Gary, Indiana – Wikipedia

City in the US submit of Indiana
This article is about the city. For the song, see The Music Man
City in Indiana, United States

Gary is a city in Lake County, Indiana, United States, 25 miles ( 40 kilometer ) from downtown Chicago, Illinois. Gary is adjacent to the Indiana Dunes National Park and borders southern Lake Michigan in the Chicago metropolitan area. [ 6 ] [ 7 ] Gary was named after lawyer Elbert Henry Gary, who was the establish president of the United States Steel Corporation. Although initially a identical diverse city, after white escape in the 1970s, the city of Gary held the nation ‘s highest share of african Americans for respective decades. The city is known for its large steel mills and as the birthplace of the Jackson family. [ 8 ] The population of Gary was 69,093, as of the 2020 Census. once a comfortable steel township, it has suffered drastic population loss due to overseas competition and restructure of the diligence, falling by 61 percentage from its extremum of 178,320 in 1960. [ 9 ] As with many Rust Belt cities, it suffers from above average unemployment and disintegrate infrastructure. Due to the rapid population decrease over the past half-century, it is estimated that closely one-third of all houses in the city are unoccupied or abandoned .

history [edit ]

Founding and early years [edit ]

5th Ave and Broadway in 1908 Gary, Indiana, was founded in 1906 by the United States Steel Corporation as the home for its new plant, Gary Works. The city was named after lawyer Elbert Henry Gary, who was the establish chair of the United States Steel Corporation. Gary was the site of civil agitation in the steel strike of 1919. On October 4, 1919, a belly laugh broke out on Broadway, the main north–south street through business district Gary, between sword workers and hit breakers brought in from external. Three days by and by, Indiana governor James P. Goodrich declared warlike police. soon thereafter, over 4,000 union troops under the command of Major General Leonard Wood arrived to restore order. [ 10 ] The jobs offered by the steel industry provided Gary with very rapid growth and a divers population within the inaugural 26 years of its establish. According to the 1920 United States Census, 29.7 % of Gary ‘s population at the clock time was classified as foreign-born, largely from easterly european countries, with another 30.8 % classified as native-born with at least one foreign-born parent. By the 1930 United States Census, the first census in which Gary ‘s population exceeded 100,000, the city was the fifth largest in Indiana and comparable in size to South Bend, Fort Wayne, and Evansville. At that prison term, 78.7 % of the population was classified as white, with 19.3 % of the population was classified as foreign-born and another 25.9 % as native-born with at least one foreign-born parent. In addition to white internal migrants, Gary had attracted numerous african-american migrants from the South in the Great Migration, and 17.8 % of the population was classified as black. 3.5 % were classified as Mexican ( now probable to be identified as spanish american, as some were likely american english citizens in addition to immigrants ). [ 11 ]

Post-World War II [edit ]

Gary ‘s fortunes have risen and fallen with those of the steel diligence. The growth of the steel industry brought prosperity to the community. Broadway was known as a commercial center for the area. Department stores and architecturally meaning movie houses were built in the downtown area and the Glen Park neighborhood. In the 1960s, like many other american urban centers reliant on one particular diligence, Gary entered a coiling of descent. Gary ‘s decline was brought on by the growing abroad competitiveness in the steel industry, which had caused U.S. Steel to lay off many workers from the Gary area. The U.S. Steel Gary Works employed over 30,000 in 1970, declined to equitable 6,000 by 1990, and further declined to 5,100 in August 2015. Attempts to shore up the city ‘s economy with major construction projects, such as a Holiday Inn hotel and the Genesis Convention Center, failed to reverse the descent. [ 12 ] [ 13 ] rapid racial change occurred in Gary during the late twentieth century. These population changes resulted in political change which reflected the racial demographics of Gary : the colored share of the city ‘s population increased from 21 % in 1930, 39 % in 1960, to 53 % in 1970. Non-whites were primarily restricted to live in the Midtown part fair south of business district ( per the 1950 Census, 97 % of the black population of Gary was living in this region ). Gary had one of the nation ‘s first african-american mayors, Richard G. Hatcher, and hosted the ground-breaking 1972 National Black Political Convention. [ 14 ] In the late 1990s and early 2000s, Gary had the highest share of African-Americans of U.S. cities with a population of 100,000 or more, 84 % ( as of the 2000 U.S. census ). This no longer applies to Gary since the population of the city has immediately fallen well below 100,000 residents. As of 2013, the Gary Department of Redevelopment has estimated that one-third of all homes in the city are unoccupied and/or abandoned. [ 15 ] U.S. Steel continues to be a major steel manufacturer, but with alone a divide of its erstwhile level of employment. While Gary has failed to reestablish a fabrication base since its population acme, two casinos opened along the Gary lakeside in the 1990s, although this has been aggravated by the state close up of Cline Avenue, an crucial access to the area. today, Gary faces the difficulties of a Rust Belt city, including unemployment and decay infrastructure .

late history [edit ]

Gary has closed several of its schools within the last ten years. While some of the school buildings have been reused, most remain fresh since their close. As of 2014, Gary is considering closing extra schools in reaction to budget deficits. [ 16 ] [ 17 ] Gary headman of police Thomas Houston was convicted of excessive push and maltreatment of authority in 2008 ; he died in 2010 while serving a three-year, five-month federal prison prison term. [ 18 ] [ 19 ] In April 2011, 75-year-old mayor Rudolph M. Clay announced that he would suspend his crusade for reelection as he was being treated for prostate cancer. He endorsed rival Karen Freeman-Wilson, who won the democratic mayoral primary in May 2011. [ 20 ] Freeman-Wilson won election with 87 percentage of the vote and her term began in January 2012 ; she is the first base woman elected mayor in the city ‘s history. [ 21 ] She was reelected in 2015. [ 22 ] She was defeated in her offer for a third term in the 2019 democratic primary coil by Lake County Assessor Jerome Prince. Since no challengers filed for the November 2019 general election, Prince ‘s nomination is efficaciously equivalent to election, and officially succeeded Freeman-Wilson on January 1, 2020, two days after he was sworn in as the city ‘s 21st mayor on December 30, 2019. [ 23 ] [ 24 ]

National Register of Historic Places [edit ]

The following single properties and national historic districts are listed on the National Register of Historic Places :

Neighborhoods [edit ]

City Hall Map of Gary, The gray represents the industrial corridor Lake County Superior Court House and US Steel Gary Works

Downtown Gary [edit ]

Downtown Gary is separated by Broadway into two distinctive communities. originally, the City of Gary consisted of The East Side, The West Side, The South Side ( the area south of the train tracks near 9th Avenue ), and Glen Park, located further South along Broadway. The East Side was demarcated by streets named after the States in ordering of their acceptance into the Union. This area contained largely wood-frame houses, some of the earliest in the city, and became known in the twentieth century for its cultural populations from Europe and large families. The single-family houses had repeating house designs that alternated from one street to another, with some streets looking very like. Among the East Side ‘s most celebrated buildings were memorial Auditorium ( a large red-brick and stone civil auditorium and the locate of numerous events, concerts and graduations ), The Palace Theater, Emerson School, St. Luke ‘s Church, H.C. Gordon & Sons, and Goldblatt ‘s Department stores, in accession to the Fair Department Store. All fronted Broadway as the main street that divided Gary. The West Side of Gary, or West of Broadway, the principal commercial street, had streets named after the presidents of the United States in order of their election. Lytton ‘s, Hudson ‘s ladies store, J.C. Penney, and Radigan Bros Furniture Store developed on the west side of Broadway. Developed later, this english of town was known for its freemasonry or brick residences, its grandiloquent and larger commercial buildings, including the Gary National Bank Building, Hotel Gary ( now Genesis Towers ), The Knights of Columbus Hotel & Building ( now a seniors building fronting 5th Avenue ), the Tivoli Theater ( demolished ), the U.S. Post Office, Main Library, Mercy and Methodist Hospitals and Holy Angels Cathedral and School. The West Side besides had a secondary star street, Fifth Avenue, which was lined with many commercial businesses, restaurants, theaters, tall buildings, and elegant apartment buildings. The West Side was viewed as having wealthier residents. The houses dated from about 1908 to the 1930s. much of the West Side ‘s house were for executives of U.S. Steel and early big businessmen. noteworthy mansions were 413 Tyler Street and 636 Lincoln Street. Many of the houses were on larger lots. By contrast, a propertyless area was made up of row houses made of pour concrete were arranged together and known as “ Mill Houses ” ; they were built to house steel mill workers. The areas known as Emerson and Downtown West blend to form Downtown Gary. It was developed in the 1920s and houses respective pieces of impressive computer architecture, including the Moe House, designed by Frank Lloyd Wright, and another, the Wynant House ( 1917 ), which was destroyed by fire. A significant count of older structures have been demolished in late years because of the cost of restoration. restructure of the steel and other arduous industry in the belated twentieth hundred resulted in a personnel casualty of jobs, adversely affecting the city. Abandoned buildings in the downtown sphere include historic structures such as Union Station, the Palace Theater, and City Methodist Church. A large area of the business district neighborhood ( including City Methodist ) was devastated by a major open fire on October 12, 1997. [ 26 ] [ 27 ] Interstate 90 was constructed between downtown Gary and the United States Steel plant .

West [edit ]

Ambridge Mann is a neighborhood located on Gary ‘s near west side along 5th Avenue. Ambridge was developed for workers at the nearby steel implant in the 1910s and 1920s. It is named after the american Bridge Works, which was a subsidiary company of U.S. Steel. The region is home to a huge stock of prairie-style and art deco homes. The Gary Masonic Temple was located in the neighborhood, along with the Ambassador apartment building. Located just south of Interstate 90, the region can be seen while passing Buchanan Street .
Gary Centennial Landmark Brunswick is located on Gary ‘s far west english. The neighborhood is located just south of Interstate 90 and can besides be seen from the expressway. The Brunswick area includes the Tri-City Plaza denounce center on West 5th Avenue ( U.S. 20 ). The area is south of the Gary Chicago International Airport. Downtown West is located in north-central Gary on the west side of Broadway just south of Interstate 90. The Genesis Convention Center, the Gary Police Department, the Lake Superior Court House, and the Main Branch of the Gary Public Library are located along 5th Avenue. A modern 123-unit mixed-income apartment exploitation was built using a HUD Hope VI allow in 2006. The Adam Benjamin Metro Center is located barely north of 4th Avenue. It is operated by the Gary Public Transportation Corporation and serves as a multi-modal hub. It serves both as the Downtown Gary South Shore train station and an intercity busbar stop. Tolleston is one of Gary ‘s oldest neighborhoods, predating much of the rest of the city. It was platted by George Tolle in 1857, when the railroads were constructed to this area. This area is west of Midtown and confederacy of Ambridge Mann. Tarrytown is a subsection located in Tolleston between Whitcomb Street and Clark Road .

South [edit ]

Black Oak is located on the far southwest slope of Gary, in the vicinity of the Burr Street exit to the Borman Expressway. It was annexed in the 1970s. Prior to that, Black Oak was an unincorporated area colloquially associated with Hammond, and the area has Hammond call numbers. After three referendums, the community voters approved annexation, having been persuaded by Mayor Hatcher that they would benefit more from services provided by the city than from those provided by the county. In the 21st-century, it is the only majority-white neighborhood in Gary. Glen Park is located on Gary ‘s far confederacy english and is made up by and large of mid-twentieth-century houses. Glen Park is divided from the end of the city by the Borman Expressway. The northerly part of Glen Park is home to Gary ‘s Gleason Park Golf Course and the campus of Indiana University Northwest. The army for the liberation of rwanda western part of Glen Park is home to the Village Shopping Center. Glen Park includes the thirty-seventh Avenue corridor at Broadway. Midtown is located south of Downtown Gary, along Broadway. In the pre-1960s days of de facto segregation, this developed historically as a “ black ” neighborhood as african Americans came to Gary from the rural South in the Great Migration to seek jobs in the industrial economy .

North and East [edit ]

Old Miller School, District # 8 Wells Street Beach in Miller Aetna is located on Gary ‘s army for the liberation of rwanda east english along the Dunes Highway. Aetna predates the city of Gary. This company township was founded in 1881 by the Aetna Powder Works, an explosives company. Their factory closed after the end of World War I. The Town of Aetna was annexed by Gary in 1928, around the same time that the city annexed the Town of Miller. In the recently 1920s and early 1930s, Gary ‘s comfortable industries helped generate residential and other development in Aetna, resulting in an impressive solicitation of art deco computer architecture. The rest of the community was built after World War II and the Korean War in the 1950s, in a serial of phases. On its south and east, Aetna borders the undeveloped floodplain of the Little Calumet River. Emerson is located in north-central Gary on the east side of Broadway. Located fair confederacy of Interstate 90, Gary City Hall is located in Emerson, along with the Indiana Department of Social Services building and the Calumet Township Trustee ‘s agency. A 6,000-seat minor league baseball stadium for the Gary SouthShore RailCats, U.S. Steel Yard, was constructed in 2002, along with contiguous commercial space and child residential development. Miller Beach, besides known simply as Miller, is on Gary ‘s far northeast side. Settled in the 1850s and incorporated as an mugwump township in 1907, Miller was annexed by the city of Gary in 1918. Miller developed around the honest-to-god stagecoach arrest and train station known by the 1850s as Miller ‘s Junction and/or Miller ‘s Station. Miller Beach is racially and economically divers. It attracts investor interest due to the many year-round and summer homes within walking outdistance of Marquette Park and Lake Michigan. Prices for lakefront property are low-cost compared to those in Illinois suburban communities. Lake Street provides shop and boom options for Miller Beach visitors and residents. East Edge, a development of 28 upscale condominium, townhome, and single-family homes, began construction in 2007 at the eastern edge of Miller Beach along County Line Road, one obstruct confederacy of Lake Michigan. [ 28 ]

geography [edit ]

The city is located at the southerly end of the former lake bed of the prehistoric Lake Chicago and the current Lake Michigan. Most of the city ‘s land, to closely one foot below the surface, is pure sand. The backbone below Gary, and on its beaches, is of such volume and quality that for over a hundred companies have mined it, specially for the industry of glass. [ 29 ] According to the 2010 census, Gary has a total area of 57.18 square miles ( 148.10 km2 ), of which 49.87 feather miles ( 129.16 km2 ) ( or 87.22 % ) is bring and 7.31 square miles ( 18.93 km2 ) ( or 12.78 % ) is body of water. [ 30 ] Gary is “ T ” shaped, with its northern surround on Lake Michigan. At the northwesternmost section, Gary borders Hammond and East Chicago. Miller Beach, its easternmost region, borders Lake Station and Portage. Gary ‘s southernmost segment borders Griffith, Hobart, Merrillville, and unincorporated Ross. Gary is about 30 miles ( 48 kilometer ) from the Chicago Loop. [ 31 ]

climate [edit ]

Gary is listed by the Köppen-Geiger climate classification system as humid continental ( Dfa ). In July and August, the warmest months, high gear temperatures average 84 °F ( 29 °C ) and flower just above 100 °F ( 38 °C ), and abject temperatures average 63 °F ( 17 °C ). In January and February, the coldest months, high temperatures average around 29 °F ( −2 °C ) and low temperatures average 13 °F ( −11 °C ), with at least a few days of temperatures dipping below 0 °F ( −18 °C ). The weather of Gary is greatly regulated by its proximity to Lake Michigan. Weather varies annual. In summer months Gary is humid. The city ‘s annually haste averages about 40 inches. Summer is the showery season. Winters vary but are predominantly snow-clad. snow in Gary averages approximately 25 inches per year. Sometimes large blizzards hit because of “ lake effect snow “, a phenomenon whereby bombastic amounts of water evaporated from the lake deposit onto the shoreline areas as excessive amounts of snow .

Climate data for Gary, Indiana
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 70
Average high °F (°C) 31.5
Average low °F (°C) 16.5
Record low °F (°C) −22
Average precipitation inches (mm) 1.8
Average snowfall inches (cm) 7.8
Average precipitation days ( ≥ 0.01 in ) 9 9 11 12 12 10 9 8 9 8 10 9 116
Source 1: Weatherbase[32]
Source 2: [33]

Demographics [edit ]

The change in the economy and result personnel casualty of jobs has caused a dangle in population by more than half since its acme in 1960 .

Historical population
Census Pop.
1910 16,802
1920 55,378 229.6%
1930 100,666 81.8%
1940 111,719 11.0%
1950 133,911 19.9%
1960 178,320 33.2%
1970 175,415 −1.6%
1980 151,968 −13.4%
1990 116,646 −23.2%
2000 102,746 −11.9%
2010 80,294 −21.9%
2020 69,093 −13.9%
U.S. Decennial Census[34]
2018 Estimate[35]

2010 census [edit ]

As of the census [ 4 ] of 2010, there were 80,294 people, 31,380 households, and 19,691 families residing in the city. The population concentration was 1,610.1 inhabitants per public square mile ( 621.7/km2 ). There were 39,531 housing units at an average density of 792.7 per squarely mile ( 306.1/km2 ). The racial makeup of the city was 84.8 % african American, 10.7 % White, 0.3 % native American, 0.2 % asian, 1.8 % from other races, and 2.1 % from two or more races. hispanic or latino people of any raceway were 5.1 % of the population. Non-Hispanic Whites were 8.9 % of the population in 2010, [ 36 ] down from 39.1 % in 1970. [ 37 ] There were 31,380 households, of which 33.5 % had children under the long time of 18 survive with them, 25.2 % were married couples living together, 30.9 % had a female homeowner with no conserve award, 6.7 % had a male homeowner with no wife present, and 37.2 % were non-families. 32.8 % of all households were made up of individuals, and 11.9 % had person living alone who was 65 years of senesce or older. The average family size was 2.54 and the average family size was 3.23. The medial age in the city was 36.7 years. 28.1 % of residents were under the old age of 18 ; 8.6 % were between the ages of 18 and 24 ; 21.8 % were from 25 to 44 ; 27.1 % were from 45 to 64 ; and 14.5 % were 65 years of long time or older. The sex constitution of the city was 46.0 % male and 54.0 % female .

2000 census [edit ]

As of the census of 2000, there were 102,746 people, 38,244 households, and 25,623 families residing in the city. The population concentration was 2,045.5 people per square nautical mile ( 789.8/km2 ). There were 43,630 house units at an average density of 868.6 per squarely sea mile ( 335.4/km2 ). The racial constitution of the city was 84.03 % african American, 11.92 % White, 0.21 % native American, 0.14 % asian, 0.02 % Pacific Islander, 1.97 % from other races, and 1.71 % from two or more races. spanish american or hispanic people of any slipstream were 4.93 % of the population. There were 38,244 households, out of which 31.2 % had children under the age of 18 live with them, 30.2 % were married couples living together, 30.9 % had a female homeowner with no husband salute, and 33.0 % were non-families. 28.9 % of all households were made up of individuals, and 9.4 % had person living alone who was 65 years of long time or older. The average family size was 2.66 and the average family size was 3.28. In the city, the population was spread out, with 29.9 % under the age of 18, 10.1 % from 18 to 24, 25.1 % from 25 to 44, 22.2 % from 45 to 64, and 12.8 % who were 65 years of historic period or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 84.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 78.0 males. The median income for a family in the city was $ 27,195, and the medial income for a family was $ 32,205. Males had a medial income of $ 34,992 versus $ 24,432 for females. The per head income for the city was $ 14,383. About 22.2 % of families and 25.8 % of the population were below the poverty tune, including 37.9 % of those under historic period 18 and 14.1 % of those senesce 65 or over .

Arts and culture [edit ]

Arts and film [edit ]

A Nightmare on Elm Street being filmed in Gary being filmed in Gary Meredith Willson ‘s 1957 Broadway musical The Music Man featured the song “ Gary, Indiana “, in which lead character ( and con world ) Professor Harold Hill wistfully recalls his aim hometown, then golden. Hill claims to be an alumnus of “ Gary Conservatory of Music, Class of ’05, ” but this is late revealed to be another of his lies. The City of Gary was not founded until 1906. Willson ‘s musical, set in 1912, was adapted both as a film of the same name released in 1962, and as a television receiver film, produced in 2003. The 1996 urban movie Original Gangstas was filmed in the city. It starred Gary native Fred Williamson, Pam Grier, Jim Brown, Richard Roundtree, and Isabel Sanford, among others. Since the early 2000s, Gary has been the setting for numerous films made by Hollywood filmmakers. In 2009, scenes for the remake of A Nightmare on Elm Street were filmed in Gary. [ 38 ] Scenes from Transformers: Dark of the Moon wrapped up filming on August 16, 2010. [ 39 ] The History Channel documentary Life After People was filmed in Gary, exploring areas that have deteriorated or been abandoned because of the passing of jobs and residents. [ 40 ] In John Mellencamp ‘s 1985 birdcall, “ Minutes to Memories ”, an previous world on a bus topology, recalling his humble life sentence, tells the young man beside him, “ I worked my unharmed life in the sword mills of Gary. ”

historic places on the National Register [edit ]

Public libraries [edit ]

Downtown Library The Gary Public Library System consists of the chief library at 220 West 5th Avenue and several branches : Brunswick Branch, W. E. B. DuBois Branch, J. F. Kennedy Branch, Tolleston Branch, and Woodson Branch. [ 41 ] In March 2011, the Gary Library Board voted to close the independent library on 5th Avenue and the Tolleston branch in what officials said was their best economic option. The independent library closed at the end of 2011. The construct now houses a museum. [ 42 ] Lake County Public Library operates the Black Oak Branch at 5921 West 25th Avenue in the Gary city limits. [ 43 ] In accession, Indiana University Northwest operates the John W. Anderson Library on its campus. [ 44 ]

Sports [edit ]

The follow sports franchises are based in Gary :

education [edit ]

Three school districts serve the city, and multiple charter schools are located within the city .

Public schools [edit ]

Most populace schools in Gary are administered by the Gary Community School Corporation. The other populace schools within the city are administered by Lake Ridge Schools Corporation, which is the school system for the Black Oak vicinity and unincorporated Calumet Township. Due to annexation law, Black Oak residents retained their original school system and were not required to attend Gary public schools .

charter schools [edit ]

Charter schools in Indiana, including those in Gary, are granted charters by one of a modest act of chartering institutions. Indiana charter schools are generally managed in cooperation between the chartering institution, a local board of parents and community members, compensable school administrators, and a management company. Charter schools in Gary as of 2011 include Thea Bowman Leadership Academy, Charter School of the Dunes, Gary Lighthouse Charter School ( once, Blessed Sacrament Parish and Grade School ), and twenty-first Century Charter .

Higher education [edit ]

Gary is home to two regional state college campuses :

Media [edit ]

Newspapers [edit ]

Gary is served by two major newspapers based outside the city, and by a Gary-based, largely african-american matter to newspaper. These papers provide regional topics, and cover events in Gary .

  • The Post-Tribune, originally the Gary Post-Tribune, is now based in the nearby town of Merrillville.
  • The Times, previously known as the Hammond Times. Offices and facilities for The Times are in nearby Munster.
  • The Gary Crusader, based in Gary and largely focused on African-American interests and readership.
  • The INFO Newspaper, based in Gary and largely focused on African-American interests and readership.
  • The Chicago Tribune and the Chicago Sun-Times, based in Chicago, are also distributed in Gary.

television and radio [edit ]

Gary is served by five local broadcasters plus government access and numerous Chicago area radio and television stations, and by early nearby stations in Illinois and Indiana .

infrastructure [edit ]

checkup facilities [edit ]

  • Gary Community Health Center
  • Methodist Hospital

Police [edit ]

Gary is served by the Gary Police Department and the Lake County Sheriff ; for as 1 out of 177 people are victimized by a violent crime in Gary, while 1 in 270 people are victimized by a violent crime in Indiana as a whole. [ 47 ]

Fire department [edit ]

historical photograph of the Gary Fire Department in 1914 The Gary Fire Department ( GFD ) provides fire protection and emergency aesculapian services to the city of Gary. [ 48 ]

exile [edit ]

luminary people [edit ]

The Jacksons [edit ]

Michael Jackson ‘s childhood home in Gary, Indiana, shortly after the singer’s death in 2009 Gary is the hometown of the Jackson family, a syndicate of musicians who influenced the heavy of modern popular music. In 1950, Joseph and Katherine Jackson moved from East Chicago, Indiana [ 50 ] into their two-bedroom firm at 2300 Jackson Street. They had married on November 5, 1949. Their entertainer children by and by recorded a song entitled “ 2300 Jackson Street ” ( 1989 ). The Jackson children include :

other noteworthy people [edit ]

sister cities [edit ]

See besides [edit ]

References [edit ]

far read [edit ]

source :
Category : music

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