Liverpool – Wikipedia

City and metropolitan borough in England
This article is about the city in England. For the football club, see Liverpool F.C. For other uses, see Liverpool ( disambiguation )
City and metropolitan borough in England

Liverpool is a city and metropolitan borough in Merseyside, England. With a population of 498,042 in 2019, it is the tenth largest english zone by population, [ 9 ] [ 10 ] and its metropolitan area is the fifth largest in the United Kingdom with a population of 2.24 million. [ 11 ] Situated on the eastern side of the Mersey Estuary, Liverpool historically lay within the ancient hundred of West Derby in the county of Lancashire. [ 12 ] [ 13 ] It became a borough in 1207, a city in 1880, and a county borough mugwump of the newly-created Lancashire County Council in 1889. Its growth as a major port was paralleled by the expansion of the city throughout the Industrial Revolution. Along with general cargo, freight, and natural materials such as coal and cotton, merchants were involved in the slave craft. In the nineteenth century, Liverpool was a major interface of departure for English and irish emigrants to North America. It was besides family to both the Cunard and White Star Lines, and was the port of register of the ocean liners RMS Titanic, RMS Lusitania, RMS Queen Mary, and RMS Olympic. In 2019, Liverpool was the fifth most visit UK city. [ 14 ] It is noted for its culture, architecture, and transportation links. The city is closely associated with the arts, specially music ; the popularity of the Beatles, wide regarded as the most influential band of all time, led to it becoming a tourist address. [ 15 ] Liverpool has continued to be the home of numerous luminary musicians and record labels—musicians from the city have released 56 No. 1 murder singles, more than any other city in the world. [ 16 ] [ 17 ] The city besides has a long-standing repute for producing countless actors and actresses, artists, athletes, comedians, journalists, novelists, and poets. Liverpool has the second highest phone number of artwork galleries, national museums, listed buildings, and listed parks in the UK ; only the capital, London, has more. [ 18 ] The former Liverpool Maritime Mercantile City includes the Pier Head, Albert Dock, and William Brown Street. [ 19 ] In sports, the city is best known for being the home of Premier League football teams Liverpool FC and Everton FC, with matches between the two rivals being known as the Merseyside bowler hat. The annual Grand National cavalry slipstream takes position at Aintree Racecourse. several areas of Liverpool city centre carried World Heritage Site condition from 2004 until 2021, and the city ‘s huge collection of parks and open spaces has been described as the “ most important in the area ” by England ‘s Register of Historic Parks and Gardens of Special Historic Interest. [ 20 ] Its status as a port city historically attracted a diverse population from a wide scope of cultures, primarily Ireland, Norway, and Wales. It is besides home to the oldest black community in the UK and the oldest chinese community in Europe. Natives of Liverpool ( and some longtime residents ) are formally referred to as “ Liverpudlians ” but are more often called “ Scousers ” in reference to Scouse, a local grizzle made popular by sailors in the city, which is besides the most common name for the local anesthetic emphasis and dialect. The city celebrated its 800th anniversary in 2007 and was named the 2008 european capital of Culture, which it shared with the norwegian city of Stavanger, [ 21 ] and its condition as the European Capital of Culture has been credited with kickstarting its economic rebirth. [ 22 ]

Origins of the name

The name comes from the Old English lifer, meaning thick or muddy water, and pōl, meaning a consortium or brook, and is first recorded around 1190 as Liuerpul. [ 23 ] [ 24 ] According to the Cambridge Dictionary of English Place-Names, “ The original mention was to a pool or tidal creek now filled up into which two streams drained ”. [ 25 ] The place appearing as Leyrpole, in a legal commemorate of 1418, may besides refer to Liverpool. [ 26 ] other origins of the name have been suggested, including “ elverpool ”, a reference to the boastfully numeral of eels in the Mersey. [ 27 ] The adjective “ liverpudlian ” was beginning recorded in 1833. [ 24 ] Although the Old English origin of the name Liverpool is beyond quarrel, claims are sometimes made that the name Liverpool is of Welsh origin, but these are without initiation. The Welsh identify for Liverpool is Lerpwl, from a erstwhile English local anesthetic form Leerpool. This is a reduction of the form “ Leverpool ” with the loss of the intervocalic [ five ] ( seen in other english names and words e.g. Daventry ( Northamptonshire ) > Danetry, never-do-well > ne ’ er-do-well ). In the nineteenth hundred, some Welsh publications used the appoint “ Lle ’ roentgen Pwll ” ( “ ( the ) place ( of ) the pool ” ), a reinterpretation of Lerpwl, probably in the impression that “ Lle ’ gas constant Pwll ” was the original form. Another name, which is widely known even today, is Llynlleifiad, again a nineteenth-century mint. “ Llyn ” is pond, but “ lleifiad ” has no obvious meaning. Professor G. Melville Richards ( 1910‐1973 ), a pioneer of scientific toponymy in Wales, in “ Place Names of North Wales ”, [ 28 ] does not attempt to explain it beyond noting that “ lleifiad ” is used as a Welsh equivalent of “ Liver ”. A derivative shape of a learn adopt into Welsh ( *llaf ) of Latin lāma ( slough, bog down, marsh ) to give “ lleifiad ” is possible, but unproved .


Liverpool in 1680, the earliest known image of Liverpool., the earliest know effigy of Liverpool . A map of Liverpool ‘s original seven streets ( north to the left ) . Liverpool ‘s Lime Street area pictured from above in 1946

early history

King John ‘s letters patent of 1207 announced the basis of the borough of Liverpool. [ 29 ] By the middle of the sixteenth hundred, the population was hush around 500. The master street design of Liverpool is said to have been designed by King John near the lapp time it was granted a royal charter, making it a borough. The original seven streets were laid out in an H shape : Bank Street ( now Water Street ), Castle Street, Chapel Street, Dale Street, Juggler Street ( immediately High Street ), Moor Street ( now Tithebarn Street ) and Whiteacre Street ( now Old Hall Street ). In the seventeenth century there was dense advancement in trade and population emergence. Battles for control of the town were waged during the English Civil War, including an eighteen-day siege in 1644. [ citation needed ] In 1699, the lapp class as its first base recorded slave ship, Liverpool Merchant, set cruise for Africa, [ 30 ] Liverpool was made a parish by Act of Parliament, although arguably the legislation of 1695 that reformed the Liverpool council was of more meaning to its subsequent growth. [ 31 ] Since Roman times, the nearby city of Chester on the River Dee had been the region ‘s principal port on the Irish Sea. however, as the Dee began to silt up, nautical deal from Chester became increasingly unmanageable and switch towards Liverpool on the neighbor River Mersey. As deal from the West Indies, including boodle, surpassed that of Ireland and Europe, and as the River Dee continued to silt up, Liverpool began to grow with increasing celerity. The first commercial wet pier was built in Liverpool in 1715. [ 32 ] [ 33 ] Substantial profits from the slave craft and tobacco helped the town to prosper and quickly grow, although several outstanding local men, including William Rathbone, William Roscoe and Edward Rushton, were at the forefront of the local abolitionist bowel movement. [ citation needed ]

nineteenth hundred

By the beginning of the nineteenth century, a big volume of craft was passing through Liverpool, and the construction of major buildings reflected this wealth. In 1830, Liverpool and Manchester became the first cities to have an intercity rail link, through the Liverpool and Manchester Railway. The population continued to rise quickly, particularly during the 1840s when irish migrants began arriving by the hundreds of thousands as a resultant role of the Great Famine .
In her poem “ Liverpool ” ( 1832 ), which celebrates the city ‘s worldwide commerce, Letitia Elizabeth Landon refers specifically to the Macgregor Laird expedition to the Niger River, at that time in progress. [ 34 ] Britain was a major market for cotton imported from the Deep South of the United States, which fed the fabric industry in the country. Given the crucial locate cotton held in the city ‘s economy, during the American Civil War Liverpool was, in the words of historian Sven Beckert, “ the most pro-Confederate seat in the worldly concern outside the Confederacy itself. ” [ 35 ]
For periods during the nineteenth hundred, the wealth of Liverpool exceeded that of London, [ 36 ] and Liverpool ‘s Custom House was the single largest subscriber to the british Exchequer. [ 37 ] Liverpool was the alone british city ever to have its own Whitehall office. [ 38 ] In the early on nineteenth hundred, Liverpool played a major function in the Antarctic sealing industry, in recognition of which Liverpool Beach in the South Shetland Islands is named after the city. [ 39 ]
ampere early as 1851 the city was described as “ the New York of Europe ”. [ 40 ] During the former 19th and early twentieth centuries, Liverpool was attracting immigrants from across Europe. This resulted in the construction of a diverse array of religious buildings in the city for the newfangled ethnic and religious groups, many of which are still in consumption today. The Deutsche Kirche Liverpool, Greek Orthodox Church of St Nicholas, Gustav Adolf Church and Princes Road Synagogue were all established in the 1800s to serve Liverpool ‘s growing german, Greek, Nordic and Jewish communities, respectively. One of Liverpool ‘s oldest survive churches, St. Peter ‘s Roman Catholic Church, served the Polish community in its final examination years as a home of worship .

twentieth century

The postwar period after the Great War was marked by social agitation, as society grappled with the massive war losses of young men, deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as trying to integrate veterans into the economy. Union organising and strikes took place in numerous locations, including police strikes in London among the Metropolitan Police. Numerous colonial soldiers and sailors from Africa and India, who had served with the UK, settled in Liverpool and other port cities. In June 1919 they were capable to attack by whites in racial riots ; residents in the port included swedish immigrants, and both groups had to compete with native people from Liverpool for jobs and house. In this period, race riots besides took place in Cardiff, Newport and Barry, and there had been incidents in Glasgow, South Shields, London, Hull and Salford. [ 41 ] similarly, racial riots of whites against blacks took place across the United States in numerous industrial cities, [ 41 ] so that a black leader termed the period of time Red Summer. In that inaugural postwar year, there were besides riots in Caribbean and South african cities. [ 41 ]
The Housing Act 1919 resulted in mass council house being built across Liverpool during the 1920s and 1930s. Thousands of families were relocated from the inner-city to new suburban housing estates, based on the impression that this would improve their standard of living, though this is largely subjective. numerous private homes were besides built during this era. During the Great Depression of the early 1930s, unemployment peaked at around 30 % in the city. Liverpool was the web site of Britain ‘s first gear peasant airport, operating from 1930. During the second World War, the critical strategic importance of Liverpool was recognised by both Hitler and Churchill. The city was heavy bombed by the Germans, suffering a blitz second only to London ‘s. [ 42 ] The pivotal Battle of the Atlantic was planned, fought and won from Liverpool. [ 43 ] The Luftwaffe made 80 air out raids on Merseyside, killing 2,500 people and causing damage to about half the homes in the metropolitan sphere. Significant rebuilding followed the war, including massive caparison estates and the Seaforth Dock, the largest dock stick out in Britain. much of the immediate reconstruction of the city center has been profoundly unpopular. It was adenine flawed as much subsequent township planning reclamation in the 1950s and 1960s. The historic portions of the city that had survived german bombard suffered extensive destruction during urban renewal. Since 1952 Liverpool has been twinned with Cologne, Germany, a city which besides suffered austere aerial bombing during the war. A significant West indian black residential district has existed in the city since the inaugural two decades of the twentieth century. Like most british cities and industrialize towns, Liverpool became dwelling to a significant phone number of Commonwealth immigrants, beginning after World War I with colonial soldiers and sailors who had served in the area. More immigrants arrived after World War II, by and large settling in older inner-city areas such as Toxteth, where house was less expensive. The black population of Liverpool was recorded at 1.90 % in 2011. [ 44 ] The structure of suburban public caparison expanded after the second World War. Some of the older inner-city areas were redeveloped for new homes. In the 1960s Liverpool was the center of the “ Merseybeat “ reasoned, which became synonymous with the Beatles and companion liverpudlian rock bands. Influenced by american rhythm and blues and rock music, they besides in turn strongly affected american music for years and were internationally popular. The Beatles became internationally known in the early 1960s and performed for years together ; they were the most commercially successful and musically influential band in democratic history. Their co-founder, singer, and composer John Lennon was killed in New York City in 1980 after the Beatles stopped performing in concert. Liverpool airport was renamed after him in 2002, the first british airport to be named in honor of an individual. [ 45 ] [ 46 ] previously part of Lancashire, and a county borough from 1889, Liverpool in 1974 became a metropolitan borough within the newly created metropolitan county of Merseyside. From the mid-1970s onwards, Liverpool ‘s docks and traditional manufacture industries declined due to restructure of shipping and heavy industry, causing massive losses of jobs. The advent of containerisation mean that the city ‘s docks became largely disused, and dock workers were thrown out of jobs. By the early 1980s unemployment rates in Liverpool were among the highest in the UK, [ 47 ] standing at 17 % by January 1982. This was about half the level of unemployment that had affected the city during the Great Depression 50 years previously. [ 48 ] In the late twentieth century, Liverpool ‘s economy began to recover. Since the mid-1990s the city has enjoyed emergence rates higher than the national median .
At the end of the twentieth hundred, Liverpool was concentrating on re-formation, a action that continues today .

twenty-first century

To celebrate the Golden Jubilee of Elizabeth II in 2002, the conservation jacob’s ladder Plantlife organised a competition to choose county flowers ; the sea-holly was Liverpool ‘s final examination choice. Capitalising on the popularity of 1960s rock groups, such as the Beatles, angstrom well as the city ‘s first artwork galleries, museums and landmarks, tourism has besides become a significant factor in Liverpool ‘s economy. In 2004, place developer Grosvenor started the Paradise Project, a £920 m development based on Paradise Street. This produced the most significant changes to Liverpool ‘s city kernel since the post-war reconstruction. Renamed ‘Liverpool ONE, ‘ the center opened in May 2008. In 2007, the city celebrated the 800th anniversary of the initiation of the borough of Liverpool, for which a count of events were planned. Liverpool was designated as a joint european capital of Culture for 2008. The independent celebrations, in September 2008, included the erection of La Princesse, a large mechanical spider 20 metres high and weighing 37 tonnes, and represents the “ eight legs ” of Liverpool : honor, history, music, the Mersey, the ports, government, cheerfulness and culture. La Princesse roamed the streets of the city during the festivities, and concluded by entering the Queensway Tunnel. Spearheaded by the multi-billion- pound Liverpool ONE development, positive feedback has continued through to the start of the early 2010s. Some of the most significant renovation projects include new buildings in the Commercial District, the King ‘s Dock, Mann Island, the Lime Street Gateway, the Baltic Triangle, the RopeWalks, and the Edge Lane Gateway. All projects could be eclipsed by the Liverpool Waters scheme, which if built will cost in the region of £5.5billion and be one of the largest megaprojects in the UK ‘s history. Liverpool Waters is a mixed-use growth planned to contain one of Europe ‘s largest skyscraper clusters. The project received outline planning permission in 2012, despite boisterous enemy from such groups as UNESCO, which claimed that it would adversely affect Liverpool ‘s World Heritage status. In June 2014, Prime Minister David Cameron launched the International Festival for Business in Liverpool, the universe ‘s largest business consequence in 2014, [ 49 ] and the largest in the UK since the Festival of Britain in 1951. [ 50 ] In July 2021, Liverpool lost its World inheritance status, UNESCO citing the Bramley-Moore Dock Stadium and Liverpool Waters projects as not being in keeping with a World Heritage web site. [ 51 ] [ 52 ]

Inventions and innovations

Liverpool has been a center of invention and invention. Railways, transatlantic steamships, municipal tramway, [ 53 ] and electric trains [ 54 ] were all pioneered in Liverpool as modes of multitude transit. In 1829 and 1836, the first railway tunnels in the world were constructed under Liverpool ( Wapping Tunnel ). From 1950 to 1951, the universe ‘s foremost scheduled passenger helicopter service ran between Liverpool and Cardiff. [ 55 ] The first School for the Blind, [ 56 ] Mechanics ‘ Institute, [ 57 ] High School for Girls, [ 58 ] [ 59 ] council family, [ 60 ] and Juvenile Court [ 61 ] were all founded in Liverpool. Charities such as the RSPCA, [ 62 ] NSPCC, [ 63 ] Age Concern, [ 64 ] Relate, and Citizen ‘s Advice Bureau [ 65 ] all evolved from make in the city. The first lifeboat post, public bathroom and wash-house, [ 66 ] sanitary work, [ 67 ] medical officer for health ( William Henry Duncan ), zone nanny, slum clearance, [ 68 ] purpose-built ambulance, [ 69 ] X-ray medical diagnosis, [ 70 ] school of tropical music ( Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine ), motorised municipal fire-engine, [ 71 ] free school meal, [ 72 ] cancer research kernel, [ 73 ] and zoonosis research center [ 74 ] all originated in Liverpool. The first british Nobel Prize was awarded in 1902 to Ronald Ross, professor at the School of Tropical Medicine, the first educate of its kind in the universe. [ 75 ] Orthopaedic operation was pioneered in Liverpool by Hugh Owen Thomas, [ 76 ] and modern checkup anaesthetics by Thomas Cecil Gray. The global ‘s first gear integrated sewer arrangement was constructed in Liverpool by James Newlands, appointed in 1847 as the UK ‘s first borough mastermind. [ 77 ] [ 78 ] Liverpool besides founded the UK ‘s first Underwriters ‘ Association [ 79 ] and the first Institute of Accountants. The western global ‘s first base fiscal derivatives ( cotton futures ) were traded on the Liverpool Cotton Exchange in the belated 1700s. [ 80 ] In the arts, Liverpool was home to the first lend library ( The Lyceum ), athenaeum society ( Liverpool Athenaeum ), arts centre ( Bluecoat Chambers ), [ 81 ] and public art conservation center ( National Conservation Centre ). [ 82 ] It is besides home to the UK ‘s oldest surviving classical orchestra ( Royal Liverpool Philharmonic Orchestra ) [ 83 ] and repertoire dramaturgy ( Liverpool Playhouse ). [ 84 ]
In 1864, Peter Ellis built the populace ‘s first iron-framed, curtain-walled position build up, Oriel Chambers, which was a prototype of the skyscraper. The UK ‘s first purpose-built department store was Compton House, completed in 1867 for the retailer J.R. Jeffrey. [ 85 ] It was the largest memory in the world at the time. [ 86 ] between 1862 and 1867, Liverpool held an annual Grand Olympic Festival. Devised by John Hulley and Charles Melly, these games were the foremost to be wholly amateurish in nature and international in mentality. [ 87 ] [ 88 ] The course of study of the first modern Olympiad in Athens in 1896 was about identical to that of the Liverpool Olympics. [ 89 ] In 1865, Hulley co-founded the National Olympian Association in Liverpool, a antecedent of the british Olympic Association. Its articles of foundation provided the model for the International Olympic Charter. Sir Alfred Lewis Jones, a shipowner, introduced bananas to the UK via Liverpool ‘s docks in 1884. [ 90 ] The Mersey Railway, opened in 1886, incorporated the world ‘s first tunnel under a tidal estuary [ 91 ] and the universe ‘s foremost deep-level belowground stations ( Liverpool James Street railway station ). In 1889, borough engineer John Alexander Brodie invented the football goal net. He besides was a pioneer in the use of pre-fabricated caparison and oversaw the structure of the UK ‘s first band road ( A5058 ) and intercity highway ( East Lancashire Road ), ampere well as the Queensway Tunnel linking Liverpool and Birkenhead. Described as “ the eighth wonder of the world ” at the time of its construction, it was the longest submerged tunnel in the world for 24 years. In 1897, the Lumière brothers filmed Liverpool, [ 92 ] including what is believed to be the world ‘s first gear chase shot, [ 93 ] taken from the Liverpool Overhead Railway, the worldly concern ‘s first elevated electrify railroad track. The Overhead Railway was the beginning railroad track in the world to use electric multiple units, employ automatic pistol sign, and install an escalator clause. Liverpool inventor Frank Hornby was a visionary in dally development and fabrication, producing three of the most democratic lines of toys in the twentieth century : Meccano, Hornby Model Railways, and Dinky Toys. The british Interplanetary Society, founded in Liverpool in 1933 by Phillip Ellaby Cleator, is the world ‘s oldest existing constitution devoted to the promotion of spaceflight. Its diary, the Journal of the British Interplanetary Society, is the longest-running astronautic publication in the world. [ 94 ] In 1999, Liverpool was the first city outside of London to be awarded blue sky plaques by English Heritage in recognition of the “ significant contribution made by its sons and daughters in all walks of life ”. [ 95 ]


For the purposes of local anesthetic government, the city of Liverpool is classified as a metropolitan borough. The metropolitan borough is located within both the county of Merseyside and the Liverpool City Region. Each of these geographic areas is treated as an administrative sphere with different levels of local anesthetic administration applying to each. Liverpool City Council is the governing soundbox entirely for the city of Liverpool and performs functions that are standard of an English Unitary Authority. The Liverpool City Region Combined Authority reserves major strategic powers over such things as transport, economic development and regeneration for the city along with the 5 surrounding boroughs of the Liverpool City Region. The combined Authority has competence over areas which have been devolved by home politics and are specific to the local area. [ 96 ] however, there are a few exceptions to local government outside of these two structures. Liverpool was administered by Merseyside County Council between 1974 to 1986 and some residual aspects of organization which date rear to this time have survived. When the County Council was disbanded in 1986, most civic functions were transferred to Liverpool City Council. however, several authorities such as the patrol and fire and rescue military service, continue to be run at a county-wide level. The county of Merseyside, consequently, continues to exist as an administrative area for a few limited services only, while the capability and capacity of the Liverpool City Region Combined Authority is evolving over prison term. [ 97 ] The city besides elects four members of Parliament ( MPs ) to the Westminster Parliament .

Three Mayors

The City of Liverpool is governed by three separate Mayors each with their own discrete functions and powers. [ 98 ] [ 99 ]

directly Elected Mayor of Liverpool

The Mayor of Liverpool is directly elected by the populace every four years to lead Liverpool City Council. The figure is responsible for directing the City Council ‘s policies and appoints cabinet members to run key council functions such as education and house. The council ‘s 90 elect councillors who represent local communities throughout the city, are responsible for scrutinising the mayor ‘s decisions, setting the budget, and policy framework of the city. The Mayor ‘s responsibility is to be a potent voice for the city both nationally and internationally, to lead, build investor confidence, and to direct resources to economic priorities. [ 100 ] The Mayor besides exchanges direct dialogue with government ministers and the Prime Minister through his seat at the Cabinet of Mayors. Discussions include pressing decision-makers in the government on local issues a well as building relationships with the other directly elected mayors in England and Wales. [ 101 ] The current Mayor is Joanne Anderson .

Lord Mayor of Liverpool

This role is the oldest of the three mayors and is largely ceremonial. The Lord Mayor is chosen lone by councillors within Liverpool City Council, not the general public, and serves a one year term. The Lord Mayor is styled as the ‘first citizen ‘ and chosen representative of the city. They represent the city at functions, promote it to the wide world and attend religious ceremonies. They besides have the key job of chairing wide council meetings and can choose a number of charities to support throughout their term. [ 102 ]

Metro Mayor of Liverpool City Region

The City of Liverpool is one of the six component local government districts of the Liverpool City Region. The Metro Mayor of the Liverpool City Region is directly every four years by residents of those six boroughs and oversees the Liverpool City Region Combined Authority. The unite Authority is the top-tier administrative body for the local government of the city region and is tasked with taking major strategic decisions on issues such as enchant and investment, economic development, employment and skills, tourism, culture, housing and physical infrastructure. The current Metro Mayor is Steve Rotheram .

City Council and MPs

Liverpool City Council Elections

For local elections the city is split into 30 local council wards, [ 103 ] which in alphabetic holy order are :
During the local elections held in May 2011, the Labour Party consolidated its operate of Liverpool City Council, following on from regaining baron for the first time in 12 years, during the previous elections in May 2010. [ 104 ] The Labour Party gained 11 seats during the election, taking their sum to 62 seats, compared with the 22 held by the Liberal Democrats. Of the remaining seats, the Liberal Party won three and the Green Party claimed two. The Conservative Party, one of the three major political parties in the UK had no representation on Liverpool City Council. [ 104 ] [ 105 ] In February 2008, Liverpool City Council was reported to be the worst-performing council in the country, receiving equitable a one-star rate ( classified as inadequate ). The main cause of the poor rating was attributed to the council ‘s poor manage of tax-payer money, including the accumulation of a £20m deficit on Capital of Culture support. [ 106 ] While Liverpool through most of the 19th and early twentieth centuries was a municipal stronghold of Toryism, accompaniment for the Conservative Party recently has been among the lowest in any part of Britain, peculiarly since the monetarist economic policies of prime minister Margaret Thatcher after her 1979 cosmopolitan election victory contributed to senior high school unemployment in the city which did not begin to fall for many years. [ 107 ] Liverpool is one of the Labour Party ‘s key strongholds ; however the city has seen hard times under labor governments as well, particularly in the winter of Discontent ( late 1978 and early 1979 ) when Liverpool suffered public sector strikes along with the rest of the United Kingdom but besides suffered the particularly humiliate misfortune of having grave-diggers going on strike, leaving the dead unburied. [ 108 ]

parliamentary constituencies and MPs

Liverpool has four parliamentary constituencies entirely within the city, through which MPs are elected to represent the city in Westminster : Liverpool Riverside, Liverpool Walton, Liverpool Wavertree and Liverpool West Derby. [ 109 ] At the end general election, all were won by Labour with representation being from Kim Johnson, Dan Carden, Paula Barker and Ian Byrne respectively. [ 110 ] due to boundary changes prior to the 2010 election, the Liverpool Garston constituency was merged with most of Knowsley South to form the Garston and Halewood cross-boundary seat. At the most 2019 election this seat was won by Maria Eagle of the Labour Party. [ 110 ]



Liverpool has been described as having “ the most excellent setting of any English city. ” [ 111 ] At ( 53.4, −2.98 ), 176 miles ( 283 kilometres ) northwest of London, located on the Liverpool Bay of the Irish Sea the city of Liverpool is built across a ridge of sandstone hills rising up to a stature of around 230 feet ( 70 thousand ) above low-lying at Everton Hill, which represents the southern boundary of the West Lancashire Coastal Plain. The Mersey Estuary separates Liverpool from the Wirral Peninsula. The boundaries of Liverpool are adjacent to Bootle, Crosby and Maghull in confederacy Sefton to the north, and Kirkby, Huyton, Prescot and Halewood in Knowsley to the east .


Liverpool experiences a temperate maritime climate ( Köppen : Cfb ), like much of the british Isles, with relatively balmy summers, cool winters and rainfall spread reasonably evenly throughout the year. Rainfall and Temperature records have been kept at Bidston since 1867, but records for atmospheric pressure go back vitamin a far as at least 1846. [ 112 ] Bidston closed down in 2002 but the Met Office besides has a weather post at Crosby. Since records began in 1867, temperatures have ranged from −17.6 °C ( 0.3 °F ) on 21 December 2010 to 34.5 °C ( 94.1 °F ) on 2 August 1990, although Liverpool Airport recorded a temperature of 35.0 °C ( 95.0 °F ) on 19 July 2006. [ 113 ] The lowest sum of fair weather on record was 16.5 hours in December 1927 whereas the most was 314.5 hours in July 2013. [ 114 ] [ 115 ] Tornado activeness or funnel cloud formation is very rare in and around the Liverpool area and tornadoes that do form are normally weak. holocene tornadoes or funnel clouds in Merseyside have been seen in 1998 and 2014. [ 116 ] [ 117 ] During the period 1981–2010, Crosby recorded an average of 32.8 days of publicize frost per year, which is low for the United Kingdom. [ 118 ] Snow is reasonably common during the winter although heavy bamboozle is rare. Snow generally falls between November and March but can occasionally fall earlier and later. In holocene times, the earliest snow was on 1 October 2008 [ 119 ] while the latest occurred on 15 May 2012. [ 120 ] Although historically, the earliest snow occurred on 10 September 1908 [ 121 ] and the latest on 2 June 1975. [ 122 ] rain, although light, is quite a coarse happening in Liverpool, with the wettest month on record being August 1956, which recorded 221.2 millimeter ( 8.71 in ) of rain and the driest being February 1932, with 0.9 mm ( 0.035 in ). [ 123 ] The driest year on record was 1991, with 480.5 mm ( 18.92 in ) of rain and the wet was 1872, with 1,159.9 mm ( 45.67 in ). [ 124 ]

  1. ^ Weather station is located 7 miles ( 11 kilometer ) from the Liverpool city center .
  2. ^ cheerfulness hours were recorded at the Bidston Observatory from the menstruation of 1971–2000 .
  3. ^ humidity was recorded at the Bidston Observatory for the period of 1975–June 2002. The period Jul–Sep 1992 has no record, with Jan–May 2001 reporting unreliabe data .
  4. ^ From 1867–2002, extremes were recorded at the Bidston Observatory in Wirral. Since 2002, extremes were recorded at Crosby, Sefton .


Suburbs and districts

Suburbs and districts of Liverpool include :

green Liverpool

In 2010 Liverpool City Council and the Primary Care Trust Commissioned The Mersey Forest to complete “ A green infrastructure Strategy ” for the city. [ 129 ]

green knock

Liverpool is a congress of racial equality urban element of a k belt area that extends into the wide surrounding counties, which is in place to reduce urban sprawl, prevent the towns in the conurbation from far convergence, protect the identity of outlying communities, encourage brownfield recycle, and preserve nearby countryside. This is achieved by restricting inappropriate growth within the delegate areas and imposing stern conditions on permit build. [ 130 ] due to being already highly built up, the city contains circumscribed portions of protect green belt area within greenfield throughout the borough, at Fazakerley, Croxteth Hall and nation park and Craven Wood, Woodfields Park and nearby golf courses in Netherley, small greenfield tracts east of the Speke area by the St Ambrose primary school, and the small village of Oglet and the surrounding area south of Liverpool Airport. [ 131 ] The green belt was first drawn up in 1983 under Merseyside County Council [ 132 ] and the size in the city amounts to 530 hectares ( 5.3 km2 ; 2.0 sq nautical mile ). [ 133 ]



The city

At the 2011 UK Census the commemorate population of Liverpool was 466,415, a 6.1 % increase on the trope of 439,473 recorded in the 2001 census. [ 134 ] The population of the cardinal Liverpool local authority peaked in the 1930s with 846,101 recorded in the 1931 census, before suburbanisation and the establishment of new towns in the region. [ 135 ] As with many british cities including London and Manchester, the city center covered by the Liverpool council sphere had experienced minus population growth since the 1931 census. much of the population loss was as a result of large-scale resettlement programmes to nearby areas introduced in the aftermath of the Second World War, with satellite towns such as Kirkby, Skelmersdale and Runcorn seeing a corresponding rise in their populations ( Kirkby being the fastest growing town in Britain during the 1960s ). [ 136 ] Liverpool ‘s population is younger than that of England as a whole, with 42.5 per penny of its population under the age of 30, compared to an english average of 37.7 per cent. [ 137 ] As of July 2014, 66 per cent of the population was of working age. [ 137 ]

Urban and metropolitan area

Liverpool is the largest local anesthetic authority by population, GDP and area in Merseyside. Liverpool is typically grouped with the wide-eyed Merseyside area for the aim of defining its metropolitan footprint, and there are several methodologies. Liverpool is defined as a standalone NUTS3 area by the ONS for statistical purpose, and makes up region of the NUTS2 area “ Merseyside ” along with East Merseyside ( Knowsley, St Helens and Halton ), Sefton and the Wirral. The population of this area was 1,513,306 based on 2014 estimates. The “ Liverpool Urban Area “ is a term used by the Office for National Statistics ( ONS ) to denote the urban area around the city to the east of the River Mersey. The conterminous built-up area extends beyond the area administered by Liverpool City Council into adjoining local authority areas, particularly parts of Sefton and Knowsley. As defined by ONS, the area extends as far east as Haydock and St. Helens. Unlike the Metropolitan area, the Urban Area does not include The Wirral or its adjacent areas. [ 138 ] The population of this area as of 2011 was 864,211. The “ Liverpool City Region “ is an economic partnership between local authorities in Merseyside under the umbrella of the Liverpool City Region Combined Authority as defined by the Mersey Partnership. The area covers Merseyside and the Borough of Halton and has an estimated population between 1,500,000 and 2,000,000 and. [ 139 ] In 2006 ESPON ( now ( european Observation Network for Territorial Development and Cohesion ) released a study defining a “ Liverpool/Birkenhead Metropolitan sphere ” as a functional urban area consisting of adjacent urban areas, labor pool, and commuter “ Travel To Work Areas ”. The psychoanalysis grouped the Merseyside metropolitan county with the borough of Halton, Wigan in Greater Manchester, the city of Chester adenine well as number of towns in Lancashire and Cheshire including Ormskirk and Warrington, estimating the polynuclear metropolitan area to have a population of 2,241,000 people. [ 140 ] Liverpool and Manchester are sometimes considered as one large polynuclear metropolitan sphere, [ 141 ] [ 142 ] [ 143 ] or megalopolis .


According to data from the 2011 census, 84.8 per cent of Liverpool ‘s population was White British, 1.4 per cent White Irish, 2.6 per penny White early, 4.1 per cent asian or asian british ( including 1.1 per penny british indian and 1.7 per cent British Chinese ), 2.6 per cent Black or Black British ( including 1.8 per cent Black African ) and 2.5 per penny mixed-race. 1.8 per penny of respondents were from other cultural groups. [ 7 ] According to a 2014 sketch, [ 144 ] [ 145 ] the ten most popular surnames of Liverpool ( With surname origin ), followed with their population are ;

1. Jones (Welsh) – 23,012
2. Smith (English) – 16,276
3. Williams (Welsh) – 13,997
4. Davies (Welsh) – 10,149
5. Hughes (Welsh) – 9,787
6. Roberts (Welsh) – 9,571
7. Taylor (English) – 8,219
8. Johnson (English/Scottish) – 6,715
9. Brown (English/Scottish) – 6,603
10. Murphy (Irish) – 6,495

Liverpool is home to Britain ‘s oldest Black community, dating to at least the 1730s. Some Liverpudlians can trace their black ancestry in the city back ten generations. [ 146 ] Early Black settlers in the city included seamen, the children of traders sent to be educated, and freed slaves, since slaves entering the country after 1722 were deemed free men. [ 147 ] Since the twentieth century, Liverpool is besides noted for its large African-Caribbean, [ 7 ] Ghanaian, [ 148 ] and Somali [ 149 ] communities, formed of more late African-descended immigrants and their subsequent generations. The city is besides home to the oldest chinese community in Europe ; the foremost residents of the city ‘s Chinatown arrived as seamen in the nineteenth hundred. [ 150 ] The traditional taiwanese gateway erected in Liverpool ‘s Chinatown is the largest gateway outside China. Liverpool besides has a long-standing Filipino community. Lita Roza, a singer from Liverpool who was the first womanhood to achieve a UK count one hit, had Filipino lineage. The city is besides known for its large irish population and its historically large Welsh population. [ 151 ] In 1813, 10 per penny of Liverpool ‘s population was Welsh, leading to the city becoming known as “ the capital of North Wales. ” [ 151 ] Following the start of the Great Irish Famine in the mid-19th century, up to two million irish people travelled to Liverpool within one decade, with many subsequently departing for the United States. [ 152 ] By 1851, more than 20 per cent of the population of Liverpool was Irish. [ 153 ] At the 2001 Census, 1.17 per cent of the population were Welsh-born and 0.75 per penny were born in the Republic of Ireland, while 0.54 per cent were born in Northern Ireland, [ 154 ] but many more Liverpudlians are of Welsh or Irish [ 155 ] ancestry. early contemporary ethnicities include indian, [ 7 ] Latin American, [ 156 ] Malaysian, [ 157 ] and Yemeni [ 158 ] communities, which phone number several thousand each .


The thousands of migrants and sailors passing through Liverpool resulted in a religious diverseness that is distillery apparent today. This is reflected in the equally divers collection of religious buildings, [ 159 ] including two christian cathedrals. Liverpool is known to be England ‘s ‘most Catholic city ‘, with a Catholic population a lot larger than in early parts of England. [ 160 ] The parish church of Liverpool is the anglican Our lady and St Nicholas, colloquially known as “ the sailors church ”, which has existed near the waterfront since 1257. It regularly plays host to Catholic masses. early celebrated churches include the greek Orthodox Church of St Nicholas ( built in the Neo-Byzantine architecture style ), and the Gustav Adolf Church ( the Swedish Seamen ‘s Church, evocative of Nordic styles ). Liverpool ‘s wealth as a port city enabled the construction of two enormous cathedrals in the twentieth century. The anglican Cathedral, which was designed by Sir Giles Gilbert Scott and plays host to the annual Liverpool Shakespeare Festival, has one of the longest naves, largest organs and heaviest and highest peals of bells in the world. The Roman Catholic Metropolitan Cathedral, on Mount Pleasant following to Liverpool Science Park, was initially planned to be even larger. Of Sir Edwin Lutyens ‘s original design, alone the crypt was completed. The cathedral was finally built to a childlike design by Sir Frederick Gibberd. While this is on a smaller scale than Lutyens ‘ original design it hush incorporates the largest jury of stain glass in the earth. The road running between the two cathedrals is called Hope Street, a coincidence which pleases believers. The cathedral is colloquially referred to as “ Paddy ‘s Wigwam ” due to its shape. [ 161 ] [ nota bene 1 ]
Liverpool contains several synagogues, of which the Grade I listed moorish Revival Princes Road Synagogue is architecturally the most celebrated. Princes Road is wide considered to be the most brilliant of Britain ‘s moorish Revival synagogues and one of the finest buildings in Liverpool. [ 162 ] Liverpool has a thrive Jewish community with a further two orthodox Synagogues, one in the Allerton zone of the city and a second in the Childwall district of the city where a significant Jewish community occupy. A third orthodox Synagogue in the Greenbank Park area of L17 has recently closed and is a list 1930s social organization. There is besides a Lubavitch Chabad House and a reform Synagogue. Liverpool has had a Jewish community since the mid-18th century. The jewish population of Liverpool is around 5,000. [ 163 ] The Liverpool Talmudical College existed from 1914 until 1990, when its classes moved to the Childwall Synagogue. Liverpool besides has a Hindu residential district, with a Mandir on Edge Lane, Edge Hill. The Shri Radha Krishna Temple from the Hindu Cultural Organisation in Liverpool is located there. [ 164 ] Liverpool besides has the Guru Nanak Sikh Gurdwara in Wavertree [ 165 ] and a Baháʼí Centre in the lapp area. [ 166 ] The city had the earliest mosque in England, and possibly the UK, founded in 1887 by William Abdullah Quilliam, a lawyer who had converted to Islam, and set up the Liverpool Muslim Institute in a terrace house on West Derby Road. [ 167 ] The build was used as a house of idolize until 1908, when it was sold to the City Council and converted into offices. [ 168 ] Plans have been accepted to re-convert the build where the mosque once stood into a museum. [ 169 ] There are three mosques in Liverpool : the largest and main one, Al-Rahma mosque, in the Toxteth area of the city and a mosque recently opened in the Mossley Hill district of the city. The third mosque was besides recently opened in Toxteth and is on Granby Street .

Demonymy and identity

Natives of the city of Liverpool are referred to as Liverpudlians, and colloquially as “ Scousers ”, a reference to “ scouse “, a form of grizzle. [ 170 ] The word “ Scouse ” has besides become synonymous with the Liverpool stress and dialect. many people “ self-identify ” as Liverpudlians or Scousers without actually being born or living within the city boundaries of Liverpool. [ 171 ]


The Economy of Liverpool is one of the largest within the United Kingdom, sitting at the center of one of the two core economies within the North West of England. [ 172 ] In 2006, the city ‘s GVA was £7,626 million, providing a per head figure of £17,489, which was above the North West average. [ 173 ] Liverpool ‘s economy has seen strong growth since the mid-1990s, with its GVA increasing 71.8 % between 1995 and 2006 and use increasing 12 % between 1998 and 2006. [ 173 ] GDP per caput was estimated to stand at $ 32,121 in 2014, and sum GDP at $ 65.8 billion. [ 174 ] In coarse with much of the perch of the UK today, Liverpool ‘s economy is dominated by military service sector industries, both public and private. In 2007, over 60 % of all employment in the city was in the public presidency, education, health, bank, finance and insurance sectors. [ 173 ] Over holocene years there has besides been significant growth in the cognition economy of Liverpool with the establishment of the Liverpool Knowledge Quarter in sectors such as media and life sciences. [ 175 ] Liverpool ‘s rich architectural foundation has besides helped the city become the second most filmed city in the UK outside London, [ 176 ] including doubling for Chicago, London, Moscow, New York, Paris and Rome. [ 177 ] [ 178 ]
Liverpool One has helped move the city into the top five retail destinations in the UK Another significant part of Liverpool ‘s economy are the tourism and leisure sectors. Liverpool is the sixth most visit UK city [ 179 ] and one of the 100 most inflict cities in the world by international tourists. [ 180 ] In 2008, during the city ‘s european das kapital of Culture celebrations, nightlong visitors brought £188m into the local economy, [ 179 ] while tourism as a wholly is worth approximately £1.3bn a year to Liverpool. [ 178 ] The city ‘s modern cruise liner terminal, which is situated close to the Pier Head, besides makes Liverpool One of the few places in the populace where cruise ships are able to berth right in the center of the city. [ 181 ] other late developments in Liverpool such as the Echo Arena and Liverpool One have made Liverpool an crucial leisure center with the latter helping to lift Liverpool into the circus tent five retail destinations in the UK. [ 182 ] historically, the economy of Liverpool was centred on the city ‘s port and manufacture establish, although a smaller proportion of entire use is today derived from the port. [ 173 ] Nonetheless the city remains one of the most significant ports in the United Kingdom, handling over 32.2m tonnes of cargo in 2008. [ 183 ] A modern multimillion-pound expansion to the Port of Liverpool, Liverpool2, is scheduled to be functional from the end of 2015, and is projected to greatly increase the volume of cargo which Liverpool is able to handle. [ 184 ] Liverpool is besides home to the UK headquarters of many shipping lines including japanese tauten NYK and Danish firm Maersk Line, whilst ship firm Atlantic Container Line has recently invested significant amounts in expanding its Liverpool operations, with a modern headquarters presently under construction. [ 185 ] [ 186 ] [ 187 ] Future plans to redevelop the city ‘s northerly dock system, in a visualize known as Liverpool Waters, could see £5.5bn invested in the city over the next 50 years, creating 17,000 raw jobs. [ 188 ] car manufacture besides takes place in the city at the Jaguar Land Rover Halewood plant where the Range Rover Evoque model is assembled. In 2016 it was reported that The Beatles lend £82 million a year to Liverpool ‘s economy and are a direct consequence of 2,335 jobs. [ 189 ] [ 190 ] [ 191 ] [ 192 ] [ 193 ]

Landmarks and recent development projects

Liverpool ‘s history means that there are a considerable variety show of architectural styles found within the city, ranging from 16th century Tudor buildings to contemporary contemporary architecture. [ 194 ] The majority of buildings in the city date from the late-18th century onwards, the period during which the city grew into one of the foremost powers in the british Empire. [ 195 ] There are over 2,500 list buildings in Liverpool, of which 27 are Grade I listed [ 196 ] and 85 are Grade II* listed. [ 197 ] The city besides has a greater phone number of public sculptures than any other location in the United Kingdom aside from Westminster [ 198 ] and more georgian houses than the city of Bath. [ 199 ] This fullness of architecture has subsequently seen Liverpool described by English Heritage, as England ‘s finest priggish city. [ 200 ] The value of Liverpool ‘s architecture and design was recognised in 2004, when several areas throughout the city were declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Known as the Liverpool Maritime Mercantile City, the sites were added in recognition of the city ‘s function in the exploitation of international deal and docking technology. [ 201 ] however this status was revoked in July 2021, when UNESCO resolved that recent and aim developments, such as the Bramley-Moore Dock stadium and Liverpool Waters projects, had resulted in the “ serious deterioration ” of the area ‘s significance. [ 202 ]

Waterfront and docks

The Albert Dock contains the UK ‘s largest collection of Grade I listed buildings deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as being the most inflict multi-use attraction outside London As a major british larboard, the docks in Liverpool have historically been central to the city ‘s development. several major docking firsts have occurred in the city including the construction of the earth ‘s first enclosed wet dock ( the Old Dock ) in 1715 and the first ever hydraulic lifting cranes. [ 203 ] The best-known dock in Liverpool is the Royal Albert Dock, Liverpool, which was constructed in 1846 and nowadays comprises the largest individual collection of Grade I listed buildings anywhere in Britain. [ 204 ] Built under the guidance of Jesse Hartley, it was considered to be one of the most advanced docks anywhere in the world upon completion and is frequently attributed with helping the city to become one of the most significant ports in the world. The Albert Dock houses restaurants, bars, shops, two hotels deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as the Merseyside Maritime Museum, International Slavery Museum, Tate Liverpool and The Beatles Story. North of the city kernel is Stanley Dock, home to the Stanley Dock Tobacco Warehouse, which was at the time of its construction in 1901, the world ‘s largest build up in terms of area [ 205 ] and today stands as the earth ‘s largest brick-work construction. [ 206 ] One of the most celebrated locations in Liverpool is the Pier Head, renowned for the trio of buildings – the Royal Liver Building, the Cunard Building and the Port of Liverpool Building – which sit upon it. jointly referred to as the Three Graces, these buildings stand as a testament to the big wealth in the city during the late 19th and early twentieth hundred. Built-in a variety show of architectural styles, they are recognised as being the symbol of Maritime Liverpool and are regarded by many as contributing to one of the most impressive waterfronts in the universe. [ 207 ] [ 208 ] [ 209 ] [ 210 ]
In recent years, respective areas along Liverpool ‘s waterfront have undergone significant renovation. Amongst the celebrated recent developments are the Museum of Liverpool, the construction of the Liverpool Arena and BT Convention Centre on Kings Dock, Alexandra Tower and 1 Princes Dock on Prince ‘s Dock and Liverpool Marina around Coburg and Brunswick Docks. The Wheel of Liverpool opened on 25 March 2010. [ 211 ] [ 212 ] however, plans to redevelop parts of the Liverpool have been marred by controversy. In December 2016, a newly formed company called North Point Global Ltd. was given the rights to develop function of the docks under the “ New Chinatown ” standard. Though heavily advertised in Liverpool, Hong Kong and chinese cities with glossy advertisements and videos, the “ New Chinatown ” development failed to materialise. [ 213 ] In January 2018, the Liverpool Echo and Asia Times revealed that the web site remained sans any construction, North Point Global equally good as its subcontractor “ Bilt ” had both declared bankruptcy, and the small investors ( by and large middle class couples ) who had already paid money for the apartments had lost most of their savings in them. [ 214 ] Five alike development projects, largely targeting individual Chinese and Hong Kong based citizens, were suspended due to fiscal misappropriations. [ 215 ]

commercial zone and cultural quarter

Victoria Street like many streets in the city center is lined with dozens of list buildings Liverpool ‘s historic position as one of the most important deal ports in the world has meant that over time many august buildings have been constructed in the city as headquarters for transport firms, policy companies, banks and early large firms. The great wealth this bring, then allowed for the development of expansive civic buildings, which were designed to allow the local administrators to ‘run the city with pride ‘. [ 216 ] The commercial district is centred on the Castle Street, Dale Street and Old Hall Street areas of the city, with many of the area ‘s roads inactive following their chivalric layout. Having developed over a time period of three centuries the area is regarded as one of the most authoritative architectural locations in the city, as recognised by its inclusion body in Liverpool ‘s former World Heritage web site. [ 217 ]
The oldest construction in the sphere is the Grade I listed Liverpool Town Hall, which is located at the lead of Castle Street and dates from 1754. Often regarded as the city ‘s finest piece of georgian architecture, the build up is known as one of the most lavishly decorated civic buildings anywhere in Britain. [ 218 ] [ 219 ] besides on Castle Street is the Grade I listed Bank of England Building, constructed between 1845 and 1848, as one of alone three provincial branches of the national bank. [ 218 ] Amongst the other buildings in the area are the Tower Buildings, Albion House ( the former White Star Line headquarters ), the Municipal Buildings and Oriel Chambers, [ 220 ] which is considered to be one of the earliest modernist style buildings ever built. [ 221 ]
The area around William Brown Street is referred to as the city ‘s ‘Cultural Quarter ‘, owing to the presence of numerous civic buildings, including the William Brown Library, Walker Art Gallery, Picton Reading Rooms and World Museum Liverpool. The area is dominated by neo-classical architecture, of which the most outstanding, St George ‘s Hall, [ 222 ] is widely regarded as the best exercise of a neo-classical build anywhere in Europe. [ 223 ] A Grade I listed build, it was constructed between 1840 and 1855 to serve a assortment of civic functions in the city and its doors are inscribed with “ S.P.Q.L. “ ( Latin senatus populusque Liverpudliensis ), meaning “ the senate and people of Liverpool ”. William Brown Street is besides home to numerous public monuments and sculptures, including Wellington ‘s Column and the Steble Fountain. many others are located around the sphere, particularly in St John ‘s Gardens, which was specifically developed for this aim. [ 224 ] The William Brown Street area has been likened to a modern diversion of the Roman Forum. [ 225 ]

early celebrated landmarks

While the majority of Liverpool ‘s architecture dates from the mid-18th century onwards, there are several buildings that pre-date this fourth dimension. One of the oldest outlive buildings is Speke Hall, a Tudor manor house located in the south of the city, which was completed in 1598. [ 226 ] The build is one of the few remaining timbre framed Tudor houses left in the north of England and is particularly noted for its victorian interiors, which was added in the mid-19th century. [ 227 ] In addition to Speke Hall, many of the city ‘s other oldest surviving buildings are besides erstwhile manor houses including Croxteth Hall and Woolton Hall, which were completed in 1702 and 1704 respectively. [ 228 ] The oldest construction within the city center is the Grade I listed Bluecoat Chambers, [ 229 ] which was built between 1717 and 1718. Constructed in British Queen Anne style, [ 230 ] [ 231 ] the build was influenced in share by the work of Christopher Wren [ 232 ] and was originally the home of the Bluecoat School ( who later moved to a larger locate in Wavertree in the south of the city ). Since 1908 it has acted as a concentrate for arts in Liverpool. [ 230 ]
Liverpool Cathedral is regarded as one of the greatest buildings of the twentieth century and is one of the largest church buildings in the world Liverpool is noted for having two Cathedrals, each of which imposes over the landscape around it. [ 233 ] The Anglican Cathedral, which was constructed between 1904 and 1978, is the largest cathedral in Britain [ 234 ] and the fifth largest in the global. Designed and built in Gothic stylus, it is regarded as one of the greatest buildings to have been constructed during the twentieth century [ 235 ] and was described by former british Poet Laureate, John Betjeman, as ‘one of the great buildings of the world ‘. [ 236 ] The Roman Catholic Metropolitan Cathedral was constructed between 1962 and 1967 and is known as one of the first Cathedrals to break the traditional longitudinal design. [ 237 ] In recent years, many parts of Liverpool ‘s city center have undergone significant renovation and regeneration after years of decline. The largest of these developments has been Liverpool One, which has seen about £1 billion invested in the renovation of 42 acres ( 17 hectares ) of land, providing new retail, commercial, residential and leisure quad. [ 238 ] Around the north of the city centre respective fresh skyscrapers have besides been constructed including the RIBA award-winning Unity Buildings and West Tower, which at 140m is Liverpool ‘s tallest building. many renovation schemes are besides in advance including cardinal Village / Circus, [ 239 ] the Lime Street gateway, [ 240 ] and the highly ambitious Liverpool Waters. [ 241 ] There are many early luminary buildings in Liverpool, including the art deco early terminal build of Speke Airport, the University of Liverpool ‘s Victoria Building, ( which provided the inhalation for the terminus Red Brick University ), and the Adelphi Hotel, which was in that past considered to be one of the finest hotels anywhere in the global. [ 242 ]

Parks and gardens

The English Heritage National Register of Historic Parks describes Merseyside ‘s victorian Parks as jointly the “ most significant in the country ”. [ 243 ] The city of Liverpool has ten listed parks and cemeteries, including two Grade I and five Grade II*, more than any other english city apart from London. [ 244 ]


The Wallasey capture to the Kingsway Tunnel. Liverpool ‘s skyline is visible in the background transmit in Liverpool is primarily centred on the city ‘s road and rail networks, both of which are extensive and provide links across the United Kingdom. Liverpool has an extensive local public conveyance network, which is managed by Merseytravel, and includes buses, trains and ferries. additionally, the city besides has an international airport and a major port, both of which provides links to locations outside the area .

National and external change of location

As a major city, Liverpool has direct road links with many early areas within England. To the east, the M62 expressway connects Liverpool with Hull and along the path provides links to several big cities, including Manchester, Leeds and Bradford. The M62 besides provides a connection to both the M6 and M1 motorways, providing indirect links to more distant areas including Birmingham, London, Nottingham, Preston and Sheffield. [ 245 ] To the west of the city, the Kingsway and Queensway Tunnels connect Liverpool with the Wirral Peninsula, including Birkenhead, and Wallasey. The A41 road and M53 motorway, which both begin in Birkenhead, associate to Cheshire and Shropshire and via the A55, to North Wales. [ 246 ] To the south, Liverpool is connected to Widnes and Warrington via the A562 and across the River Mersey to Runcorn, via the Silver Jubilee and Mersey Gateway bridges .

Liverpool is served by two offprint vilify networks. The local track net is managed and run by Merseyrail and provides links throughout Merseyside and beyond ( see Local travel below ), while the home net, which is managed by Network Rail, provides Liverpool with connections to major towns and cities across England. The city ‘s basal mainline post is Lime Street place, which is the terminal for respective lines into the city, with numerous destinations, including London ( in 2 hours 8 minutes with Pendolino trains ), Birmingham, Newcastle upon Tyne, Manchester, Preston, Leeds, Scarborough, Sheffield, Nottingham and Norwich. In the south of the city, Liverpool South Parkway provides a joining to the city ‘s airport .


The Port of Liverpool is one of Britain ‘s largest ports, providing passenger ferry services across the Irish Sea to Belfast, Dublin and the Isle of Man. Services are provided by respective companies, including the Isle of Man Steam Packet Company, P & O Ferries and Stena Line. In 2007, a new cruise terminal was opened in Liverpool, located alongside the Pier Head in the city center. November 2016 saw the official open of Liverpool2, an reference to the larboard that allows post-Panamax vessels to dock in Liverpool. [ 247 ] Leeds and Liverpool Canal runs into Liverpool city kernel via Liverpool Canal Link at Pier Head since 2009. [ 248 ] Liverpool Cruise Terminal in the city kernel provides long-distance passenger cruises, Fred. Olsen Cruise Lines MS Black Watch and Cruise & Maritime Voyages MS Magellan using the end to depart to Iceland, France, Spain and Norway. [ 249 ]


Liverpool John Lennon Airport, which is located in the confederacy of the city, provides Liverpool with direct air connections across the United Kingdom and Europe. In 2008, the airport handled over 5.3 million passengers [ 250 ] and today offers services to 68 destinations, [ 251 ] including Berlin, Rome, Milan, Paris, Barcelona and Zürich. The airport is primarily served by low-cost airlines, notably Ryanair and Easyjet, although it does provide extra charter services in the summer .

Local travel


The Merseyrail net has across-the-board underground sections within the city center. liverpool Central is the UK ‘s busiest clandestine place outside London Liverpool ‘s local railing network is one of the busiest and most across-the-board in the country. The network consists of three lines : the Northern Line, which runs to Southport, Ormskirk, Kirkby and Hunts Cross ; the Wirral Line, which runs through the Mersey Railway Tunnel and has branches to New Brighton, West Kirby, Chester and Ellesmere Port ; and the City Line, which begins at Lime Street, providing links to St Helens, Wigan, Preston, Warrington and Manchester. The net is predominantly electric. electrification of the City Line was completed in 2015. The two lines operated by Merseyrail are the busiest british urban commuter networks outside London, covering 75 miles ( 120 kilometres ) of cut, with an average of 110,000 passenger journeys per weekday. [ 252 ] [ 253 ] Services are operated by the Merseyrail franchise and managed by Merseytravel. Local services on the City Line are operated by Northern quite than Merseyrail, although the line itself remains part of the Merseyrail network. Within the city centre the majority of the net is belowground, with four city center stations and over 6+1⁄2 miles ( 10.5 kilometres ) of tunnels. [ 252 ]


Local bus services within and around Liverpool are managed by Merseytravel [ 254 ] and are run by respective different companies, including Arriva and Stagecoach. The two principal terminus for local buses are Queen Square bus post ( located near Lime Street railway station ) for services north and east of the city, and Liverpool One bus place ( located near the Albert Dock ) for services to the south and east. Cross-river services to the Wirral practice wayside terminal points in Castle Street and Sir Thomas Street. A night bus service besides operates on Saturdays providing services from the city center across Liverpool and Merseyside. [ 255 ] City Sights [ 256 ] and City explorer by Maghull coaches offer a tour bus servicing. National Express besides operates. [ 257 ] [ 258 ]

Mersey Ferry

The traverse river ferry service in Liverpool, known as the Mersey Ferry, is managed and operated by Merseytravel, with services operating between the Pier Head in Liverpool and both Woodside in Birkenhead and Seacombe in Wallasey. Services operate at intervals ranging from 20 minutes at extremum times, to every hour during the middle of the day and during weekends. [ 259 ] Despite remaining an important transmit link between the city and the Wirral Peninsula, the Mersey Ferry has become an increasingly popular tourist attraction within the city, with day River Explorer Cruises providing passengers with an diachronic overview of the River Mersey and surrounding areas. [ 260 ]


In May 2014, the CityBike rent system was launched in the city. The scheme provides access to over 1,000 bikes stationed at over 140 docking stations across the city. [ 261 ] National Cycle Route 56, National Cycle Route 62 and National Cycle Route 810 run through Liverpool .


As with other large cities, Liverpool is an significant cultural center within the United Kingdom, incorporating music, performing arts, museums and artwork galleries, literature and nightlife amongst others. In 2008, the cultural inheritance of the city was celebrated with the city holding the title of european das kapital of Culture, during which time a wide range of cultural celebrations took space in the city, including Go Superlambananas ! and La Princesse. Liverpool has besides held Europe ‘s largest music and poetry event, the Welsh national Eisteddfod, three times, despite being in England, in 1884, 1900, and 1929 .


[262]The Beatles statue in their home city Liverpool. The group are the most commercially successful and critically acclaimed band in popular music. Liverpool is internationally known for music and is recognised by Guinness World Records as the World Capital City of Pop. [ 263 ] Musicians from the city have produced 56 No. 1 singles, more than any other city in the populace. [ 16 ] [ 17 ] Both the most successful male band and girl group in ball-shaped music history have contained liverpudlian members. Liverpool is most celebrated as the birthplace of the Beatles and during the 1960s was at the forefront of the Beat Music movement, which would finally lead to the british Invasion. Many noteworthy musicians of the time originated in the city including Billy J. Kramer, Cilla Black, Gerry and the Pacemakers and The Searchers. The charm of musicians from Liverpool, coupled with other cultural exploits of the fourth dimension, such as the Liverpool poets, prompted american english poet Allen Ginsberg to proclaim that the city was “ the center of consciousness of the human universe ”. [ 264 ] other musicians from Liverpool include Billy Fury, A Flock of Seagulls, Echo & the Bunnymen, Frankie Goes to Hollywood, Frankie Vaughan, Anathema, Ladytron, The Zutons, Cast, Atomic Kitten and Rebecca Ferguson. The La ‘s 1990 hit single “ There She Goes “ was described by Rolling Stone as a “ establish piece of Britpop ’ s foundation. ” [ 265 ]
The city is besides base to the oldest surviving professional symphony orchestra orchestra in the UK, the Royal Liverpool Philharmonic Orchestra, which is based in the Philharmonic Hall. [ 266 ] The head conductor of the orchestra is Vasily Petrenko. [ 267 ] Sir Edward Elgar dedicated his Pomp and Circumstance March No. 1 to the Liverpool Orchestral Society, and the patch had its first performance in the city in 1901. [ 268 ] Among Liverpool ‘s curiosities, the austrian émigré Fritz Spiegl is celebrated. He not only became a earth adept on the etymology of Scouse, but composed the music to Z-cars and the Radio 4 UK Theme. The Mathew Street Festival is an annual street festival that is one of the most authoritative musical events in Liverpool ‘s calendar. It is Europe ‘s largest dislodge music consequence and takes locate every August. [ 269 ] early well established festivals in the city include Africa Oyé and Brazilica which are the UK ‘s largest rid african and brazilian music festivals respectively. [ 270 ] [ 271 ] The dancing music festival Creamfields was established by the Liverpool-based Cream clubbing stigmatize which started liveliness as a weekly event at Nation nightclub. There are numerous music venues located across the city, however the Echo Arena is by far the largest. Opened in 2008 the 11,000-seat stadium hosted the MTV Europe Music Awards the like year and since then has held host to world-renowned acts such as Andrea Bocelli, Beyoncé, Elton John, Kanye West, Kasabian, The Killers, Lady Gaga, Oasis, Pink, Rihanna, UB40 .

ocular arts

Liverpool has more galleries and national museums than any other city in the United Kingdom apart from London. [ 18 ] National Museums Liverpool is the lone English national collection based wholly outside London. [ 272 ] The Tate Liverpool gallery houses the modern art collection of the Tate in the North of England and was, until the hatchway of Tate Modern, the largest exhibition space dedicated to modern art in the United Kingdom. The FACT center hosts touring multimedia exhibitions, while the Walker Art Gallery houses one of the most impressive permanent collections of Pre-Raphaelite art in the world. [ 273 ] Sudley House contains another major collection of pre-20th-century art. [ 274 ] Liverpool University ‘s Victoria Building was re-opened as a populace art gallery and museum to display the University ‘s artwork and historical collections which include the largest display of art by Audubon outside the US. [ 275 ] A number of artists have besides come from the city, including painter George Stubbs who was born in Liverpool in 1724. The Liverpool Biennial festival of arts runs from mid-september to late November and comprises three main sections ; the International, The Independents and New Contemporaries although periphery events are timed to coincide. [ 276 ] It was during the 2004 festival that Yoko Ono ‘s sour “ My mother is beautiful ” caused far-flung public protest when photograph of a bare woman ‘s pubic sphere were exhibited on the main patronize street .


Felicia Hemans ( née Browne ) was born in Dale Street, Liverpool, in 1793, although she late moved to Flintshire, in Wales. Felicia was born in Liverpool, a granddaughter of the Venetian consul in that city. Her forefather ‘s business soon brought the class to Denbighshire in North Wales, where she spent her young. They made their home plate near Abergele and St. Asaph ( Flintshire ), and it is clear that she came to regard herself as Welsh by borrowing, later referring to Wales as “ Land of my childhood, my home and my dead ”. Her inaugural poem, dedicated to the Prince of Wales, were published in Liverpool in 1808, when she was only fourteen, arousing the pastime of Percy Bysshe Shelley, who briefly corresponded with her. [ 277 ] A issue of noteworthy authors have visited Liverpool, including Daniel Defoe, Washington Irving, Thomas De Quincey, Herman Melville, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Charles Dickens, Gerard Manley Hopkins and Hugh Walpole. Daniel Defoe, after visiting the city, described it, as “ one of the wonders of Britain in his ‘Tour through England and Wales ‘ ”. [ 278 ] Herman Melville ‘s novel Redburn deals with the first oceangoing voyage of 19 years old Wellingborough Redburn between New York and Liverpool in 1839. largely autobiographical, the middle sections of the book are set in Liverpool and describe the young bottom ‘s wanderings, and his reflections. [ 277 ] Hawthorne was stationed in Liverpool as United States consul between 1853 and 1856. [ 279 ] Charles Dickens visited the city on numerous occasions to give public readings. [ 280 ] Hopkins served as priest at St Francis Xavier Church, Langdale St., Liverpool, between 1879 and 81. [ 281 ] Although he is not known to have ever visited Liverpool, Jung famously had a graphic dream of the city which he analysed in one of his works. [ 282 ] Of all the poets who are connected with Liverpool, possibly the greatest is Constantine P. Cavafy, a twentieth-century greek cultural picture, although he was born in Alexandria. From a affluent family, his father had clientele interests in Egypt, London and Liverpool. After his forefather ‘s death, Cavafy ‘s mother brought him in 1872 at the long time of nine to Liverpool, where he spent part of his childhood being educated. He lived first gear in Balmoral Road, then when the family firm crashed, he lived in poor circumstances in Huskisson Street. After his father died in 1870, Cavafy and his family settled for a while in Liverpool. In 1876, his family faced fiscal problems due to the Long Depression of 1873, so, by 1877, they had to move second to Alexandria. [ 277 ] Her Benny, a fresh telling the tragic narrative of Liverpool street urchins in the 1870s, written by Methodist preacher Silas K. Hocking, was a best-seller and the first base ledger to sell a million copies in the author ‘s life. [ 283 ] The fecund writer of venture novels, Harold Edward Bindloss ( 1866–1945 ), was born in Liverpool. The writer, stevedore and political militant George Garrett was born in Secombe, on the Wirral Peninsula in 1896 and was brought up in Liverpool ‘s South end, around Park Road, the son of a cutthroat Liverpool–Irish Catholic mother and a stem ‘Orange ‘ stevedore father. In the 1920s and 1930s, his organization within the Seamen ‘s Vigilance Committees, unemployed people demonstrations, and hunger marches from Liverpool became part of a wide cultural force. He spoke at reconciliation meetings in sectarian Liverpool, and helped found the Unity Theatre in the 1930s as region of the Popular Front against the rise of fascism, peculiarly its echoes in the spanish Civil War. Garrett died in 1966. [ 284 ] The novelist and dramatist James Hanley ( 1897–1985 ) was born in Kirkdale, Liverpool, in 1897 ( not Dublin, nor 1901 as he generally implied ) to a propertyless family. [ 285 ] Hanley grew up close to the docks and much of his early write is about seamen. The Furys ( 1935 ) is first gear in a sequence of five loosely autobiographical novels about wage-earning life sentence in Liverpool. James Hanley ‘s brother, novelist Gerald Hanley ( 1916–92 ) was besides born in Liverpool ( not County Cork, Ireland, as he claimed ). [ 286 ] While he published a numeral of novels he besides wrote radio plays for the BBC arsenic well as some film scripts, most notably The Blue Max ( 1966 ). [ 287 ] He was besides one of several scriptwriters for a animation of Gandhi ( 1964 ). [ 288 ] Novelist Beryl Bainbridge ( 1932–2010 ) was born in Liverpool and raised in nearby Formby. She was chiefly known for her works of psychological fiction, frequently set among the English work classes. Bainbridge won the Whitbread Awards trophy for best novel in 1977 and 1996 and was nominated five times for the Booker Prize. The Times newspaper named Bainbridge among their list of “ The 50 greatest british writers since 1945 ”. [ 289 ] J. G. Farrell was born in Liverpool in 1935 but left at the outbreak of war in 1939. [ 290 ] A novelist of irish descent, Farrell gained bulge for his historical fiction, most notably his Empire Trilogy ( Troubles, The Siege of Krishnapur and The Singapore Grip ), dealing with the political and human consequences of british colonial predominate. however, his career ended when he drowned in Ireland in 1979 at the age of 44. Helen Forrester was the pen name of June Bhatia ( née Huband ) ( 1919–2011 ), [ 291 ] [ 292 ] who was known for her books about her early on childhood in Liverpool during the Great Depression, including Twopence to Cross the Mersey ( 1974 ), equally well as several works of fiction. During the late 1960s the city became well known for the Liverpool poets, who include Roger McGough and the late adrian Henri. An anthology of poems, The Mersey Sound, written by Henri, McGough and Brian Patten, has sold well since it was first being published in 1967. Liverpool has produced respective noted writers of repugnance fiction, often set on Merseyside – Ramsey Campbell, Clive Barker and Peter Atkins among them. A collection of liverpudlian horror fabrication, Spook City was edited by a Liverpool exile, Angus Mackenzie, and introduced by Doug Bradley, besides from Liverpool. [ 293 ] Bradley is famed for portraying Barker ‘s creation Pinhead in the Hellraiser series of films .

Performing arts

The Empire Theatre has the largest two-tier auditorium in the UK Liverpool besides has a long history of performing arts, reflected in respective annual dramaturgy festivals such as the Liverpool Shakespeare Festival, which takes place inside Liverpool Cathedral and in the adjacent historic St James ‘ Gardens every summer ; the Everyword Festival of new theater writing, the only one of its kind in the area ; [ 294 ] Physical Fest, an international festival of physical theater ; [ 295 ] the annual festivals organised by Liverpool John Moores University ‘s drama department and the Liverpool Institute for Performing Arts ; and other festivals by the big act of theatres in the city, such as the Empire, Epstein, Everyman, [ 296 ] [ 297 ] Playhouse, [ 298 ] [ 299 ] Royal Court, and Unity theatres. luminary actors and actresses from Liverpool include Arthur Askey, Tom Baker, Kim Cattrall, Jodie Comer, Stephen Graham, Rex Harrison, Jason Isaacs, Tina Malone, the McGann brothers ( Joe, Mark, Paul, and Stephen ), David Morrissey, Elizabeth Morton, Peter Serafinowicz, Elisabeth Sladen, Alison Steadman, and Rita Tushingham. Actors and actresses from elsewhere in the universe have strong ties to the city, such as canadian actor Mike Myers ( whose parents were both from Liverpool ) and american english actress Halle Berry ( whose mother was from Liverpool ) .


Liverpool has a thrive and vary nightlife, with the majority of the city ‘s late-night bars, pubs, nightclubs, alive music venues and drollery clubs being located in a number of clear-cut districts. A 2011 TripAdvisor poll voted Liverpool as having the best nightlife of any UK city, ahead of Manchester, Leeds and even London. [ 300 ] Concert Square, St. Peter ‘s Square and the adjoin Seel, Duke and Hardman Streets are home to some of Liverpool ‘s largest and most celebrated nightclubs including Alma de Cuba, Blue Angel, Bumper, Chibuku, Heebie Jeebies, Korova, The Krazyhouse ( immediately Electrik Warehouse ), The Magnet, Nation ( home of the Cream brand, and Medication, the UK ‘s largest and longest-running hebdomadally scholar event ), Popworld adenine well as countless early smaller establishments and chain bars. Another popular nightlife destination in the city center is Mathew Street and the Gay Quarter, located close to the city ‘s commercial zone, this area is famed for The Cavern Club aboard numerous gay bars including Garlands and G-Bar. The Albert Dock and Lark Lane in Aigburth besides contain an abundance of bars and late-night venues .


In Liverpool primary and secondary education is available in versatile forms supported by the state including secular, Church of England, Jewish, and Roman Catholic. Islamic education is available at elementary floor, but there is no secondary provision. One of Liverpool ‘s significant early on schools was The Liverpool Blue Coat School ; founded in 1708 as a charitable educate. The Liverpool Blue Coat School is the top-performing school in the city with 100 % 5 or more A*-C grades at GCSE resulting in the thirtieth best general certificate of secondary education results in the country and an average compass point score per scholar of 1087.4 in A/AS levels. [ 301 ] early luminary schools include Liverpool College founded in 1840 Merchant Taylors ‘ School founded in 1620. [ 302 ] Another of Liverpool ‘s noteworthy aged schools is St. Edward ‘s College situated in the West Derby area of the city. Historic grammar schools, such as the Liverpool Institute High School and Liverpool Collegiate School —both closed in the 1980s—are still remembered as centres of academic excellence. Bellerive Catholic College is the city ‘s top-performing non-selective school, based upon GCSE results in 2007 .
Liverpool has three universities : the University of Liverpool, Liverpool John Moores University and Liverpool Hope University. Edge Hill University, founded as a teacher-training college in the Edge Hill zone of Liverpool, is nowadays located in Ormskirk in South-West Lancashire. Liverpool is besides home to the Liverpool Institute for Performing Arts ( LIPA ). The University of Liverpool was established in 1881 as University College Liverpool. In 1884, it became function of the union Victoria University. Following a Royal Charter and Act of Parliament in 1903, it became an freelancer university, the University of Liverpool, with the justly to confer its own degrees. It was the first university to offer degrees in biochemistry, computer architecture, civil plan, veterinarian science, oceanography and social science .
Liverpool Hope University, which was formed through the fusion of three colleges, the earliest of which was founded in 1844, gained university condition in 2005. It is the only ecumenic university in Europe. [ 303 ] It is situated on both sides of Taggart Avenue in Childwall and has a moment campus in the city center ( the basis ). The Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, founded to address some of the problems created by trade, continues today as a post-graduate school affiliated with the University of Liverpool and houses an anti-venom repository. Liverpool John Moores University was previously a polytechnic institute, and gained condition in 1992. It is named in honor of Sir John Moores, one of the founders of the Littlewoods football pools and retail group, who was a major benefactor. The institution was previously owned and run by Liverpool City Council. It traces it linage to the Liverpool Mechanics Institute, opened in 1823, making it by this measure England ‘s third-oldest university. The city has one foster department of education college, Liverpool Community College in the city center. Liverpool City Council operates Burton Manor, a residential pornographic department of education college in nearby Burton, on the Wirral Peninsula. There are two jewish schools in Liverpool, both belonging to the King David Foundation. King David School, Liverpool is the high School and the King David Primary School. There is besides a King David Kindergarten, featured in the community center of Harold House. These schools are all run by the King David Foundation located in Harold House in Childwall ; handily future doorway to the Childwall Synagogue .


The Merseyside bowler hat is the football match between the two biggest clubs in the city, Liverpool in crimson and Everton in aristocratic. Liverpool is one of the most successful footballing cities in England, and is home to two top flight Premier League teams. Everton F.C. was founded in 1878 and play at Goodison Park and Liverpool F.C. were founded in 1892 and play at Anfield. Between them, the clubs have won 28 English First Division titles, 12 FA Cup titles, 10 League Cup titles, 6 european Cup titles, 1 european Cup Winners ‘ Cup title, 3 UEFA Cup titles, and 24 FA Charity Shields. The two clubs contest the Merseyside bowler hat, dubbed the ‘friendly bowler hat ‘. Despite the name the fixture is known for its acute competition, having seen more sending-offs in this fixture than any other. Unlike many other derbies it is not rare for families in the city to contain supporters of both clubs. [ 304 ] Liverpool F.C. is the English and british baseball club with the most european Cup titles with six, the latest in 2019 .
Liverpool has played at Anfield since 1892, when the club was formed to occupy the stadium following Everton ‘s departure due to a quarrel with their landlord. Liverpool are silent playing there 125 years late, although the establish has been completely rebuilt since the 1970s. The Spion Kop ( rebuilt as an all-seater digest in 1994–95 ) was the most celebrated part of the footing, gaining cult condition across the world ascribable to the songs and celebrations of the many fans who packed onto its terraces. Anfield is classified as a 4 Star UEFA Elite Stadium with capacity for 54,000 spectators in comfort and is a classifiable landmark in an area filled with smaller and older buildings. Liverpool baseball club besides has a multimillion-pound youth train facility called The Academy .
After leaving Anfield in 1892, Everton moved to Goodison Park on the reverse side of Stanley Park .The ground was opened on 24 August 1892, by Lord Kinnaird and Frederick Wall of the FA but the first crowd to attend the ground saw a short athletics meet followed by a choice of music and a firework display. Everton ‘s first game there was on 2 September 1892 when they beat Bolton 4–2. It now has the capacity for just under 40,000 spectators all-seated, but the concluding expansion took locate in 1994 when a new goal-end bandstand gave the stadium an all-seater capacity. The Main Stand dates spinal column to the 1970s, while the other two stands are refurbished pre-Second World War structures. Everton is presently in the march of relocating, with a stadium move mooted equally early on as 1996. [ 305 ] In 2003, the club were forced to abandon plans for a 55,000-seat stadium at King ‘s Dock due to fiscal constraints, [ 306 ] with promote proposed moves to Kirkby ( comprising part of Destination Kirkby, moving the stadium just beyond Liverpool ‘s council limit into Kirkby ) and Walton Hall Park similarly scrapped. The latest plan is a move to nearby Bramley-Moore Dock on Liverpool ‘s waterfront, with grate broken on the undertaking in August 2021. [ 307 ]

Rugby league

Rugby league is a developing sport in Liverpool, with many community partners assisting the sport ‘s governing torso ( RFL ) to offer opportunities to participate. These include well established professional clubs in the neighbor towns of St. Helens and Widnes. The city has a boom student rugby league setting ; Liverpool University took function in the inaugural university game in 1968 and the early universities have been even participants in the BUSA contest. nowadays there are a act of non-professional clubs in the city, including Liverpool Buccaneers, who in 2006 won the regional concluding of the Rugby League Conference and in 2008 were elevated to the Rugby League Conference National division. Two junior clubs, Liverpool Lions ( based in Croxteth ) and Liverpool Storm ( based in Childwall ), have been established in 2008. They will be competing in the NWC Junior leagues in 2009. Rugby league has more recently returned to Huyton-with-Roby in the human body of the Huyton Bulldogs A.R.L.F.C. Huyton Bulldogs presently compete in the RL Merit League, and their home plate ground is at the Jubilee Playing Fields, Twig Lane, Huyton. A act of secondary schools throughout Merseyside are now participating in the inaugural merit league and 2008 is the first year that Merseyside schools have qualified for the RFL ‘s Champion Schools tournament. primary coil schools have been competing in tag festivals for a few years and the annual Tag World Cup is one of the major events in the Liverpool schools ‘ competition calendar .


Boxing is massively popular in Liverpool. The city has a proud inheritance and history in the sport and is base to around 22 amateur packing clubs, which are responsible for producing many successful boxers, such as Nel Tarleton, Alan Rudkin, John Conteh, Andy Holligan, Liam Smith, Paul Hodkinson, Tony Bellew and David Price. The city besides boasts a systematically firm amateur contingent which is highlighted by Liverpool being the most represent city on the GB Boxing team, angstrom well as at the 2012 London Olympics, the most luminary Liverpool amateur fighters include ; George Turpin, Tony Willis, Robin Reid and David Price who have all medalled at the Olympic Games. Boxing events are normally hosted at the Echo Arena and Liverpool Olympia within the city, although the former home plate of Liverpool box was the celebrated Liverpool Stadium .

sawhorse race

Aintree is home to the worldly concern ‘s most celebrated steeple-chase, the John Smith ‘s Grand National which takes place annually in early April. The race merging attracts knight owners/ cheat from around the earth to compete in the demanding 4-mile ( 6.5-kilometre ) and 30-fence path. There have been many memorable moments of the Grand National, for example, the 100/1 foreigner Foinavon in 1967, the dominant Red Rum and Ginger McCain of the 1970s and Mon Mome ( 100/1 ) who won the 2009 meeting. In 2010, the National became the first sawhorse race to be televised in high-definition in the UK .


The Royal Liverpool Golf Club, situated in the nearby township of Hoylake on the Wirral Peninsula, has hosted The Open Championship on a number of occasions, most recently in 2014. It besides hosted the Walker Cup in 1983 .

Greyhound Racing

Liverpool once contained four greyhound tracks, Seaforth Greyhound Stadium ( 1933–1965 ), Breck Park Stadium ( 1927–1948 ), Stanley Greyhound Stadium ( 1927–1961 ) and White City Stadium ( 1932–1973 ). Breck Park besides hosted boxing bouts and both Stanley and Seaforth hosted Motorcycle speedway .


Wavertree Sports Park is home to the Liverpool Harriers athletics club, which has produced such athletes as Curtis Robb, Allyn Condon ( the only british athlete to compete at both the Summer and Winter Olympics ), and Katarina Johnson-Thompson ; Great Britain was represented by Johnson-Thompson at the 2012 London Olympics in the women ‘s heptathlon, and she would go on to win the gold decoration at the 2019 World Championships, giving Liverpool its first aureate decoration and breaking the british record in the process .


In August 2012, Liverpool gymnast Beth Tweddle won an Olympic bronze decoration in London 2012 in the spotty bars at her third gear Olympic Games, frankincense becoming the most decorate british gymnast in history. Park Road Gymnastics Centre provides train to a eminent level .


Liverpool has produced several swimmers who have represented their nation at major championships such as the Olympic Games. The most luminary of which is Steve Parry who claimed a bronze decoration at the 2004 Athens Olympics in the 200m butterfly. Others include Herbert Nickel Haresnape, Margaret Kelly, Shellagh Ratcliffe and Austin Rawlinson. There is a purpose-built aquatics centre at Wavertree Sports Park, which opened in 2008. The City of Liverpool Swimming Club has been National Speedo League Champions 8 out of the concluding 11 years .


The city is the hub of the Liverpool and District Cricket Competition, an ECB Premier League. [ 308 ] Sefton Park and Liverpool are the league ‘s laminitis members based in the city with Wavertree, Alder and Old Xaverians clubs having joined the league more recently. [ 309 ] Liverpool plays host Lancashire County Cricket Club as an outground most seasons, including six of eight dwelling County Championship games during Lancashire ‘s 2011 [ 310 ] title winning campaign [ 311 ] whilst Old Trafford was refurbished. [ 312 ] [ 313 ]


Since 2014 Liverpool Cricket Club has played host [ 314 ] to the annual Tradition-ICAP Liverpool International tennis tournament, which has seen tennis stars such as Novak Djokovic, David Ferrer, Mardy Fish, Laura Robson and Caroline Wozniacki. previously this had been held at Calderstones Park, situated in Allerton in the south of the city. Liverpool Tennis Development Programme at Wavertree Tennis Centre is one of the largest in the UK .


Professional basketball came to the city in 2007 with the entrance of Everton Tigers, now known as Mersey Tigers, into the elect british Basketball League. The club was originally associated with Everton F.C., and was part of the Toxteth Tigers youth development program, which reached over 1,500 young people every year. [ 315 ] The Tigers began to play in Britain ‘s top league for the 2007–08 season, playing at the Greenbank Sports Academy before moving into the newly completed Echo Arena during that temper. After the 2009–10 season, Everton F.C. withdrew funding from the Tigers, who then changed their name to Mersey Tigers. Their closest professional rivals are the Cheshire Jets, based 18 miles ( 29 kilometer ) away in Chester .


Liverpool is one of three cities which still host the traditional sport of british baseball and it hosts the annual England-Wales external match every two years, alternating with Cardiff and Newport. Liverpool Trojans are the oldest existing baseball cabaret in the UK .


The 2014 Tour of Britain hertz race began in Liverpool on 7 September, utilising a city center lap to complete 130 kilometer ( 80.8 michigan ) of racing. [ 316 ] The Tour of Britain took nine stages and finished in London on 14 September .


A 2016 study of UK seaworthiness centres found that, of the top 20 UK urban areas, Liverpool had the highest number of leisure and sports centres per head, with 4.3 centres per 100,000 of the city population. [ 317 ]


Made in Liverpool is a local television receiver station serving Liverpool City Region and surrounding areas. The post is owned and operated by Made Television Ltd and forms partially of a group of eight local television stations. It broadcasts from studios and offices in Liverpool .
The ITV region which covers Liverpool is ITV Granada. In 2006, the Television company opened a new newsroom in the Royal Liver Building. Granada ‘s regional news program broadcasts were produced at the Albert Dock News Centre during the 1980s and 1990s. [ 318 ] The BBC besides opened a newly newsroom on Hanover Street in 2006. ITV ‘s daily magazine plan This Morning was broadcast from studios at Albert Dock until 1996, when production was moved to London. Granada ‘s ephemeral shop channel “ shop ! ” was besides produced in Liverpool until it was cancelled in 2002. [ 319 ] Liverpool is the home of the television product company Lime Pictures, once Mersey Television, which produced the now-defunct soap operas Brookside and Grange Hill. It besides produces the soap opera Hollyoaks, which was once filmed in Chester and began on Channel 4 in 1995. All three series were/are largely filmed in the Childwall sphere of Liverpool. The city has one casual newspaper : the Echo, published by the Trinity Mirror group. The Liverpool Daily Post was besides published until 2013. The UK ‘s inaugural on-line only weekly newspaper called Southport Reporter ( Southport and Mersey Reporter ), is besides one of the many other news outlets that cover the city. radio receiver stations include BBC Radio Merseyside, Capital Liverpool, Radio City, Greatest Hits Liverpool and Radio City Talk. The last three are located in Radio City Tower which, along with the two cathedrals, dominates the city ‘s horizon. The independent media administration Indymedia besides covers Liverpool, while Nerve magazine publishes articles and reviews of cultural events. Liverpool has besides featured in films ; [ 320 ] see List of films set in Liverpool for some of them. In films the city has “ doubled ” for London, Paris, New York, Chicago, Moscow, Dublin, Venice and Berlin. [ 36 ] [ 321 ]

celebrated people

Quotes about Liverpool

Twin cities

Liverpool is twinned [ 324 ] with :

Liverpool has friendship links ( without formal constitution ) [ 325 ] with the following cities :


The inaugural abroad consulate of the United States was opened in Liverpool in 1790, and it remained operational for about two centuries. [ 326 ] Today, a big count of consulates are located in the city serving Chile, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Romania, Sweden and Thailand. Tunisian & Ivory Coast Consulates are located in the neighbor Metropolitan Borough of Sefton

freedom of the City

The postdate people and military units have received the Freedom of the City of Liverpool .


military units

Organisations and Groups

See besides


  1. ^ The term may have its origins in religious and racial sectarianism, which, while nowadays largely vanish, was once notoriously acerb in Liverpool .



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