The College Dropout – Wikipedia

2004 studio album by Kanye West
For the article on dropping out of college, see Dropping out
2004 studio album by Kanye West

The College Dropout is the introduction studio album by american rapper and producer Kanye West. It was released on February 10, 2004, by Roc-A-Fella Records and Def Jam Recordings. In the years leading up to release, West had received praise for his production work for rappers such as Jay-Z and Talib Kweli, but faced trouble being accepted as an artist in his own right by figures in the music diligence. captive on pursuing a alone career, he signed a record deal with Roc-A-Fella and recorded the album over a period of four years, beginning in 1999. The production of The College Dropout was chiefly handled by West and showcased his “ chipmunk soul “ musical dash, which made use of sped-up, pitch shifted outspoken samples from soul and R & B records, in summation to West ‘s own drum program, string accompaniments, and religious doctrine choirs ; the album besides features contributions from Jay-Z, Mos Def, Jamie Foxx, Syleena Johnson, and Ludacris, among others. Diverging from the then-dominant gangster persona in pelvis hop, West ‘s lyrics concern themes of family, self-consciousness, materialism, religion, racism, and higher education. The College Dropout debuted at number two on the US Billboard 200, selling 441,000 copies in its first gear workweek of sales. It was a large-scale commercial success, becoming West ‘s best-selling album in the United States, with domestic sales of over 3.4 million copies by 2014 and was certified four-times platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America ( RIAA ) in 2020. The album was promoted with singles such as “ Through the Wire “, “ Jesus Walks “, “ All Falls Down “, and “ Slow Jamz “, the latter two of which peaked within the circus tent ten of the Billboard Hot 100. A far-flung critical achiever, The College Dropout was praised for West ‘s production, humorous and emotional raps, and the music ‘s balance of introspection and mainstream sensibilities. The album earned the rapper respective accolades, including nominations for Album of the year and Best Rap Album at the 2005 Grammy Awards, winning for the latter. It has since been named by numerous publications as one of the greatest albums of all time, including Rolling Stone and NME, who ranked it at 74 and 273 respectively on their 500 Greatest Albums of All Time lists, and is credited for popularizing the chipmunk soul and conscious tap subgenres in the 2000s .

background [edit ]

Kanye West began his early production career in the mid-1990s, making beats primarily for burgeoning local artists, finally developing a style that involved speeding up vocal music samples from classical soul records. For a time, he acted as a haunt producer for Deric “ D-Dot ” Angelettie. Due to his association with D-Dot, West was n’t able to release a alone album, so he formed and became a penis and manufacturer of the Go-Getters, a late-1990s Chicago rap group composed of him, GLC, Timmy G, Really Doe, and Arrowstar. [ 1 ] [ 2 ] The group released their beginning and merely studio apartment album World Record Holders in 1999. [ 1 ] West came to achieve recognition with his contributions to Jay-Z ‘s influential 2001 album The Blueprint. [ 3 ] The Blueprint has been named by Rolling Stone as the 252nd greatest album of all prison term and the critical and fiscal success of the album generated substantial interest in West as a producer. [ 4 ] Serving as an in-house manufacturer for Roc-A-Fella Records, West produced records for early artists from the label, including Beanie Sigel, Freeway, and Cam’ron. He besides crafted hit songs for Ludacris, Alicia Keys, and Janet Jackson. [ 3 ] [ 5 ] [ 6 ] [ 7 ] Although he had attained success as a manufacturer, Kanye West aspired to be a knocker, but had struggled to attain a record deal. [ 6 ] record companies ignored him because he did not portray the gangsta persona outstanding in mainstream hip hop at the fourth dimension. [ 8 ] After a serial of meetings with Capitol Records, West was ultimately denied an artist deal. [ 9 ] According to Capitol Record ‘s A & R, Joe Weinberger, he was approached by West and about signed a deal with him, but another person in the caller convinced Capitol ‘s president of the united states not to. [ 9 ] Desperate to keep West from defecting to another label, then-label head Damon Dash reluctantly signed West to Roc-A-Fella Records. Jay-Z, West ‘s colleague, former admitted that Roc-A-Fella was initially loath to support West as a rapper, claiming that many saw him as a manufacturer first gear and foremost, and that his background contrasted with that of his labelmates. [ 8 ] [ 10 ] West ‘s breakthrough came a year late on October 23, 2002, when, while driving home from a California recording studio after working late, he fell asleep at the wheel and was involved in a near-fatal car crash. [ 11 ] The barge in left him with a shatter yack, which had to be wired closed in reconstructive surgery. The accident inspired West ; two weeks after being admitted to a hospital, he recorded a song at the Record Plant with his chew placid wired shut. [ 11 ] The composition, “ Through the Wire “, expressed West ‘s know after the accident, and helped lay the foundation for his debut album, as according to West “ all the better artists have expressed what they were going through ”. [ 12 ] [ 13 ] West added that “ the album was my medicine ”, as working on the record distracted him from the pain. [ 14 ] “ Through the Wire ” was first available on West ‘s Get Well Soon… mixtape, released December 2002. [ 15 ] At the lapp time, West announced that he was working on an album called The College Dropout, whose overall theme was to “ make your own decisions. Do n’t let society tell you, ‘This is what you have to do. ‘ ” [ 16 ]

Recording [edit ]

West began recording The College Dropout in 1999, taking four years to complete. [ 17 ] Recording sessions took place at Record Plant in Los Angeles, California, but the production featured on the read took place elsewhere over the course of several years. According to John Monopoly, West ‘s friend, director and business partner, the album “ … [ did n’t have ] a particular start date. He ‘s been gathering beats for years. He was constantly producing with the intention of being a knocker. There ‘s beats on the album he ‘s been literally saving for himself for years ”. At one distributor point, West hovered between making a part of the production in the studio and the majority within his own apartment in Newark, New Jersey. Because it was a two-bedroom apartment, West was able to set up a family studio apartment in one of the rooms and his bedroom in the other. [ 6 ]
West brought with him to the studio a Louis Vuitton backpack filled with previous disks and show to the studio, producing tracks in less than fifteen minutes at a time. He recorded the remainder of the album in Los Angeles while recovering from the car accident. once he had completed the album, it was leaked months before its release date. [ 6 ] however, West decided to use the opportunity to review the album, and The College Dropout was significantly remixed, remastered, and revised before being released. As a leave, certain tracks primitively destined for the album were subsequently retracted, among them “ Keep the Receipt ” with Ol ‘ Dirty Bastard and “ The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly ” with Consequence. [ 18 ] West meticulously refined the production, adding string arrangements, gospel choirs, improved drum programming and new verses. [ 6 ] On his personal blog in 2009, West stated he was most inspired by The Miseducation of Lauryn Hill and listened to the album every sidereal day while working on The College Dropout. [ 19 ] The birdcall “ School Spirit ” was censored for the album because Aretha Franklin would not allow the knocker to sample her music without censoring being promised. [ 20 ] It was revealed by Plain Pat that there were around three other versions of the sung, but West disliked them. Pat said in reference to the Franklin sample : “ That song would have been therefore unaccented if we did n’t get that sample cleared ”. [ 21 ] In 2011, an uncensored version of the chase was distributed on-line. [ 22 ] West finished recording around December 2003, according to his older cousin and singer Tony Williams, who was recruited by the rapper two weeks before the album ‘s deadline to contribute vocals. Williams had impressed West by singing improvisations to “ Spaceship “ during one of their drives together. The singer late recounted recording with West for The College Dropout at the Record Plant : “ I get in, go in the booth, start vibing out on ‘Spaceship ‘ and finished it up. At that compass point he was like, ‘Ok, Well let me see what you do on this song. ‘ I think that ‘s when we did ‘Last Call. ‘ One birdcall lead to another, and by the end of the weekend, I was on like five songs. then we did the ‘I ‘ll Fly Away ‘ connect ”. [ 23 ] In a January 2020 interview with GQ, West revealed that around 30 to 40 percentage of the album was recorded on a Roland VS-1680. [ 24 ]

Music and lyrics [edit ]

The College Dropout diverged from the then-dominant gangster persona in hip hop in favor of more divers, topical subjects for the lyrics. [ 13 ] Throughout the album, West touches on a issue of unlike issues drawn from his own experiences and observations, including organized religion, family, sex, excessive materialism, self-consciousness, minimal wage labor, institutional prejudice, and personal struggles. [ 25 ] [ 26 ] [ 27 ] Music journalist Kelefa Sanneh wrote, “ Throughout the album, Mr. West taunts everyone who did n’t believe in him : teachers, record executives, patrol officers, even his former boss at the Gap “. [ 28 ] West explained, “ My character is that I ‘m the regular person. Just think about whatever you ‘ve been through in the past week, and I have a song about that on my album ”. [ 29 ] The album was musically luminary for West ‘s alone development of his “ chipmunk soul ” output stylus, [ 30 ] in which R & B and person music samples were sped up and pitch shifted. [ 31 ] [ 32 ]
The album begins with a skit featuring a college professor asking West to deliver a commencement address. The skit is followed by “ We Do n’t Care ” featuring West comically celebrating drug life sentence with lines like “ We was n’t supposed to make it past 25, antic ‘s on you, we however alive ” and then criticizing its charm amongst children. [ 28 ] The next track, “ Graduation Day ”, features Miri Ben-Ari on violin, [ 33 ] and vocals by John Legend. [ 34 ] On “ All Falls Down “, West wages an attack on consumerism. [ 5 ] [ 35 ] The song features singer Syleena Johnson and contains an interjection of Lauryn Hill ‘s “ Mystery of Iniquity ”. [ 34 ] West called upon Johnson to re-sing a song part of “ Mystery of Iniquity ”, which ended up in the final mix. [ 36 ] Gospel hymn with doo-wop elements “ I ‘ll Fly Away “ precedes “ Spaceship ”, a path with a relax perplex containing a soulful Marvin Gaye sample. The lyrics are largely critical of the working global, where West muses about flying away in a starship to leave his boring job, and guest rappers GLC and Consequence add comparisons to modern day retail environment with bondage. [ 35 ] On “ Jesus Walks “, West professes his impression in Jesus, while besides discussing how religion is used by diverse people and how the media seems to avoid songs that address matters of faith while embracing compositions on ferocity, arouse, and drugs. [ 35 ] [ 37 ] “ Jesus Walks ” is built around a sample of “ Walk With Me ” as performed by the ARC Choir. [ 34 ] Garry Mulholland of The Observer described it as a “ loom hell of soldierly beats, fathoms-deep range gang backing chants, a defiant children ‘s choir, gospel wails, and sizzling orchestral breaks ”. [ 38 ] The beginning verse of the sung is told through the eyes of a drug trader seeking help from God, and it reportedly took over six months for West to draw inspiration for the second verse. [ 39 ] “ never Let Me Down “ is influenced by West ‘s near-death car crash. The song features Jay-Z, who rhymes about maintaining condition and power given his chart success, while west comments on racism and poverty. [ 35 ] [ 40 ] The song features verses by talk son performer J. Ivy who offers comments of upliftment. “ Never Let Me Down ” reuses a Jay-Z poetry foremost heard in the remix of his song “ Hovi Baby “. [ 35 ] [ 41 ] “ Get Em High ” is a collaboration by West with two socially conscious rappers, Talib Kweli and Common. [ 42 ] “ The New Workout Plan “ is a call to seaworthiness to improve one ‘s sexual love life. [ 35 ] “ Slow Jamz “ features Twista and Jamie Foxx and serves as a tribute to classic smooth soul artists and slow throng songs. [ 5 ] The song besides appeared on Twista ‘s album Kamikaze. [ 5 ] On the song “ School Spirit ”, West relates the experience of dropping out of school and contains references to long-familiar fraternities, sororities, singer Norah Jones, and record label Roc-A-Fella Records. “ Two Words “ features commentary on social issues and features Mos Def, Freeway, and the Harlem Boys Choir. [ 43 ] “ Through the Wire ” features a high vocal music sample of Chaka Khan and relates West ‘s veridical animation experience with being in a car accident. [ 11 ] The song provides a largely comedic explanation of his difficult recovery, and features West rapping with his yack distillery wired shut from the accident. [ 11 ] [ 34 ] The chorus and instrumentals sample a pitched up adaptation of Chaka Khan ‘s 1985 individual “ Through the Fire “. [ 5 ] “ Family Business ” is a soulful tribute to the godbrother of Tarrey Torae, one of the many collaborators in the album. [ 44 ] The song “ concluding margin call ” is about West ‘s transition from being a manufacturer to a knocker, and the album ends with a about nine-minute autobiographical soliloquy that follows the sung “ last name ”, however, is not a separate track. [ 45 ]

title and promotion [edit ]

Graffiti that depicts Dropout Bear, the anthropomorphic teddy bear mascot of Kanye West that is located in the Bronx, New York City. Graffiti depicting the Dropout Bear. The album ‘s title is in separate a address to West ‘s decisiveness to drop out of college to pursue his dream of becoming a musician. [ 46 ] This natural process greatly displeased his mother, who was a professor at the university from which he withdrew. She late said, “ It was drummed into my head that college is the ticket to a good life … but some career goals do n’t require college. For Kanye to make an album called [The] College Dropout it was more about having the guts to embrace who you are, rather than following the way company has carved out for you ”. [ 47 ] The artwork for the album was developed by Eric Duvauchelle, who was then part of Roc-A-Fella ‘s in-house brand design team. West had already taken pictures dressed as the Dropout Bear – which would reappear in his late employment – and Duvauchelle picked the picture of him sitting on a typeset of bleachers, as he was attracted to the aloneness of what was supposed to be “ the most popular representation of a school ”. The picture is framed inside aureate ornaments, which Duvauchelle found in a book of illustrations from the 16th-century and West wanted to use to “ bring a smell of elegance and style to what was typically a gangster-led double of knock artists “. The inside cover follows a college yearbook, with photos of the have artists from their youth. [ 48 ]

market and sales [edit ]

The College Dropout was in the first place scheduled for free in August 2003, but West ‘s perfectionist habits producing the album led to it being postponed three times. It was first delayed to October 2003, then to January 2004, before ultimately being released to stores on February 10, 2004. [ 49 ] [ 50 ]

In its first workweek of handout, the album sold 441,000 copies and debuted at number two on the US Billboard 200 graph, being held off the clear spotlight by Norah Jones ‘ second studio apartment album Feels Like Home. [ 51 ] The College Dropout remained at the moment spot behind Feels Like Home for two consecutive weeks, with 196,000 units sold in the second workweek and 132,000 in the third week, respectively. [ 52 ] [ 53 ] In 2004, The College Dropout ranked as the twelfth most popular of the year on the Billboard 200. [ 54 ] The album had sold 2.3 million units in the United States by November 2004. [ 55 ] By June 2014, the album had become West ‘s best-selling album in the US, with domestic sales of 3,358,000 copies. [ 56 ] [ 57 ] On November 23, 2020, The College Dropout was certified four-times platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America ( RIAA ). [ 58 ] On the UK Albums Chart, the album peaked at number 12, and the british Phonographic Industry ( BPI ) had certified it double platinum by November 25, 2004 ; this bespeak shipments of 600,000 copies. [ 59 ] [ 60 ] As of 2018, The College Dropout is the fourteenth highest selling rap album in the UK in the 21st-century. [ 61 ] The album has sold over 4 million copies worldwide. [ 62 ] Four of the singles released in promotion of the album became top-20 chart hits : “ Through the Wire ”, “ Slow Jamz ”, “ All Falls Down ” and “ Jesus Walks ”. [ 63 ] “ The New Workout Plan “ was the fifth and last one. [ 64 ] “ Spaceship ” was planned to be the one-sixth single, but Def Jam decided to move on from The College Dropout ‘s promotional campaign to begin marketing West ‘s adjacent album, Late Registration ( 2005 ). [ 65 ] At one point, “ Two Words ” was besides intended to be released as a single, and a video for the sung was filmed, and later uploaded by West on-line in 2009. [ 42 ]

critical reception [edit ]

The College Dropout was met with far-flung critical acclaim. At Metacritic, which assigns a anneal fink out of 100 to reviews from master publications, the album received an average grudge of 87, based on 25 reviews. [ 66 ] The read was hailed by Kelefa Sanneh from The New York Times as “ 2004 ‘s first great hip-hop album ”. [ 28 ] Reviewing it for The A.V. Club, Nathan Rabin observed in the music “ kernel, social comment, righteous wrath, cantankerous humanitarianism, darkness liquid body substance, and even Christianity ”, calling it “ one of those fantastic crossover voter albums that appeal to a huge audience without sacrificing a shred of integrity ”. [ 75 ] The staff of Mojo said its especial hep hop production was heaven-sent during a prison term when hep hop ‘s rehearse of sampling was becoming “ increasingly contentious ”, [ 70 ] and those of Urb deemed it “ both visceral and affectional, sprinkling the dancefloors with tears and sweat ”. [ 76 ] Dave Heaton from PopMatters found it “ musically engaging ” and “ a actual reference of Kanye ‘s personality and experiences ”, [ 35 ] while Hua Hsu of The Village Voice felt that his sped-up samples “ carry a humble, homo publicize ”, allowing listeners to “ hear bantam traces of actual people inside ”. [ 77 ] Fellow Village Voice critic Robert Christgau wrote that “ not alone does [ West ] create a singular function model, that function model is dangerous—his arguments against education are deoxyadenosine monophosphate market-targeted as other rappers ‘ arguments for hood life ”. [ 74 ] In the opinion of Stylus Magazine ‘s Josh Love, West “ subverts cliches from both sides of the hip-hop separate ” while “ trying to reflect the stallion spectrum of hip-hop and black experience, looking for consolation and salvation in the traditional safehouses of church and family ”. [ 25 ] Entertainment Weekly ‘s Michael Endelman elaborated on West ‘s avoidance of the then-dominant “ gangsta ” persona of hip hop :

West delivers the goods with a disarming mix of confessional honesty and sarcastic humor, earnest idealism and big-pimping materialism. In a setting hush dominated by authenticity battles and gangsta pose, he ‘s a middle-class, politically conscious, post-thug, businessperson rapper – and that ‘s nothing to be ashamed of. [ 68 ]

Some reviewers were more qualify in their praise. Rolling Stone ‘s Jon Caramanica felt that “ West is n’t quite MC enough to hold down the entire disk ”, though claimed that West ‘s “ breeze through in the hole is his touch cosy sound ”, [ 71 ] while Slant Magazine ‘s Sal Cinquemani observed “ besides many guest artists, excessively many interludes, and just excessively many songs period ” on what he considered a “ chest-beatingly self-congratulatory ” however humorous, deeply sincere, and affecting record. [ 26 ] It was regarded by Pitchfork critic Rob Mitchum as a “ flawed, overlong, hypocritical, egotistic, and all in all fantastic album ”. [ 3 ] The staff of Rolling Stone were more receptive in a retrospective review than Caramanica was previously for the publication, calling the album “ a demonstration that hip-hop—real, humongous, commercial hip-hop—could be a vehicle for nuanced introspection and musical subtlety ”. [ 78 ]

Rankings [edit ]

The College Dropout was voted as the best album of the year by The Village Voice ‘s Pazz & Jop, an annual poll of american critics. [ 79 ] The album elsewhere topped year-end lists by Rolling Stone, [ 80 ] Spin, [ 81 ] Vibe, [ 82 ] and PopMatters. [ 83 ] Dutch magazine OOR named it the seventh best album of 2004. [ 84 ] Billboard named The College Dropout the second gear best album of 2004. [ 85 ] Rhapsody named it the seventh best album of the ten and the fourth best hep hop album of the decade. [ 86 ] [ 87 ] In 2005, Pitchfork named it No. 50 in their best albums of 2000–2004. [ 88 ] In 2006, the album was named by Time as one of the 100 best albums of all time. [ 89 ] In its retrospective 2007 issue, XXL named it one of the magazine ‘s “ XXL ” -rated releases ; this perfect rate had previously been given by the magazine to alone sixteen other albums. [ 90 ] In 2012, Complex named the album one of the classic albums of the last ten, [ 91 ] and the twentieth best hep hop debut album ever. [ 92 ] Dagsavisen listed the album eleventh in its list of the top forty albums of the 2000s decade. [ 93 ] The album was besides included in the book 1001 Albums You Must Hear Before You Die. [ 94 ] NME placed the album at 273 on its 2013 list of the 500 Greatest Albums of All Time, [ 95 ] while Rolling Stone ranked it at 74 on their list of the 500 Greatest Albums of All Time in 2020. [ 96 ]

diligence awards [edit ]

influence [edit ]

As a young black kyd, specially one who got to walk the line between some dangerous environments and some much better ones, Kanye was this beautiful means to be true to both sides of me. I remember listening to The College Dropout on the bus from a Leadership Broward event where I was selected as one of the leaders of tomorrow or whatever. I remember listening to it as I walked by two black mothers in bed slippers fighting in the street. I remember listening to it on my way to catch the bus to go to a school out of my zone, so that I could get a better education. … ‘Spaceship, ‘ ‘All Falls Down, ‘ ‘Never Let Me Down, ‘ ‘Jesus Walks, ‘ ‘Family Business. ‘ Those were anthems of mine that I kept in the binding scoop of my kernel as I walked the telephone line between black people finding me besides white or proper and white people clamoring for me to be their ‘black ally. ‘

—Aundre Larrow, Chicago Reader ( 2014 ) [ 120 ]
The College Dropout sparked a revival of socially conscious blame in the mid 2000s, [ 121 ] arriving at a clock when pop rap was saturated with songs featuring intersection placement and intensely violent lyrics, epitomized by rappers like 50 cent, Nelly, Ja Rule, Ludacris, and P. Diddy. [ 120 ] West rather created a quad in the mainstream for rappers to express themselves and black identity without resorting to hip hop ‘s prevailing theme of gang culture. [ 122 ] Raul Verma of The Independent said “ West is charged with proving mainstream hip hop has a conscience with his nourishing messages of meaning flying in the boldness of the amoral majority perpetuating clichés of guns, girls and bling ”, [ 123 ] while Vibe senior editor program Noah Callahan-Bever argued that West ‘s infusion of “ start sensibility ” into his otherwise progressive hip hop had “ bridged the opening ” and encouraged rappers to gravitate more towards the center between mainstream and alternative forms. [ 124 ] Today commented that “ The College Dropout, stood out in the rap landscape because of its atypical prose. It avoided the common plotlines about arouse, money and violence and touched on everything from his religion to his fears of failure and early crises from his life. ” [ 125 ] According to DJBooth diarist Brad Callas, the album besides “ helped solidify chipmunk person as not only the defining heavy of the Roc-A-Fella era but besides the most popular sub-genre in hip-hop ”. [ 126 ] “ It feels like that album birthed an entire sub-genre ”, Max Weinstein wrote in retrospect for Vibe, going on to say, “ The pallette of emotions was therefore broad, the depth of topics therefore searingly relevant, that it was bound to make an impression on any artist that heard it. RZA might have birthed chipmunk person, and Black Star perfected smart lyricality for the JanSport bunch together, but ‘Ye brought all that to the masses in one one, digestible product, breaking down the divisions between mainstream knock and Rawkus -grade consciousness. ” Weinstein besides credited The College Dropout with directly influencing 10 albums : Lupe Fiasco’s Food & Liquor ( 2006 ) by Lupe Fiasco, School Was My Hustle ( 2006 ) by Kidz in the Hall, Don’t Quit Your Day Job! ( 2007 ) by Consequence, A Kid Named Cudi ( 2008 ) by Kid Cudi, Asleep in the Bread Aisle ( 2009 ) by Asher Roth, Kendrick Lamar ‘s self-titled foremost EP ( 2009 ), Camp ( 2011 ) by Childish Gambino, Cole World: The Sideline Story ( 2011 ) by J. Cole, When Fish Ride Bicycles ( 2011 ) by The Cool Kids, and Acid Rap ( 2013 ) by Chance the Rapper. [ 127 ] With the album, West began to develop a watch of listeners who could not relate to lyrics glorifying gangster life style but even enjoyed knock music and connected more with his musings on kin and love. [ 122 ] In 2005, comedian Chris Rock attested to listening to The College Dropout while writing his stand-up material. [ 128 ] music journalists such as Meaghan Garvey, Andrew Barber, and Erika Ramirez besides connected to the album during their formative years, with Barber saying in a round table discussion for Noisey, “ I could identify with this project the most because I was in college at the time, and I felt like an underdog in my own biography. I was uncertain of my future. [ West ‘s ] words on ‘Last Call ‘ inspired me to follow my dreams, and motivated me to graduate despite the album title. ” In the lapp discussion, music journalist Eric Sundermann cited The College Dropout as the first in West ‘s start blame album trilogy that would be followed by Late Registration in 2005 and Graduation in 2007, while Craig Jenkins called it “ a river basin moment in 2000s rap history where the nerds stormed the school to seize control from the jocks, a switch memorialized two albums late when Graduation trounced 50 Cent ‘s Curtis album in their 2007 sales showdown. ” [ 129 ]

lead list [edit ]

All tracks are produced by Kanye West, except “ last call ” ( co-produced by Evidence ; extra output by Porse ) and “ Breathe in Breathe Out ” ( co-produced by Brian Miller ) .

2005 japanese limited edition [edit ]

Bonus track
No. Title Writer(s) Length
22. “Heavy Hitters” ( featuring GLC )
  • West
  • Harris
total length : 80:08

sample credits [edit ]

Personnel [edit ]

Credits are adapted from the album ‘s liner notes. [ 34 ] [ 130 ]

Charts [edit ]

Certifications [edit ]

See besides [edit ]

References [edit ]

bibliography [edit ]

reservoir :
Category : music

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