Suicide by hanging – Wikipedia

Suicide via pause from an anchor-point
For data on methods of suicide intervention, see Suicide prevention
early twentieth century engrave of a woman discovering a suicide by hanging

Suicide by hanging is the designed kill of oneself ( suicide ) via suspension from an anchor-point such as an overhead beam or hook, by a lasso or cord or by jumping from a altitude with a snare around the neck. Hanging is much considered to be a bare suicide method acting that does not require complicate techniques ; a cogitation of people who attempted suicide by hanging and lived normally suggests that this perception may not be accurate. [ 1 ] It is one of the most normally used suicide methods and has a high mortality rate ; Gunnell et al. gives a visualize of at least 70 percentage. [ 2 ] The materials required are easily available, making it a unmanageable method to prevent. [ 2 ] In the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, suicides by hanging are classified under the code X70 : “ designed self-harm by hanging, strangulation, and suffocation. ” [ 3 ] [ 4 ] Hanging is divided into suspension hang and the much rare drop hanging⁠ ⁠— the latter can kill in versatile ways. People who survive either because the cord or its anchor point of attachment breaks, or because they are discovered and cut down, can face a range of serious injuries, including cerebral anoxia ( which can lead to permanent wave brain price ), laryngeal fracture, cervical spine fracture, tracheal fracture, guttural laceration, and carotid artery injury. Ron M. Brown writes that hanging has a “ fairly imperspicuous and complicate symbolic history ”. [ 5 ] There are commentaries on hanging in ancientness, and it has assorted cultural interpretations. Throughout history, numerous celebrated people have died ascribable to suicide by hanging .

medical effects and discussion

People who survive hanging report seeing flashing lights and hearing ringing sounds. [ 6 ] The neck of people who are hanged are normally marked with furrows where the ligature had constricted the neck. An invert V mark is besides much seen. [ 7 ] Because of the pressure on the jaw, the natural language is sometimes start, causing it to dry. [ 8 ] Depending on the circumstances, petechia may be present on the eyes, face, legs, and feet. [ 8 ] [ 9 ] Cervical spine fractures are rare unless the hang is a drop hang, [ 10 ] which normally causes an injury known as hangman ‘s fracture. [ 11 ] Suspension hanging normally results in cerebral hypoxia and decrease muscleman tone around the neck. [ 12 ] According to Aufderheide et al., the most common cause of death of hangings is cerebral hypoxia. [ 13 ] Most people who are hanged die before they are found ; the term “ near hanging ” refers to those who survive ( at least for a while—for model, until they reach hospital ). [ 14 ] [ 15 ] Initial treatment of survivors follows the “ common priorities of air passage, breathing, and circulation ( ABC ) ”. Treatment should be “ directed at respiratory tract master with endotracheal cannulation, ventilation using positive end expiratory blackmail ( PEEP ), and hyperventilation with auxiliary oxygen to control intracranial pressure “. [ 16 ] One learn of people who experienced near-hanging who were treated appropriately at hospital found that 77 percentage of them survived. [ 14 ]

preponderance

Ixtab (Rope Woman), the ancient Maya goddess of suicide by hanging. Under certain circumstances, suicide was considered an honorable way to die and Ixtab would act as a psychopomp for these individuals. According to Anton J. L. van Hooff, hang was the most common suicide method in archaic and pre-industrial societies. [ 17 ] A 2008 inspection of 56 countries based on World Health Organization mortality data found that hang was the most common method acting in most of the countries, [ 18 ] account for 53 percentage of the male suicides and 39 percentage of the female suicides. [ 19 ] In England and Wales, hang is the most normally exploited method, and is particularly prevailing in the group of males aged 15–44, comprising about one-half of the suicides in the group. It is the second most coarse method acting among women, behind poisoning. In 1981 hang accounted for 23.5 percentage of male suicides, and by 2001 the digit had risen to 44.2 percentage. [ 3 ] The proportion of hangings as suicides in 2005 among women aged 15–34 was 47.2 percentage, having risen from 5.7 percentage in 1968. [ 20 ] In the United States it is the second gear most coarse method, behind firearms, [ 21 ] and is by army for the liberation of rwanda the most coarse method acting for those in psychiatric wards and hospitals. [ 22 ] Hanging accounts for a greater percentage of suicides among younger Americans than among older ones. [ 23 ] Differences exist among heathen groups ; inquiry suggests that hanging is the most common method among taiwanese and japanese Americans. [ 24 ] Hanging is besides a frequently used method acting for those in detention, in several countries. [ 2 ]

process

In general, there are two methods of hang : suspension hang ( the suspension of the body at the neck ) and sink hang ( a calculated drop designed to break the neck ). manual strangulation and suffocation may besides be considered all together with hanging. [ 25 ]

To perform a suspension hang, a rope or other ligature is tied into a snare which goes around the neck, a knot ( much a running knot, which tightens easily ) is formed, and the other end of the rope is tied to a ligature point ; the body is then suspended, which tightens the binder around the neck. [ citation needed ] careless of the material used to form the noose, suspension hang will kill the person in three ways : compression of the carotid arteries, the jugular vein veins, or the air lane. [ 8 ] [ 26 ] About 11 pound ( 5 kilogram ) of imperativeness is required to compress the carotid artery ; 4.4 pound ( 2 kilogram ) for the jugular veins ; [ 8 ] and at least 15 kilogram ( 33 pound ) for the air lane. [ 14 ] The sum of time it takes to lose awareness and die is difficult to predict accurately and depends on several factors. Some believe unconsciousness occurs in five seconds, though Alan Gunn writes that it broadly takes longer. It took a man who filmed his hanging 13 seconds to become unconscious, 1 minute and 38 seconds to lose muscle timbre, and 4 minutes and 10 seconds for muscle bowel movement to cease. [ 27 ] [ 28 ] Full suspension is not required ; most hang suicides are done by partial suspension, according to Wyatt et al. [ 29 ] Geo Stone, generator of Suicide and Attempted Suicide: Methods and Consequences, suggests that death by obstruction of the respiratory tract is more afflictive than by the other ways. [ 25 ] The target of fell suspension, which is besides frequently used in executions, is to break the neck. Participants fall vertically with a lasso attached to their neck, which when taut applies a force out sufficient to break the spinal anesthesia cord, causing death. [ 25 ] [ 30 ] The length of the drop, normally between 1.56 and 2.75 metres long, is calculated such that it is unretentive adequate to allow a less atrocious death, but long enough to avoid leaving the person handicapped and alive. [ 31 ] This form of suicide is much rarer than pause hanging [ 14 ] and is likely to be less atrocious. [ 32 ]

refer elements

The majority of deaths by hanging in the UK and US are suicides, although there are some cases involving erotic suffocation. [ 16 ] Homicides may be disguised as a hang suicide. [ 33 ] Features that suggest that the death is a homicide include the ligature marks being under the larynx, rub marks on the ligature, and the presence of significant injury on the hide of the neck. [ 8 ]

cultural aspects

desperatio, the rejection of God’s mercy, because while choked they are unable to ask for repentance.[34] Painting by Giotto depicting a person committing the drop the ball of, the rejection of God ‘s mercy, because while choked they are unable to ask for repentance. historically, countries that have had a late history of using hanging as a method of capital punishment tend to have a low rate of hanging suicides, which may be because such suicides were regarded as black, according to Farmer and Rodhe. [ 35 ] [ 36 ] Hanging, with its joining to justice and injustice, is what the Department of Health and Aged Care of Australia calls a “ particularly confront display of electric resistance, defiance, individual operate and accusative blame ” ; it is “ a rebuke and argument of thoughtless relations, unmet needs, personal anguish, and emotional vengeance ”. [ 37 ] A 2010 study by the British Journal of Psychiatry that investigated the motivations of people who had made a near-fatal suicide undertake found that those who had attempted a attend considered it a painless, quick, elementary, and blank method acting, while those who had opted for a unlike method held an opposing watch. [ 38 ] There is a popular impression in chinese culture that the spirits of those who have died by suicide by hanging will haunt and torment the survivors, because they had died in rage and with feelings of hostility and anger. [ 39 ] Angry and laden women would use this method as an work of revenge. [ 40 ] Lee & Kleinman write that hang, the most common method in traditional China, was the “ final examination, but unequivocal, way of standing still against and above oppressive authorities, often with the suicidée ceremoniously dressed prior to the ultimate act ”.

In ancient Rome, death by hanging—suicide or otherwise—was regarded as particularly disgraceful, and those who had died by this method were refused a burial. [ 42 ] Virgil ‘s Aeneid, for case, refers to the snare as nodum informis leti ( “ the coil of unbecoming death ” ). [ 43 ] Timothy Hill writes that there is no conclusive explanation of why the stigma existed ; it has been suggested that hanging was a method of the poor. [ 44 ] The Greeks considered hanging as a womanhood ‘s death because many women had died by this method acting. [ 45 ] A analyze found that, in literary sources, 1.5–10 percentage and 30 percentage of suicides in the Roman and Greek civilizations, respectively, were by hanging. [ 46 ] suicide by hanging is particularly common among autochthonal Australians, who have a high suicide rate, particularly among new men. [ 47 ] [ 48 ] Ernest Hunter and Desley Harvey suggest that hanging accounts for two-thirds of autochthonal suicides. [ 47 ] Hanging has deep symbolic meanings in Indigenous australian acculturation, beyond those attached to the act broadly. [ 30 ] [ 49 ] Hanging appears in autochthonal artwork, movie, music, and literature. [ 50 ] There are reports of voices encouraging people to kill themselves, and of apparitional figures holding a noose, but saying nothing. [ 51 ]

See besides

References

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