s main precedence was to separate the poor from the city and isolate them in refugee camps. [ 31 ] The Howard Association, formed specifically for chicken fever epidemics in New Orleans and Memphis, organized nurses and doctors in Memphis and throughout the country. [ 32 ] They stayed at the Peabody Hotel, the merely hotel to keep its doors open during the epidemic. From there they were assigned to their respective districts. Physicians of the epidemic reported seeing equally many as 100 to 150 patients daily. [ 31 ] The sisters of St. Mary ‘s Hospital played an authoritative function during the epidemic in caring for the lower classes. already supporting a girls ‘ school and church service orphanage, the sisters of St. Mary ‘s besides sought to provide care for the Canfield Asylum, a home for black children. Each day, they alternated caring for the orphans at St. Mary ‘s, delivering children to the Canfield Asylum, and taking soup and medicine on house calls to patients. [ 31 ] Between September 9 and October 4, Sister Constance and three other nuns fell victim to the epidemic and died. They late became known as the Martyrs of Memphis. [ 33 ] At hanker end, on October 28, a killing frost come to. The city sent out bible to Memphians scattered all over the nation to come home. Though yellow fever cases were recorded in the pages of Elmwood Cemetery ‘s burial record angstrom deep as February 29, 1874, the epidemic seemed calm. [ 31 ] The Board of Health declared the epidemic, which caused over 20,000 deaths and fiscal losses of closely $ 200 million, at an end. [ 34 ] On November 27, a general citizen ‘s meeting was called at the Greenlaw Opera House to offer thanks to those who had stayed behind to serve, of whom many died. Over the adjacent class property tax revenues collapsed, and the city could not make payments on its municipal debts. As a result, Memphis temporarily lost its city charter and was reclassified by the state legislature as a Taxing District from 1878 to 1893. [ 32 ] But a new earned run average of sanitation was developed in the city, a new municipal government in 1879 helped form the first regional health organization, and during the 1880s Memphis led the nation in sanitary reform and improvements. [ 34 ] possibly the most significant consequence of the yellow fever on Memphis was in demographic changes. about all of Memphis ‘s upper and in-between classes vanished, depriving the city of its general leadership and classify structure that dictated everyday life, exchangeable to other big southern cities such as New Orleans, Charleston, and Atlanta. In Memphis, the poor whites and blacks basically made up the city and played the greatest function in rebuilding it. The epidemic had resulted in Memphis being a less cosmopolitan rate, with an economy that served the cotton trade and a population guide increasingly from poor people egg white and black Southerners. [ 35 ]

late 19th century [edit ]

The 1890 election was strongly contested, resulting in opponents of the D. P. Hadden faction working to deprive them of votes by disenfranchising blacks. The state had enacted respective laws, including the prerequisite of poll taxes, that served to disenfranchise many blacks. Although political party factions in the future sometimes paid poll taxes to enable blacks to vote, African Americans lost their last positions on the city council in this election and were forced out of the patrol force. ( They did not recover the ability to exercise the franchise until after passage of civil rights legislation in the mid-1960s. ) historian L. B. Wrenn suggests the heighten political aggression of the democratic contest and related social tensions contributed to a white syndicate lynching three black grocers in Memphis in 1892. [ 36 ] : 124, 131 Journalist Ida B. Wells of Memphis investigated the lynchings, as one of the men killed was a friend of hers. She demonstrated that these and other lynchings were more much due to economic and social competition than any criminal offenses by black men. Her findings were considered so controversial and aroused so much anger that she was forced to move away from the city. But she continued to investigate and publish the abuses of lynching. [ 36 ] : 131 Businessmen were eager to increase city population after the losses of 1878–79, and supported annexation of new areas to the city ; this was passed in 1890 before the census. The annexation measure was ultimately approved by the state legislature through a compromise achieved with substantial estate magnates, and the area annex was slightly smaller than first proposed. [ 36 ] : 126 In 1893 the city was rechartered with home rule, which restored its ability to enact taxes. The state legislature established a ceiling rate. [ 37 ] Although committee government was retained and enlarged to five commissioners, democratic politicians regained control condition from the business elite. The commission form of government was believed effective in getting things done, but because all positions were elected at-large, requiring them to gain majority votes, this practice reduced theatrical performance by candidates representing significant minority political interests. [ 36 ] : 126f

twentieth century [edit ]

cotton merchants on Union Avenue ( 1937 ) In terms of its economy, Memphis developed as the world ‘s largest touch cotton market and the worldly concern ‘s largest hardwood lumber market, both commodity products of the Mississippi Delta. Into the 1950s, it was the world ‘s largest mule market. [ 38 ] Attracting workers from rural areas american samoa well as modern immigrants, from 1900 to 1950 the city increased about fourfold in population, from 102,350 to 396,000 residents. [ 39 ] racist violence continued unabated. According to John R. Steelman, there were four lynchings between 1900 and the time he wrote his PhD dissertation on “ throng action in the South ” in 1928. The last one he recorded was the lynch of Thomas Williams. [ 40 ] The Ford Motor Company built cars in Memphis from 1913 until 1958/59. [ 41 ] A Firestone Tire and Rubber Company plant made tires in North Memphis from 1936 to 1982. The plant made 100 million tires. [ 42 ] A Tennessee Powder Company built an explosives powder plant to make TNT and gunpowder on a 6,000-acre web site in Millington in 1940. The implant was built to make smokeless gunpowder for the british forces in World War II. In May 1941, DuPont ( 1802–2017 ) took over the plant, changed the diagnose to the Chickasaw Ordnance Works and made powder for the US Army. There were 8,000 employees. The plant was dismantled in 1946. [ 43 ] [ 44 ] From the 1910s to the 1950s, Memphis was a identify of machine politics under the management of E. H. “ Boss ” Crump. He gained a state law in 1911 to establish a little commission to manage the city. The city retained a phase of commission government until 1967 and patronage flourished under Crump. Per the publisher ‘s drumhead of L.B. Wrenn ‘s study of the time period, “ This centralization of political baron in a small commission aided the effective transaction of municipal occupation, but the public policies that resulted from it tended to benefit upper-class Memphians while neglecting the less affluent residents and neighborhoods. ” [ 36 ] [ page needed ] [ 45 ] The city installed a rotatory sewer system and upgrade sanitation and drain to prevent another epidemic. pure water from an artesian well was discovered in the 1880s, securing the city ‘s water add. The commissioners developed an extensive network of parks and public works as part of the national City Beautiful movement, but did not encourage fleshy diligence, which might have provided solid employment for the wage-earning population. The lack of theatrical performance in city government resulted in the poor people and minorities being underrepresented. The majority controlled the election of all the at-large positions. [ 36 ] [ page needed ] Memphis did not become a home rule city until 1963, although the department of state legislature had amended the constitution in 1953 to provide home rule for cities and counties. Before that, the city had to get submit bills approved in order to change its charter and for early policies and programs. Since 1963, it can change the charter by popular approval of the electorate. [ 36 ] : 194 During the 1960s, the city was at the focus on of the Civil Rights Movement, as its large african-american population had been affected by state of matter segregation practices and disenfranchisement in the early twentieth hundred. african-american residents drew from the civil rights apparent motion to improve their lives. In 1968, the Memphis sanitation strike began for be wages and better working conditions ; the workers were overwhelmingly african American. They marched to gain public awareness and hold for their betroth : the danger of their exploit, and the struggles to support families with their first gear pay. Their drive for better pay up had been met with resistor by the city politics. Martin Luther King Jr. of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, known for his leadership in the non-violent movement, came to lend his documentation to the workers ‘ cause. King stayed at the Lorraine Motel in the city, and was assassinated by James Earl Ray on April 4, 1968, the day after giving his I’ve Been to the Mountaintop address at the Mason Temple. After learning of King ‘s mangle, many african Americans in the city rioted, looting and destroying businesses and early facilities, some by arson. The governor ordered Tennessee National Guardsmen into the city within hours, where small, roving bands of rioters continued to be active. [ 46 ] Fearing the ferocity, more of the middle-class began to leave the city for the suburb. In 1970, the Census Bureau reported Memphis ‘s population as 60.8 % white and 38.9 % black. [ 47 ] Suburbanization was attracting wealthier residents to newer house outside the city. After the riots and court-ordered bus in 1973 to achieve integration of populace schools, “ about 40,000 of the system ‘s 71,000 flannel students abandon [ erectile dysfunction ] the system in four years. ” [ 48 ] today, the city has a majority african-american population. Memphis is well known for its cultural contributions to the identity of the American South. many renowned musicians grew up in and around Memphis and moved to Chicago and other areas from the Mississippi Delta, carrying their music with them to influence other cities and listeners over radio airwaves. [ 49 ] [ full citation needed ] Former and current Memphis residents include musicians Elvis Presley, Jerry Lee Lewis, Muddy Waters, Carl Perkins, Johnny Cash, Robert Johnson, W. C. Handy, B.B. King, Howlin ‘ Wolf, Isaac Hayes, Booker T. Jones, Eric Gales, Al Green, Alex Chilton, Justin Timberlake, Three 6 Mafia, the Sylvers, Jay Reatard, Zach Myers, and Aretha Franklin. The International Harvester Company fabrication implant opened in 1947 and closed in 1985. The plant made cotton harvest equipment and Farm Tillage equipment. It once had 1,000 employees. [ 50 ] [ 51 ] CBI Nuclear Company operated in Memphis for more than 20 years. Chicago Bridge & Iron Company, CBI and General Electric built large nuclear reactor press vessels and other large structures in Memphis. [ 52 ] [ 53 ] [ 54 ] On December 23, 1988, a oil tanker truck hauling liquefied propane crashed at the I-40/I-240 substitute in Midtown and exploded, starting multiple vehicle and structural fires. nine people were killed and ten were injured. It was one of Tennessee ‘s deadliest motive vehicle accidents and finally led to the reconstruction of the interchange where it occurred. [ 55 ] [ 56 ]

twenty-first century to present [edit ]

Schering-Plough Corporation became defunct in 2009. It is now a subsidiary company of Merck & Co. Abe Plough founded Plough, Incorporated in Memphis in 1908. In 1971, the Schering Corporation merged with Plough, Inc. [ 57 ] In 2020, in the inflame of the murder of George Floyd in Minneapolis, protests were held in Memphis. After confrontations with patrol, Mayor Jim Strickland declared a curfew, lasting from June 1 to June 8. [ 58 ] [ 59 ] On June 2, 2021, the remains of Confederate General and Ku Klux Klan leader Nathan Bedford Forrest were removed from a Memphis park. [ 60 ]

geography [edit ]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 324.0 straight miles ( 839.2 km2 ), of which 315.1 straight miles ( 816.0 km2 ) is land and 9.0 square miles ( 23.2 km2 ), or 2.76 %, is water. [ 61 ]

cityscape [edit ]

The Downtown horizon from the lookout at the Pyramid face southwest Downtown Memphis rises from a bluff along the Mississippi River. The city and metro area spread out through suburbanization, and embrace southwest Tennessee, northern Mississippi and eastern Arkansas. several large parks were founded in the city in the early twentieth hundred, notably Overton Park in Midtown and the 4,500-acre ( 18 km2 ) Shelby Farms. The city is a national transportation hub and Mississippi River crossing for Interstate 40, ( east-west ), Interstate 55 ( north-south ), barge dealings, Memphis International Airport ( FedEx ‘s “ SuperHub ” facility ) and numerous freight railroads that serve the city .

Riverfront [edit ]

The American Queen docked at Beale Street Landing along the riverfront The Memphis Riverfront stretches along the Mississippi River from the Meeman-Shelby Forest State Park in the north, to the T. O. Fuller State Park in the south. The river Walk is a park system that connects downtown Memphis from Mississippi River Greenbelt Park in the north, to Tom Lee Park in the south .
In late years the city has decided to de-annex some of its territory. It is going through a three-phase summons to de-annex five areas within the city limits that will return to being part of unincorporated Shelby County. [ 62 ] The first phase of de-annexation occurred on January 1, 2020, when the Eads and River Bottoms areas of the city returned to county legal power. As a consequence, the Shelby County Sheriff is responsible for patrolling these former parts of Memphis. [ 63 ] It is estimated that this first phase of the de-annexation process will reduce the city ‘s size by 5 % and its population by 0.03 %. [ 62 ] The adjacent two phases will have a much more significant impact .

aquifer [edit ]

Shelby County is located over four natural aquifers, one of which is recognized as the “ Memphis Sand Aquifer ” or simply as the “ Memphis Aquifer ”. Located 350 to 1,100 feet ( 110 to 340 m ) belowground, this artesian water beginning is considered delicate and estimated by Memphis Light, Gas and Water to contain more than 100 trillion US gallons ( 380 km3 ) of water. [ 64 ]

climate [edit ]

Memphis has a humid subtropical climate ( Köppen Cfa, Trewartha Cf ), with four discrete seasons, and is located in USDA Plant Hardiness Zone 8a in downtown, cooling to 7b for much of the surrounding area. [ 65 ] Winter upwind comes alternately from the upper berth Great Plains and the Gulf of Mexico, which can lead to drastic swings in temperature. Summer weather may come from Texas ( identical hot and humid ) or the Gulf ( hot and very humid ). July has a daily average temperature of 82.8 °F ( 28.2 °C ), with high levels of humidity due to moisture encroaching from the Gulf of Mexico. Afternoon and evening thunderstorms are frequent during summer, but normally abbreviated, lasting nobelium longer than an hour. early fall is pleasantly drier and mild, but can be hot until recently October. late fall is showery and cooler ; precipitation peaks again in November and December. Winters are mild to chilly, with a January daily average temperature of 42.1 °F ( 5.6 °C ). Snow occurs sporadically in winter, with an average seasonal snow of 2.7 inches ( 6.9 centimeter ). frost storms and freezing rain pose greater danger, as they can often pull tree limbs down on might lines and make driving hazardous. severe thunderstorms can occur at any clock time of the year though chiefly during the leap months. Large hail, potent winds, flooding and patronize lightning can accompany these storms. Some storms spawn tornadoes. The lowest temperature ever recorded in Memphis was −13 °F ( −25 °C ) on December 24, 1963, [ 66 ] [ 67 ] and the highest temperature ever was 108 °F ( 42 °C ) on July 13, 1980. [ 68 ] Over the course of a year, there is an modal of 4.4 days of highs below freeze, 6.9 nights of lows below 20 °F ( −7 °C ), 43 nights of lows below freeze, 64 days of highs above 90 °F ( 32 °C ), and 2.1 days of highs above 100 °F ( 38 °C ). Memphis temperatures dropped to -4 F during the 1985 union american cold wave and during the December 1989 United States cold curl. annual precipitation is high ( 54.94 inches [ 1,400 mm ] ) and relatively evenly distributed throughout the year. Average monthly rain is specially high in March through May, and December, while August and September are relatively desiccant .

Climate data for Memphis (Memphis Int’l), 1991−2020 normals,[69] extremes 1872−present[70]
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 79
Mean maximum °F (°C) 70
Average high °F (°C) 50.9
Daily mean °F (°C) 42.1
Average low °F (°C) 32.6
Mean minimum °F (°C) 16
Record low °F (°C) −8
Average precipitation inches (mm) 4.14
Average snowfall inches (cm) 0.9
Average precipitation days ( ≥ 0.01 in ) 10.0 9.9 11.5 9.6 10.6 8.9 9.5 7.6 7.1 7.5 9.0 10.2 111.4
Average snowy days ( ≥ 0.1 in ) 1.0 0.8 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.3 2.6
Average relative humidity (%) 68.2 66.4 63.2 62.5 66.4 66.8 69.1 69.6 71.3 66.2 67.7 68.8 67.2
Mean monthly sunshine hours 166.6 173.8 215.3 254.6 301.5 320.6 326.9 307.0 251.2 245.9 173.0 151.9 2,888.3
Percent possible sunshine 53 57 58 65 69 74 74 74 68 70 56 50 65
Source: NOAA (relative humidity 1961−1990, sun 1961−1987)[71][72][73][74][75]

Demographics [edit ]

Historical population
Census Pop.
1850 8,841
1860 22,623 155.9%
1870 40,226 77.8%
1880 33,592 −16.5%
1890 64,495 92.0%
1900 102,320 58.6%
1910 131,105 28.1%
1920 162,351 23.8%
1930 253,143 55.9%
1940 292,942 15.7%
1950 396,000 35.2%
1960 497,524 25.6%
1970 623,988 25.4%
1980 646,174 3.6%
1990 610,337 −5.5%
2000 650,100 6.5%
2010 646,889 −0.5%
2020 633,104 −2.1%
U.S. Decennial Census[76]

For historical population data, experience : history of Memphis, Tennessee. According to the 2020 United States Census, the racial composition of the city of Memphis was :
White, Black, Asian, Hispanic, or Other (yellow) Map of racial distribution in Memphis, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people :, or ( yellow ) As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 652,078 people and 245,836 households in the city. [ 80 ] The population density was 2,327.4 people per sq myocardial infarction ( 898.6/km2 ). There were 271,552 house units at an average density of 972.2 per sq michigan ( 375.4/km2 ). The racial constitution of the city was 63.33 % african American, 29.39 % White, 1.46 % asian American, 1.57 % native American, 0.04 % Pacific Islander, 1.45 % from other races, and 1.04 % from two or more races. hispanic or Latino of any raceway were 6.49 % of the population. The median income for a family in the city was $ 32,285, and the median income for a family was $ 37,767. Males had a medial income of $ 31,236 versus $ 25,183 for females. The per caput income for the city was $ 17,838. About 17.2 % of families and 20.6 % of the population were below the poverty argumentation, including 30.1 % of those under long time 18, and 15.4 % of those old age 65 or over. In 2011, the U.S. Census Bureau ranked the Memphis area as the poorest large metro area in the area. [ 81 ] Dr. Jeff Wallace of the University of Memphis noted that the problem was related to decades of segregation in government and schools. He said that it was a low-cost job market, but other places in the earth could offer cheaper labor, and the work force was undereducated for today ‘s challenges. [ 81 ] The Memphis Metropolitan Statistical Area ( MSA ), the 42nd largest in the United States, has a 2010 population of 1,316,100 and includes the Tennessee counties of Shelby, Tipton and Fayette ; equally well as the northern Mississippi counties of DeSoto, Marshall, Tate, and Tunica ; and Crittenden County, Arkansas, all share of the Mississippi Delta. The total metropolitan sphere has a higher proportion of whites and a higher per capita income than the population in the city. The 2010 census shows that the Memphis metro area is cheeseparing to a majority-minority population :

the white population is 47.9 percentage of the eight-county area ‘s 1,316,100 residents. The non-Hispanic white population, a appointment frequently used in census reports, was 46.2 percentage of the total. The african american share was 45.7. For respective decades, the Memphis metro area has had the highest percentage of black population among the nation ‘s large metropolitan areas. The area has seemed on a path to become the nation ‘s first metro area of one million or more with a majority black population. [ 82 ]

In a change by reversal drift of the Great Migration, numerous african Americans and other minorities have moved into DeSoto County, and blacks have followed suburban trends, moving into the suburb of Shelby County. [ 82 ]

religion [edit ]

An 1870 map of Memphis shows religious buildings of the Baptist, Catholic, Episcopal, Methodist, Presbyterian, Congregational, and early christian denominations, and a jewish congregation. [ 83 ] In 2009, places of worship exist for Christians, Jews, Hindus, Buddhists, and Muslims. The external headquarters of the Church of God in Christ, the largest pentecostal denomination in the United States, is located in Memphis. Its Mason Temple was named after the denomination ‘s fall through, Charles Harrison Mason. This auditorium is where Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. gave his notice “ I ‘ve Been to the Mountaintop “ manner of speaking in April 1968, the night before he was assassinated at his motel. The National Civil Rights Museum, located in Memphis at the Lorraine Motel and other buildings, has an annual ceremony at Mason ‘s Temple of Deliverance where it honors persons with Freedom Awards. Bellevue Baptist Church is a southern Baptist megachurch in Memphis that was founded in 1903. Its stream membership is around 30,000. [ 84 ] For many years, it was led by adrian Rogers, a three-term president of the Southern Baptist Convention. other noteworthy and/or bombastic churches in Memphis include Second Presbyterian Church ( EPC ), Highpoint Church [ 85 ] ( SBC ), Hope Presbyterian Church ( EPC ), Evergreen Presbyterian Church ( PCUSA ), Colonial Park United Methodist Church, Christ United Methodist Church, Idlewild Presbyterian Church ( PCUSA ), GraceLife Pentecostal Church ( UPCI ), First Baptist Broad, Temple of Deliverance, Calvary Episcopal Church, the Church of the River ( First Unitarian Church of Memphis ), First Congregational Church ( UCC ) and Annunciation Greek Orthodox Church. Memphis is home to two cathedrals. The Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception is the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Memphis, and St. Mary ‘s Episcopal Cathedral is the buttocks of the Episcopal Diocese of West Tennessee. Memphis is home to Temple Israel, a Reform synagogue that has approximately 7,000 members, making it one of the largest reform synagogues in the country. Baron Hirsch Synagogue is the largest Orthodox shul in the United States. [ 86 ] jewish residents were partially of the city before the Civil War, but more jewish immigrants came from Eastern Europe in the late 19th and early twentieth centuries. Memphis is home to an estimated 10,000 to 15,000 Muslims of respective cultures and ethnicities. [ 87 ] A count of seminaries are located in Memphis and the metropolitan area. Memphis is home to Memphis Theological Seminary and Harding School of Theology. Suburban Cordova is home to Mid-America Baptist Theological Seminary .

crime [edit ]

A Memphis Police Department vehicle In the twenty-first century, Memphis has struggled to reduce crime. In 2007, it ranked as the second-most dangerous city by the Morgan Quitno rankings. [ 88 ] In 2004, fierce crime in Memphis reached a ten record low. however, that drift changed and in 2005, Memphis was ranked the fourth-most dangerous city with a population of 500,000 or higher in the U.S. [ 89 ] Crime increased again in the first base half of 2006. By 2014, Memphis crime had well decreased, bringing the city ‘s ranking up to eleventh in violent crime. [ 90 ] Nationally, cities follow exchangeable trends, and crime numbers tend to be cyclic. nationally, other medium-sized cities were besides suffering large rises in crime, although crime in the largest cities continued to decrease or increased much less. [ 91 ] [ 92 ] [ better source needed ] In the first one-half of 2006, looting of businesses increased 52.5 %, robbery of individuals increased 28.5 %, and homicides increased 18 % over the like period of 2005. The Memphis Police Department responded with the knowledgeability of Operation Blue C.R.U.S.H. ( Crime Reduction Using Statistical History ), which targets crime hotspots and reprise offenders. [ 93 ] Memphis ended 2005 with 154 murders, and 2006 ended with 160 ; in 2007 there were 164 murders, 2008 had 138, and 2009 had 132. fierce crimes dropped from 12,939 in 2008 to 12,047. Robbery dropped from 4,788 in 2008 to 4,137 in 2009. Aggravated assault dropped 53,870 in 2008 to 47,158 in 2009 ( FBI ‘s UCR ). In 2006 and 2007, the Memphis metropolitan area ranked second-most dangerous in the nation among cities with a population over 500,000. In 2006, the Memphis metropolitan area ranked count one in crimson crimes for major cities around the U.S., according to the FBI ‘s annual crime rankings, whereas it had ranked second in 2005. [ 94 ] Since 2006, serious crime has dropped in Memphis. Between 2006 and 2008, the crime rate fell by 16 %, while the first half of 2009 saw a decrease in serious crime of more than 10 % from the previous year. The Memphis Police Department ‘s use of the FBI National Incident-Based Reporting System, which is a more detailed method acting of reporting crimes than what is used in many early major cities, has been cited as a reason for Memphis ‘s patronize appearance on lists of most dangerous U.S. cities. [ 95 ] With regard to homicide statistics released by the city in more late years, they show another dramatic surface in murders committed in Memphis. There were 140 homicides in the city in 2014 and 161 the follow year. [ 96 ] [ 97 ] then, in 2016, police officials recorded 228 murders, a sum that marked a 63 % increase in homicides since 2014. [ 98 ] According to Michael Rallings, the conductor of the Memphis Police Department, investigations determined that one third base of the mangle victims in 2016 had been involved in gang activity. [ 98 ]

economy [edit ]

The city ‘s central geographic location has been strategic to its business development. Located on the Mississippi River and intersected by five major freight railroads and two Interstate Highways, I-40 and I-55, Memphis is ideally located for commerce in the transportation and shipping diligence. Its access by water was samara to its initial development, with steamboats plying the Mississippi river. Railroad construction strengthened its connection to other markets to the east and west. Since the second half of the twentieth century, highways and interstates have played major roles as department of transportation corridors. A third interstate, I-69, is under construction, and a one-fourth, I-22, has recently been designated from the former High Priority Corridor X. River barges are unloaded onto trucks and trains. The city is home to Memphis International Airport, the earth ‘s busiest cargo airport, surpassing Hong Kong International Airport in 2021. Memphis serves as a primary coil hub for FedEx Express transport. As of 2014, Memphis was the home of three Fortune 500 companies : FedEx ( no. 63 ), International Paper ( no. 107 ), and AutoZone ( no. 306 ). [ 99 ] early major corporations based in Memphis include Allenberg Cotton, American Residential Services ( besides known as ARS/Rescue Rooter ) ; Baker, Donelson, Bearman, Caldwell & Berkowitz ; Cargill Cotton, City Gear, First Horizon National Corporation, Fred ‘s, GTx, Lenny ‘s Sub Shop, Mid-America Apartments, Perkins Restaurant and Bakery, ServiceMaster, True Temper Sports, Varsity Brands, and Verso Paper. Corporations with major operations based in Memphis include Gibson guitars ( based in Nashville ), and Smith & Nephew. The Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis besides has a branch in Memphis. The entertainment and film industries have discovered Memphis in holocene years. several major gesture pictures, most of which were recruited and assisted by the Memphis & Shelby County Film and Television Commission, [ 100 ] have been filmed in Memphis, including Making the Grade ( 1984 ), Elvis and Me ( 1988 ), Great Balls of Fire! ( 1988 ), Heart of Dixie ( 1989 ), Mystery Train ( 1989 ), The Silence of the Lambs ( 1991 ), Trespass ( 1992 ), The Gun in Betty Lou’s Handbag ( 1992 ), The Firm ( 1993 ), The Delta ( 1996 ), The People Vs. Larry Flynt ( 1996 ), The Rainmaker ( 1997 ), Cast Away ( 2000 ), 21 Grams ( 2002 ), A Painted House ( 2002 ), Hustle & Flow ( 2005 ), Forty Shades of Blue ( 2005 ), Walk the Line ( 2005 ), Black Snake Moan ( 2007 ), Nothing But the Truth ( 2008 ), Soul Men ( 2008 ), and The Grace Card ( 2011 ). The Blind Side ( 2009 ) was set in Memphis but filmed in Atlanta. The 1992 television movie Memphis, starring Memphis native Cybill Shepherd, who besides served as administrator producer and writer, was besides filmed in Memphis .

Arts and culture [edit ]

cultural events [edit ]

One of the largest celebrations of the city is Memphis in May. The month-long series of events promotes Memphis ‘s heritage and outreach of its people far beyond the city ‘s borders. The four main events are the Beale Street Music Festival, International Week, The World Championship Barbecue Cooking Contest, and the Great River Run. The World Championship Barbecue Cooking Contest is the largest pork barbecue -cooking contest in the world. In April, downtown Memphis celebrates “ Africa in April Cultural Awareness Festival ”, or merely Africa in April. The festival was designed to celebrate the arts, history, acculturation, and diversity of the African diaspora. Africa in April is a three-day festival with vendors ‘ markets, manner showcases, blues showcases, and an external diversity parade. [ 101 ] During late May-early June, Memphis is home to the Memphis italian Festival at Marquette Park. The 2019 festival will be its 30th and has hosted musical acts, local artisans, and italian cook competitions. It besides presents chef demonstrations, the Coors Light Competitive Bocce Tournament, the Galtelli Cup Recreational Bocce Tournament, a volleyball tournament, and pizza convulse demonstrations. This festival was started by Holy Rosary School and Parish and began inside the School park set in 1989. The Memphis italian Festival is run about completely by early and current Holy Rosary School and Church members and begins with a 5K run each year. Carnival Memphis, once known as the Memphis Cotton Carnival, is an annual series of parties and festivities in June that salutes assorted aspects of Memphis and its industries. An annual King and Queen of Carnival are secretly selected to reign over Carnival activities. From 1935 to 1982, the African-American residential district staged the Cotton Makers Jubilee ; it has merged with Carnival Memphis. [ 102 ] A marketplace and arts festival, the Cooper-Young Festival, [ 103 ] is held annually in September in the Cooper-Young district of Midtown Memphis. The consequence draw artists from all over North America and includes local music, art sales, contests, and displays.

Memphis sponsors several film festivals : the Indie Memphis Film Festival, Outflix, and the Memphis International Film and Music Festival. The Indie Memphis Film Festival is in its 14th year and was held April 27–28, 2013. [ 104 ] Recognized by MovieMaker Magazine as one of 25 “ Coolest Film Festivals ” ( 2009 ) and one of 25 “ Festivals Worth the Entry Fee ” ( 2011 ), Indie Memphis offers Memphis year-round independent film program, including the Global Lens external film series, IM Student Shorts scholar films, and an outdoor concert film series at the historic Levitt Shell. The Outflix Film Festival, besides in its 15th year, was held September 7–13, 2013. Outflix features a full workweek of LGBT cinema, including short films, features, and documentaries. The Memphis International Film and Music Festival is held in April ; it is in its 11th year and takes place at Malco ‘s Ridgeway Four. Mid-South Pride is Tennessee ‘s second-largest LGBT pride event. [ 105 ] [ 106 ] On the weekend before Thanksgiving, the Memphis International Jazz Festival is held in the South Main Historic Arts District in Downtown Memphis. This festival promotes the important role Memphis has played in shaping Jazz nationally and internationally. Acts such as George Coleman, Herman Green, Kirk Whalum and Marvin Stamm all come out of the rich musical inheritance in Memphis. once titled the W. C. Handy Awards, the International Blues Awards are presented by the Blues Foundation ( headquartered in Memphis ) for Blues music accomplishment. Weeklong playing competitions are held, angstrom well as an awards banquet including a night of performance and celebration .

music [edit ]

Memphis is the home of founders and pioneers of versatile american music genres, including Memphis soul, Memphis blues, gospel, rock nitrogen ‘ roll, rockabilly, Memphis rap, Buck, crunk, and “ sharecropper ” nation music ( in line to the “ rhinestone “ area sound historically associated with Nashville ). many musicians, including Aretha Franklin, Jerry Lee Lewis, Johnny Cash, Elvis Presley, Carl Perkins, Roy Orbison, Booker T. & the M.G. ‘s, Otis Redding, Isaac Hayes, Shawn Lane, Al Green, Rance Allen, Percy Sledge, Solomon Burke, William Bell, Sam & Dave and B.B. King, got their starting signal in Memphis in the 1950s and 1960s. Beale Street is a national historical landmark, and shows the impingement Memphis has had on american english blues, particularly after World War II as electric guitars took priority over the original acoustic reasoned from the Mississippi Delta. Sam Phillips ‘s Sun Studio still stands, and is clear for tours. Elvis, Johnny Cash, Jerry Lee Lewis, Carl Perkins and Roy Orbison all made their beginning recordings there, and were “ discovered ” by Phillips. many great blues artists recorded there, such as W. C. Handy, the “ Father of the Blues. ” Stax Records created a classical 1960s person music sound, much grittier and horn-based than the better-known Motown from Detroit. Booker T. and the M.G.s were the label ‘s backing set for most of the classical hits that came from Stax, by Sam & Dave, Otis Redding, Wilson Pickett, and many more. The sound was revisited in the 1980s in the Blues Brothers movie, in which many of the musicians starred as themselves. Memphis is besides noted for its influence on the office pop melodious genre in the 1970s. noteworthy bands and musicians include Big Star, Chris Bell, Alex Chilton, Tommy Hoehn, The Scruffs, and Prix. [ 107 ] [ 108 ] several noteworthy singers are from the Memphis area, including Justin Timberlake, K. Michelle, Kirk Whalum, Three 6 Mafia, Ruth Welting, Kid Memphis, Kallen Esperian, and Andrew VanWyngarden. The Metropolitan Opera of New York had its first tour in Memphis in 1906 ; in the 1990s it decided to tour only larger cities. Metropolitan Opera performances are now broadcast in HD at local movie theaters across the country .

cuisine [edit ]

ocular art [edit ]

In addition to the Brooks Museum and Dixon Gallery and Gardens, Memphis plays master of ceremonies to two burgeoning ocular art areas, one city-sanctioned, and the other organically formed. The South Main Arts District is an arts neighborhood in south business district. Over the by 20 years, the sphere has morphed from a abandoned ship whorehouse and juke articulation vicinity to a gentrified, well-lit area sponsoring “ Trolley Night ”, when arts patrons stroll down the street to see fire spinners, DJs playing in movement of clubs, forte shops and galleries. [ 109 ] [ 110 ] Another developing arts district in Memphis is Broad Avenue. This east–west avenue is undergoing vicinity revival from the inflow of craft and ocular artists taking up mansion and studios in the area. [ 111 ] [ 112 ] An art professor from Rhodes College holds little openings on the first shock of his home for local students and master artists. Odessa, another art space on Broad Avenue, hosts student art shows and local electronic music. other gallery spaces spring up for semi-annual artwalks. [ 113 ] [ 114 ] Memphis besides has non-commercial ocular arts organizations and spaces, including local cougar Pinkney Herbert ‘s Marshall Arts gallery, on Marshall Avenue near Sun Studios, another arts neighborhood characterized by low-cost economic rent. [ 115 ]

literature [edit ]

well-known writers from Memphis include Shelby Foote, the noted Civil War historian. Novelist John Grisham grew up in nearby DeSoto County, Mississippi, and sets many of his books in Memphis. many works of fabrication and literature are set in Memphis. These include The Reivers by William Faulkner ( 1962 ), September, September by Shelby Foote ( 1977 ) ; Peter Taylor ‘s The Old Forest and Other Stories ( 1985 ), and his Pulitzer Prize -winning A Summons to Memphis ( 1986 ) ; The Firm ( 1991 ) and The Client ( 1993 ), both by John Grisham ; Memphis Afternoons: a Memoir by James Conaway ( 1993 ), Plague of Dreamers by Steve Stern ( 1997 ) ; Cassina Gambrel Was Missing by William Watkins ( 1999 ) ; The Guardian by Beecher Smith ( 1999 ), “ We are Billion-Year-Old Carbon ” by Corey Mesler ( 2005 ), The Silence of the Lambs by Thomas Harris, and The Architect by James Williamson ( 2007 ) .

tourism [edit ]

Points of concern [edit ]

other Memphis attractions include the Liberty Bowl Memorial Stadium, FedExForum, and Mississippi riverboat day cruises .

Museums and art collections [edit ]

Cemeteries [edit ]

The Memphis National Cemetery is a United States National Cemetery located in northeastern Memphis. Historic Elmwood Cemetery is one of the oldest rural garden cemeteries in the South, and contains the Carlisle S. Page Arboretum. Memorial Park Cemetery is noted for its sculptures by Mexican artist Dionicio Rodriguez. Elvis Presley was originally buried in Forest Hill Cemetery, the resting target of his backing set ‘s bassist, Bill Black. After an try scratch rob, his body was moved and reinterred at the grounds of Graceland .

Sports [edit ]

The Memphis Grizzlies of the National Basketball Association is the entirely team from one of the “ boastful four “ major sports leagues in Memphis. [ 122 ] The Memphis Redbirds of the Triple-A East are a Minor League Baseball consort of the St. Louis Cardinals. [ 123 ] The University of Memphis college basketball team, the Memphis Tigers, has a potent following in the city due to a history of competitive success. The Tigers have competed in three NCAA Final Fours ( 1973, 1985, 2008 ), with the latter two appearances being vacated. The current coach of the Memphis Tigers is Anfernee Hardaway. Memphis is home to Liberty Bowl Memorial Stadium, the web site of University of Memphis football, the Liberty Bowl and the Southern Heritage Classic. The annual St. Jude Classic, a regular separate of the PGA Tour, is besides held in the city. Each February the city hosts the Regions Morgan Keegan Championships and the Cellular South Cup, which are men ‘s ATP World Tour 500 series and WTA events, respectively. Memphis has a meaning history in pro writhe. Jerry “ The King ” Lawler and Jimmy “ The Mouth of the South ” Hart are among the sport ‘s most well-known figures who came out of the city. Sputnik Monroe, a wrestler of the 1950s, like Lawler, promoted racial consolidation in the city. Ric Flair besides noted Memphis as his birthplace. In the 1970s and early 1980s, the former WFL franchise Memphis Southmen / Memphis Grizzlies sued the NFL in an undertake to be accepted as an expansion franchise. In 1993, the Memphis Hound Dogs was a proposed NFL expansion that was passed over in party favor of the Jacksonville Jaguars and Carolina Panthers. The Liberty Bowl Memorial Stadium besides served as the irregular home of the former Tennessee Oilers ( immediately the Titans ) while the city of Nashville worked out stadium issues. The city is besides the locate of Memphis International Raceway, which held NASCAR events from 1998 to 2009, when Dover Motorsports closed it. In 2011 it reopened under different ownership. It no longer holds NASCAR races, but the Arca Menards Series returned to the lead in 2020 .

Parks and diversion [edit ]

major Memphis parking lot include W.C. Handy Park, Tom Lee Park, Audubon Park, Overton Park including the Old Forest Arboretum, [ 124 ] the Lichterman Nature Center ( a nature learning center ), the Memphis Botanic Garden, [ 125 ] and Jesse H Turner Park. Shelby Farms park, located at the eastern edge of the city, is one of the largest urban parks in the United States .

law and government [edit ]

Beginning in 1963, Memphis adopted a mayor-council shape of government, with 13 City Council members, six elected at-large from throughout the city and seven elected from geographic districts. Following passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, civil rights activists challenged the at-large is electoral system in woo because it made it more difficult for the minority to elect candidates of their choice ; at-large vote favored candidates who could command a majority across the city. In 1995, the city adopted a newfangled design. The 13 Council positions are elected from nine geographic districts : seven are single-member districts and two elect three members each. Jim Strickland, a Democrat, is the city ‘s mayor, elected on October 8, 2015. He is a former Memphis city councilman. Since the late twentieth century, regional discussions have recurred on the concept of consolidating unincorporated Shelby County and Memphis into a metropolitan government, as Nashville-Davidson County did in 1963. consolidation was a referendum item on the 2010 ballots in both the city of Memphis and Shelby County, under the state jurisprudence for dual-voting on such measures. The referendum was controversial in both jurisdictions. Black leaders, including then-Shelby County Commissioner Joe Ford and national civil rights drawing card Al Sharpton, opposed the consolidation. According to the plaintiffs ‘ technical, Marcus Pohlmann, these leaders “ tried to turn that referendum into a civil rights topic, suggesting that for blacks to vote for consolidation was to give up hard-won civil rights victories of the past ”. [ 126 ] In October 2010 before the vote, eight Shelby County citizens had filed a lawsuit in union court against the submit and the Shelby County Elections Commission against the dual-voting necessity. Plaintiffs argued that total votes for the referendum should have been counted together, preferably than as separate elections. City voters narrowly supported the measuring stick for consolidation with 50.8 % in prefer ; county voters overwhelmingly voted against the standard with 85 % against. [ 127 ] The state argued that with the election decided, the lawsuit should be dismissed, but the federal court disagreed. [ 126 ] By late 2013, in pre-trial actions, both sides were trying to disqualify the other ‘s experts, in discussions of whether regional vote revealed racial polarization, and whether voting on the referendum demonstrated racial bloc vote. “ The experts for both sides have clashed on whether racial bloc vote is inevitable in local elections and whether that would require some kind of court rectify. ” [ 126 ] The defendants ‘ expert, Todd Donovan, did not think that polarize vote as revealed for political candidates meant that “ african-american voters and egg white voters have polarized interests when it comes to referendum choices on politics administration, tax, service provision and other policy questions. ” [ 126 ] He noted, “ In the absence of clear-cut political interests that create polarized bloc of referendum voters defined by race, there is no cohesive racial minority vote matter to that can be diluted by a referendum. ” [ 126 ] In 2014, the federal district court dismissed the lawsuit, on the grounds that the referendum would have failed when both jurisdictions ‘ votes were counted together. ( In sum vote, 64 % of voters opposed the consolidation. ) In the last workweek of December 2014, the U.S. Sixth District Court of Appeals upheld that decision, ruling that, “ ” In this election, the referendum for consolidation did not pass and would not have passed even if there had been no dual-majority vote prerequisite ( with the vote counts combined ). ” [ 127 ] Before the referendum, the decisiveness was made by the city and county to exclude populace school management and operations from the proposed consolidation. As noted below, in 2011 the Memphis city council voted to dissolve its city school dining table and consolidate with the Shelby County School System, without the collaboration or agreement of Shelby County. [ 128 ] The city had authority for this military action under Tennessee state laws that differentiate between city and county powers .

education [edit ]

early nurse class in Memphis The city is served by Shelby County Schools. On March 8, 2011, residents voted to dissolve the charter for Memphis City Schools, efficaciously merging it with the Shelby County School District. [ 129 ] After issues with state law and court challenges, the amalgamation took effect the begin of the 2013–14 school year. In Shelby County, six corporate cities voted to establish offprint school systems in 2013. The Shelby County School System operates more than 200 elementary, middle, and high schools. The Memphis area is besides home to many secret, college-prep schools : Briarcrest Christian School ( co-ed ), Christian Brothers High School ( boys ), evangelical christian School ( co-ed ), First Assembly Christian School ( co-ed ), St. Mary ‘s Episcopal School ( girls ), Hutchison School ( girls ), Lausanne Collegiate School ( co-ed ), Memphis University School ( boys ), Saint Benedict at Auburndale ( co-ed ), St. Agnes Academy ( girls ), Immaculate Conception Cathedral School ( girls ), and Elliston Baptist Academy ( co-ed ). besides included in this list is Memphis Harding Academy, a co-ed school affiliated with the Churches of Christ. Colleges and universities located in the city include the University of Memphis, including University of Memphis Cecil C. Humphreys School of Law, Rhodes College, Christian Brothers University, Memphis College of Art, LeMoyne–Owen College, Baptist College of Health Sciences, Memphis Theological Seminary, Harding School of Theology, Embry–Riddle Aeronautical University, Worldwide ( Memphis Campus ), [ 130 ] Reformed Theological Seminary ( satellite campus ), William R. Moore College of Technology, Southern College of Optometry, Southwest Tennessee Community College, Tennessee Technology Center at Memphis, Visible Music College, Mid-America Baptist Theological Seminary, and the University of Tennessee Health Science Center. Memphis besides has campuses of respective for-profit post-secondary institutions, including Concorde Career College, ITT Technical Institute, Remington College, [ 131 ] Vatterott College, [ 132 ] and University of Phoenix. The University of Tennessee College of Dentistry was founded in 1878, making it the oldest dental college in the South, and the third oldest public college of dentistry in the United States. [ 133 ] The Christian Brothers High School Band is the oldest high school band in America, founded in 1872. [ 134 ] Examples of colleges and universities in Memphis, Tennessee

Media [edit ]

Newspapers [edit ]

television [edit ]

Nielsen Media Research presently defines Memphis and its surrounding metropolitan area as the 51st largest american media market. [ 140 ] Despite Memphis proper ‘s big size, Memphis has always been a medium-sized commercialize ; the nearby suburban and rural areas are not much larger than the city itself. major circulate television affiliate stations in the Memphis area include, but are not limited to :

radio receiver [edit ]

tellurian broadcast radio stations in the Memphis sphere include, but are not limited to :

FM stations [edit ]

AM stations [edit ]

cultural references [edit ]

music [edit ]

Memphis is the discipline of numerous pop and area songs, including “ The Memphis Blues “ by W. C. Handy, “ Memphis, Tennessee “ by Chuck Berry, “ Night Train to Memphis ” by Roy Acuff, “ Goin ‘ to Memphis ” by Paul Revere and the Raiders, “ Queen of Memphis “ by Confederate Railroad, “ Memphis Soul Stew “ by King Curtis, “ possibly It Was Memphis “ by Pam Tillis, “ Graceland “ by Paul Simon, “ Memphis gearing ” by Rufus Thomas, “ All the Way from Memphis “ by Mott the Hoople, “ wrong english of Memphis “ by Trisha Yearwood, “ Stuck Inside of Mobile with the Memphis Blues Again “ by Bob Dylan, “ Memphis Skyline ” by Rufus Wainwright, “ Sequestered in Memphis ” by The Hold Steady and “ Walking in Memphis “ by Marc Cohn. In addition, Memphis is mentioned in scores of other songs, including “ Proud Mary “ by Creedence Clearwater Revival, “ Honky Tonk Women “ by the Rolling Stones, “ Dixie Chicken “ by Little Feat, “ Who ‘s Gon na Fill Their Shoes “ by George Jones, “ Daisy Jane ” by America, “ Life Is a Highway “ by Tom Cochrane, “ Black Velvet “ by Alannah Myles, “ Cities “ by Talking Heads, “ madden country Rebel ” by Hank Williams III, “ Pride ( In the list of Love ) “ by U2, “ M.E.M.P.H.I.S. ” by the Disco Biscuits, “ New New Minglewood Blues ” and “ Candyman ” by the Grateful Dead, “ You Should Be Glad ” by Widespread Panic, “ roll out With Me ” by 8Ball & MJG, “ someday ” by Steve Earle and popularly recorded by Shawn Colvin, and many others. More than 1,000 commercial recordings of over 800 clear-cut songs contain “ Memphis ” in them. The Memphis Rock N ‘ Soul Museum maintains an always update list of these on their web site. [ 144 ]

Film and television [edit ]

many films are set in the american city including, Black Snake Moan, The Blind Side, Cast Away, Choices: The Movie, The Client, The Firm, Forty Shades of Blue, Great Balls of Fire!, Hustle & Flow, Kill Switch, Making the Grade, Memphis Belle, Mississippi Grind, Mystery Train, N-Secure, The Rainmaker, The Silence of the Lambs, Soul Men, and Walk the Line. many of those and other films have besides been filmed in Memphis including, Black Snake Moan, Walk the Line, Hustle & Flow, Forty Shades of Blue, 21 Grams, A Painted House, American Saint, The Poor and Hungry, Cast Away, Woman’s Story, The Big Muddy, The Rainmaker, Finding Graceland, The People vs. Larry Flynt, The Delta, Teenage Tupelo, A Family Thing, Without Air, The Firm, The Client, The Gun in Betty Lou’s Handbag, Trespass, The Silence of the Lambs, Great Balls of Fire!, Elvis and Me, Mystery Train, Leningrad Cowboys Go America, Heart of Dixie, The Contemporary Gladiator, U2: Rattle and Hum, Making the Grade, The River Rat, The River, Hallelujah!, Elizabethtown, 3000 Miles to Graceland, A Face in the Crowd, Undefeated, Man on the Moon, Nothing But the Truth, Sore Losers, Soul Men, I Was a Zombie for the F.B.I., I’m From Hollywood, The Grace Card, This is Elvis, Cookie’s Fortune, Open Five, The Open Road, In the Valley of Elah, Walk Hard, My Blueberry Nights, Savage Country, and Two-Lane Blacktop. [ 145 ] The television receiver series Greenleaf, Memphis Beat, Quarry and Bluff City Law are set in the city. Literature many works of fabrication and literature are set in Memphis. These include The Reivers by William Faulkner ( 1962 ), September, September by Shelby Foote ( 1977 ) ; Peter Taylor ‘s The Old Forest and Other Stories ( 1985 ), and his Pulitzer Prize -winning A Summons to Memphis ( 1986 ) ; The Firm ( 1991 ) and The Client ( 1993 ), both by John Grisham ; Memphis Afternoons: a Memoir by James Conaway ( 1993 ), Plague of Dreamers by Steve Stern ( 1997 ) ; Cassina Gambrel Was Missing by William Watkins ( 1999 ) ; The Guardian by Beecher Smith ( 1999 ), “ We are Billion-Year-Old Carbon ” by Corey Mesler ( 2005 ), The Silence of the Lambs by Thomas Harris, and The Architect by James Williamson ( 2007 ) .

infrastructure [edit ]

transportation system [edit ]

Highways [edit ]

Interstate 40, Interstate 55, Interstate 22, Interstate 240, Interstate 269, and State Route 385 are the main expressways in the Memphis area. Interstates 40 and 55 cross the Mississippi River at Memphis from the state of Arkansas. [ 146 ] Interstate 69 is a propose interstate that, upon completion, would connect Memphis to Canada and Mexico. [ 147 ] I-40 is a coast-to-coast expressway that connects Memphis to Nashville and on to North Carolina to the east, and Little Rock, Arkansas, Oklahoma City, and the Greater Los Angeles Area to the west. I-55 connects Memphis to St. Louis and Chicago to the union, and Jackson, Mississippi and New Orleans to the south. I-240 is the inner beltway which serves areas including Downtown, Midtown, South Memphis, Memphis International Airport, East Memphis, and North Memphis. [ 146 ] I-269 is the larger, out interstate loop immediately serving the suburb of Millington, Eads, Arlington, Collierville, and Hernando, Mississippi. It was completed in 2018. [ 148 ] Interstate 22 connects Memphis with Birmingham, Alabama, via northerly Mississippi ( including Tupelo ) and northwestern Alabama. While technically not entering the city of Memphis proper, I-22 ends at I-269 in Byhalia, Mississippi, connecting it to the rest of the Memphis interstate organization. Interstate 69 is proposed to follow I-55 and I-240 through the city of Memphis. once completed, I-69 will link Memphis with Port Huron, Michigan via Indianapolis, Indiana, and Brownsville, Texas via Shreveport, Louisiana and Houston, Texas. [ 147 ] A newfangled spur, Interstate 555, besides serves the Memphis metro area connecting it to Jonesboro, Arkansas. early crucial federal highways though Memphis include the east–west U.S. Route 70, U.S. Route 64, and U.S. Route 72 ; and the north–south U.S. Route 51 and U.S. Route 61. [ 146 ] The erstwhile is the historic highway north to Chicago via Cairo, Illinois, while the latter roughly parallels the Mississippi River for most of its course and crosses the Mississippi Delta region to the south, with the Delta besides legendary for Blues music .

Railroads [edit ]

Three bridges over the Mississippi A large volume of railroad freight moves through Memphis, because of its two heavy-duty Mississippi River railroad crossings, which carry several major east–west railroad cargo lines, and besides because of the major north–south railway lines through Memphis which connect with such major cities as Chicago, St. Louis, Indianapolis, Louisville, New Orleans, Dallas, Houston, Mobile, and Birmingham. By the early twentieth century, Memphis had two major passenger railroad stations, which made the city a regional hub for trains coming from the north, east, south and west. After passenger railroad service declined heavily through the middle of the twentieth century, the Memphis Union Station was demolished in 1969. The Memphis Central Station [ 149 ] was finally renovated, and it even serves the city. The only inter-city passenger dragoon service to Memphis is the day by day City of New Orleans gearing, operated by Amtrak, which has one train northbound and one string southbound each day between Chicago and New Orleans .

Railroads, coarse freight carriers [edit ]
Railroads, passenger carriers [edit ]

Amtrak ( AMTK )

Airports [edit ]

FedEx aircraft at Memphis International Airport Memphis International Airport is the global “ SuperHub ” of FedEx Express, and has the largest cargo operations by volume of any airport global, surpassing Hong Kong International Airport in 2021. [ 150 ] [ 151 ] Memphis International ranks as the 41st busiest passenger airport in the US and served as a hub for Northwest Airlines ( late Delta Air Lines ) until September 3, 2013. [ 152 ] and had 4.39 million board passengers ( enplanements ) in 2011, an 11.9 % decrease over the previous year. [ 153 ] Delta has reduced its flights at Memphis by approximately 65 % since its 2008 amalgamation with Northwest Airlines and operates an average of 30 casual flights as of December 2013, with two international destinations ( Cancún – seasonally ; Toronto year-round ). Delta Air Lines announced the close of its Memphis fender and crew establish in 2012. other airlines providing passenger avail are : Southwest Airlines ; American Airlines ; United Airlines ; Allegiant ; Frontier ; Air Canada ; and southerly Vacations Express. [ 154 ] There are besides cosmopolitan aviation airports in the Memphis Metropolitan Area, including the Millington Regional Jetport, located at the former Naval Air Station in Millington, Tennessee .

River port [edit ]

Memphis has the second-busiest cargo port on the Mississippi River, which is besides the fourth-busiest inland port in the United States. [ 155 ] The International Port of Memphis covers both the Tennessee and Arkansas sides of the Mississippi River from river sea mile 725 ( km 1167 ) to mile 740 ( km 1191 ). [ 156 ] A focal point of the river port is the industrial park on President ‘s Island, just south of Downtown Memphis .

Bridges [edit ]

Four railway and highway bridges cross the Mississippi River at Memphis. In order of their opening years, these are the Frisco Bridge ( 1892, single-track vilify ), the Harahan Bridge ( 1916, a road-rail bridge until 1949, presently carries double-track rail ), the Memphis-Arkansas Memorial Bridge ( Highway, 1949 ; belated incorporated into Interstate 55 ), and the Hernando de Soto Bridge ( Interstate 40, 1973 ). A bicycle/pedestrian walk opened along the Harahan Bridge in late 2016, utilizing the former westbound roadway. [ 157 ] [ 158 ] [ 159 ]

Utilities [edit ]

Memphis ‘s chief utility provider is the Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division ( MLGW ). This is the largest three-service municipal utility in the United States, providing electricity, natural accelerator, and saturated water serve to all residents of Shelby County. Prior to that, Memphis was served by two primary electric companies, which were merged into the Memphis Power Company. [ 160 ] The City of Memphis bought the individual ship’s company in 1939 to form MLGW, [ 160 ] [ 161 ] which was an early customer of electricity from the Tennessee Valley Authority ( TVA ). In 1954 the Dixon-Yates contract was proposed to make more power available to the city from the TVA, but the abridge was cancelled ; it had been an issue for the Democrats in the 1954 congressional elections. MLGW hush buys most of its office from TVA, and the ship’s company pumps its own fresh water from the Memphis Aquifer, using more than 180 water wells .

Health care [edit ]

The Memphis and Shelby County region supports numerous hospitals, including the Methodist and Baptist Memorial health systems, two of the state ‘s largest private hospitals. Until the 1960s and the end of segregation, most hospitals only served white patients. One of the few hospitals for african Americans in Memphis in those times was Collins Chapel Connectional Hospital, whose historic construction now houses a homeless tax shelter. [ 162 ] Methodist Le Bonheur Healthcare, the largest healthcare provider in the Memphis region and the fourth largest employer as of 2018, [ 163 ] operates seven hospitals and several rural clinics. Methodist Healthcare operates, among others, the Le Bonheur Children ‘s Hospital, which offers primary level 1 pediatric trauma caution, a well as a nationally recognized pediatric genius tumor program. Methodist Healthcare besides operates Methodist University Hospital, a 617-bed facility 1 mile southeast of Le Bonheur. Baptist Memorial Healthcare operates fifteen hospitals ( three in Memphis ), including Baptist Memorial Hospital, and with a fusion in 2018 became the largest healthcare system in the mid-South. [ 164 ] According to Health Care Market Guide ‘s annual studies, Mid-Southerners have named Baptist Memorial their “ preferred hospital choice for quality ”. The St. Jude Children ‘s Research Hospital, leading pediatric treatment and inquiry facility focused on children ‘s catastrophic diseases, resides in Memphis. The initiation was conceived and built by entertainer Danny Thomas in 1962 as a tribute to St. Jude Thaddeus, patron canonize of impossible, hopeless, and unmanageable causes. Memphis is besides home to Regional One Healthcare, [ 165 ] which is locally referred to as “ The Med ”. In recent years, the hospital has experienced severe fund difficulties that closely led to a reduction or elimination of emergency room services. In July 2010, The Med received approximately $ 40.6 million in federal and local fund to keep the Elvis Presley Trauma Center operational. Memphis is home to Delta Medical Center of Memphis, [ 166 ] which is the only employee-owned checkup facility in North America. Individual health policy marketplace insurers are limited, with Bright Health and Cigna offer coverage in the area. [ 167 ]

luminary people [edit ]

Twin towns – sister cities [edit ]

Memphis has three sister cities, as per Sister Cities International : [ 168 ]

See besides [edit ]

References [edit ]

further reading [edit ]

reference :
Category : music

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