Sony Music – Wikipedia

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This article is about Sony ‘s music branch based in the United States. For Sony ‘s music branch in Japan, see Sony Music Entertainment Japan
Sony Music Entertainment ( SME ), besides known as just Sony Music, is an american multinational music company. Owned by the parent conglomerate Sony Group Corporation, it is part of the Sony Music Group, [ 4 ] which is owned by Sony Entertainment and managed by the American umbrella division of Sony.

It was originally founded in 1929 as american Record Corporation and renamed as Columbia Recording Corporation in 1938, following its acquisition by the Columbia Broadcasting System. In 1966, the party was reorganized to become CBS Records, and Sony Corporation bought the company in 1988, renaming it under its current name in 1991. In 2004, Sony and Bertelsmann established a 50-50 joint guess known as Sony BMG, which transferred the businesses of Sony Music and Bertelsmann Music Group into one entity. however, in 2008, Sony acquired Bertelsmann ‘s stake, and the company reverted to the Sony Music name concisely after ; the buyout allowed Sony to acquire all of BMG ‘s labels, which led to the relaunch of BMG, as BMG Rights Management. All of BMG ‘s erstwhile labels ( Arista, Jive, LaFace, J, etc. ) would finally be absorbed into RCA Records ( besides once owned by BMG ) in 2011. arista Records would late go on to be revived in 2018. As of 2020, Sony Music Entertainment is the second largest of the “ Big Three “ record companies, behind Universal Music Group and followed by Warner Music Group. Its music publish division Sony/ATV ( now known as Sony Music Publishing ) is the largest music publisher in the earth. [ 5 ] [ 6 ] From 2009 to 2020, Sony owned 50 % of Syco Entertainment, which operates some of the world ‘s most successful reality television receiver formats, including Got Talent and The X Factor with Simon Cowell. Cowell acquired Sony ‘s stake in 2020. [ 7 ] On July 17, 2019, Sony announced that Sony Music Entertainment and Sony/ATV would merge to become Sony Music Group. [ 8 ] [ 9 ] The fusion was completed on August 1, 2019. [ 10 ] [ 4 ] [ 11 ]

history [edit ]

1929–1938 : american Record corporation [edit ]

The american Record Corporation ( ARC ) was founded in 1929 through a fusion of respective record companies. [ 12 ] The company grew for the future respective years, acquiring other brands such as the Columbia Phonograph Company, including its Okeh Records auxiliary, in 1934. [ 13 ]

1938–1970 : Columbia/CBS Records [edit ]

In 1938, ARC was acquired by the Columbia Broadcasting System ( CBS ) under the steering of the head administrator William S. Paley. The company was late renamed Columbia Recording Corporation, [ 14 ] and changed again to Columbia Records Inc. in 1947. [ 15 ] Edward Wallerstein, who served as the point of Columbia Records since the recently 1930s, helped establish the company as a leader in the record diligence by spearheading the successful introduction of the LP record. [ 16 ] Columbia ‘s success continued through the 1950s with the launch of Epic Records in 1953 [ 17 ] and Date Records in 1958. [ 18 ] By 1962, the Columbia Records productions unit was operating four plants around the United States located in Los Angeles, California ; Terre Haute, Indiana ; Bridgeport, Connecticut ; and Pitman, New Jersey. [ 19 ] Columbia ‘s external branch was launched in 1962 under the name “ CBS Records ”, as the party merely owned the rights to the Columbia name in North America. [ 20 ] In 1964, the company began acquiring read companies in early countries for its CBS Records International unit [ 21 ] and established its own UK distribution outfit with the learning of Oriole Records. [ 22 ] By 1966, Columbia was renamed as CBS Records and was a separate unit of the parent company, CBS-Columbia Group. [ 23 ] [ 24 ] In March 1968, CBS and Sony formed CBS/Sony Records, a japanese business joint guess. [ 25 ]

1971–1991 : CBS Records Group [edit ]

In 1971, CBS Records was expanded into its own “ CBS Records Group ”, with Clive Davis as its administrative frailty president and general director. [ 26 ] In the 1980s to the early 1990s, the company managed respective successful labels, including CBS Associated Records, [ 27 ] which signed artists including Ozzy Osbourne, the Fabulous Thunderbirds, Electric Light Orchestra, Joan Jett, and Henry Lee Summer. [ 28 ] In 1983, CBS expanded its music publication clientele by acquiring the music print sleeve of MGM/UA Communications Co. . [ 29 ] ( CBS late sold the print music arm to Columbia Pictures. [ 30 ] ) By 1987, CBS was the only “ adult three “ American television network to have a co-owned record company. [ 31 ] With Sony being one of the developers behind the compendious disk digital music media, a compendious disk production plant was constructed in Japan under the joint venture, allowing CBS to begin supplying some of the first compact phonograph record releases for the american commercialize in 1983. [ 32 ] In 1986, CBS sold its music publish division, CBS Songs, to SBK Entertainment [ 33 ] On November 17, 1987, Sony acquired CBS Records for US $ 2 billion. CBS Inc., nowadays ViacomCBS, retained the rights to the CBS name for music recordings but granted Sony a impermanent license to use the CBS diagnose. [ 34 ] The sale was completed on January 5, 1988. [ 35 ] CBS Corporation founded a new CBS Records in 2006, which was distributed by Sony through its RED auxiliary. [ 36 ] In 1989, CBS Records re-entered the music print business by acquiring Nashville-based Tree International Publishing. [ 33 ]

1991–2004 : parturition of Sony Music Entertainment [edit ]

Sony renamed the record company Sony Music Entertainment ( SME ) on January 1, 1991, fulfilling the terms set under the 1988 buyout, which granted only a transitional license to the CBS brand. [ 37 ] The CBS Associated label was renamed Epic Associated. [ 38 ] besides on January 1, 1991, to replace the CBS label, Sony reintroduced the Columbia pronounce worldwide, which it previously held in the United States and Canada only, after it acquired the external rights to the brand from EMI in 1990. [ 37 ] Japan is the entirely nation where Sony does not have rights to the Columbia diagnose as it is controlled by Nippon Columbia, an unrelated ship’s company. [ 39 ] Thus, Sony Music Entertainment Japan issues labels under Sony Records. The Columbia Records brand ‘s rightsholder in Spain was Bertelsmann Music Group, Germany, which Sony Music subsequently subsumed via a 2004 amalgamation, and a subsequent 2008 buyout. [ 40 ] In 1995, Sony and Michael Jackson formed a joint venture which merged Sony ‘s music publish operations with Jackson ‘s ATV Music to form Sony/ATV Music Publishing. [ 41 ]

2004–2008 : Sony BMG : joint venture with Bertelsmann [edit ]

In August 2004, Sony entered a joint speculation with an equal collaborator Bertelsmann, by merging Sony Music and Bertelsmann Music Group, Germany, to establish Sony BMG Music Entertainment. [ 42 ] however Sony continued to operate its japanese music business independently from Sony BMG while BMG Japan was made separate of the amalgamation. [ 43 ] The fusion made Columbia and Epic baby labels to RCA Records, which was once owned by CBS rival, NBC. [ 44 ] It besides started the serve of bringing BMG ‘s Arista Records back under common possession with its former rear Columbia Pictures, a Sony class since 1989, and besides brought Arista founder Clive Davis back into the fold. [ 45 ] As of 2017, Davis was still with Sony Music as headman creative military officer. [ 46 ]

2008–present : Sony Music Entertainment and restructure [edit ]

On August 5, 2008, Sony Corporation of America ( SCA ) and Bertelsmann announced that Sony had agreed to acquire Bertelsmann ‘s 50 % interest in Sony BMG. The company completed the skill on October 1, 2008. [ 47 ] On July 1, 2009, SME and IODA announced a strategic partnership to leverage cosmopolitan on-line retail distribution networks and complementary technologies to support independent labels and music rights holders. [ 48 ] [ 49 ] In March 2010, Sony Corp partnered with The Michael Jackson Company in a compress of more than $ 250 million, the largest share in recorded music history. [ 50 ] Doug Morris, who was head of Warner Music Group, and late Universal Music, became chair and CEO of Sony Music Entertainment on July 1, 2011. [ 51 ] Sony Music undergo restructure upon Morris ‘ arrival ; with some artists switching labels while early labels were eliminated wholly. [ 52 ] [ 53 ] [ 54 ] [ 55 ] In June 2012, a consortium led by Sony/ATV acquired EMI Music Publishing, making Sony/ATV the worldly concern ‘s largest music publisher at the time. [ 56 ] This acquisition besides reunited the coarse ownership of pre-1986 CBS Songs ( as SBK Songs ) catalog to Sony/ATV. Rob Stringer became CEO of Sony Music Entertainment on April 1, 2017. He previously served as chair and CEO of Columbia Records. [ 57 ] Sony has experienced a number of changes with its international labels. In March 2012, Sony Music reportedly closed its Filipino agency ascribable to plagiarism, causing it to move its distribution in the state to Ivory Music, [ 58 ] until 2018 when SME resumed its Philippines operation. [ 59 ] In July 2013, Sony Music withdrew from the greek grocery store due to an economic crisis. [ 60 ] Albums released by Sony Music in Greece from domestic and foreign artists would then be carried by Feelgood Records. [ 61 ] In June 2017, Sony announced that by March 2018 it would be producing vinyl records in-house for the foremost prison term since ceasing their output in 1989. Reporting the decision, the BBC noted that, “ Sony ‘s go comes a few months after it equipped its Tokyo studio with a cutting lathe, used to produce the master magnetic disk needed for manufacturing vinyl records ” but added that “ Sony is even struggling to find older engineers who know how to make records ”. [ 62 ]

On February 5, 2019, a group of 1970s-era musicians including David Johansen and John Waite filed lawsuits accusing Sony Music Entertainment and UMG Recordings, Inc. of improperly refusing to let them reclaim the rights to songs they had signed away earlier in their careers. [ 63 ] The lawsuit cites U.S. copyright law, which gives artists who once bargained away their rights on unfavorable terms a gamble to reclaim those rights by filing result notices after 35 years. [ 64 ] The plaintiffs claim that Sony and UMG have “ routinely and systematically ” ignore hundreds of notices, having taken the side that recordings are “ works made for hire ” and are consequently not subject to being reclaimed. [ 63 ] In 2021, Sony agreed to buy Kobalt neighbouring rights division and independent distribution ship’s company AWAL, from the Kobalt Music Group for $ 430 million. [ 65 ] In April 2021, the brazilian media company Grupo Globo sold its domestic criminal record label Som Livre to Sony Music for an undisclosed come. It was approved by the Administrative Council for Economic Defense on 4 November 2021 .

Sony Music UK [edit ]

Sony Music UK is owned and operated by Sony Music Entertainment in the United Kingdom. Since 2014, Jason Iley has been chair and CEO of Sony Music UK. Though owned by Sony Music Entertainment, Sony Music UK has standalone operations in the UK to promote musicians within the UK. [ 66 ] In June 2017, it was announced that Sony would be merging its two autonomous distribution companies The Orchard and Red Essential. [ 67 ] 2014 saw Sony ‘s best singles success for 33 years, with 11 number 1 singles. Sony Music artists won a full of five individual awards at the BRITs 2015, including Best Female Solo Artist for Paloma Faith, and Mark Ronson ‘s “ Uptown Funk “, which picked up Best british Single. several other of the label ‘s artists – Foo Fighters, One management and Pharrell Williams – besides collected awards. [ 68 ] [ 69 ] Sony ‘s performance at the BRITs 2015 was the label ‘s best in about 20 years, winning a entire of 5 awards. In 2017, Sony Music UK celebrated the most successful BRIT Awards in the company ‘s history, winning seven of the 11 awards. In the last three years, Sony Music UK has made keystone acquisitions including forming insanity Records with Insanity Management. Craig David became the first artist to sign an album batch with Insanity Records. Sony Music UK signed Robbie Williams, who released his 11th album The Heavy Entertainment Show in 2016. Jason Iley commented that the agreement was “ a once in a life sign with the biggest male solo artist of our generation ”. [ 70 ] [ 71 ] Sony Music UK besides incorporated the independent sales and distribution company Essential Music and Marketing – renamed to Red Essential. In August 2016, Sony Music acquired Ministry of Sound Recordings, family to London Grammar, DJ Fresh and Sigala. [ 72 ] [ 73 ] On April 5, 2017, two of Sony Music UK ‘s labels won awards at the annual Music Week Awards. Columbia Records received the ‘A & R of the Year ‘ Award, while Syco were awarded the ‘Record Company of the Year ‘ Award. [ 74 ]

Controversies [edit ]

certificate of deposit price fixing [edit ]

between 1995 and 2000, music companies were found to have used illegal marketing agreements such as minimum advertised price to artificially inflate prices of compact disk. This was done in order to end price wars of the early on 1990s among discounters such as Best Buy and Target. [ 75 ] A settlement was reached in 2002 that included music publishers and distributors Sony Music, Warner Music, Bertelsmann Music Group, EMI Music and Universal Music. In damages for price fix, they agreed to pay a $ 67.4 million ticket and distribute $ 75.7 million in CDs to public and non-profit groups but admitted no error. [ 76 ] It is estimated that customers were overcharged by about $ 500 million overall and up to $ 5 per album. [ 75 ]
The british artist, signed to Columbia in the U.S. and Epic global, advised Sony executives in 1990 that he would not be appearing in music video to support his forthcoming album, Listen Without Prejudice, Vol. 1. Michael then accused Sony of not promoting the album at all. He sued in the UK in 1992, asking to be released from his shrink. Sony ultimately prevailed in the courts in 1994, but Michael ‘s condense was bought out by other labels. Some 11 years subsequently, Michael licensed tracks to Sony for exhaust .

Michael Jackson and Tommy Mottola [edit ]

The acquittance of Invincible was preceded by a dispute between Michael Jackson and Sony Music Entertainment. Jackson had expected the licenses to the masters of his albums to revert to him erstwhile in the early 2000s, after which he would be able to promote the material however he pleased and keep the profits ; however, clauses in the contract set the revert go steady years into the future. Jackson discovered that the lawyer who had represented him in the share had besides been representing Sony. [ 77 ] He was besides concerned that for years Sony had been pressuring him to sell his parcel in its music catalogue speculation ; he feared that Sony might have had a conflict of interest, since if Jackson ‘s career failed, he would have had to sell his share of the catalog at a low price. [ 78 ] Jackson sought an early exit from his abridge. [ 77 ] In July 2002, Jackson alleged that the then-Sony Music president Tommy Mottola was a “ devil ” and “ racist ” who did not support his african-american artists, using them merely for his own gain. [ 78 ] He charged that Mottola had called his colleague Irv Gotti a “ fat nigger “. [ 79 ] Sony refused to renew Jackson ‘s narrow, and claimed that a $ 25 million promotional political campaign had failed because Jackson refused to tour in the United States. [ 80 ]

prosecution of copyright violation [edit ]

In May 2012, Sony Music filed charges against the web site IsoHunt. [ 81 ] The plaintiff ‘s claims in the court document filed at the Supreme Court of British Columbia read : “ The IsoHunt Websites have been designed and are operated by the defendants with the lone aim of profiting from rampant copyright misdemeanor which defendants actively encourage, promote, authorize, induce, aid, abet, materially contribute to and commercially net income from. ” [ 82 ] In February 2016, in a lawsuit filed at a California federal court, Sony Music Entertainment and its associated brands ( Arista Records and LaFace Records, once owned by Bertelsmann Music Group ) accused belgian radio collector Radionomy ( owned by Universal Music Group ‘s rear Vivendi ) of copyright misdemeanor. [ 83 ]

2016 boycott [edit ]

In February 2016, 100,000 people signed an on-line petition in less than 24 hours, calling for a boycott of Sony Music and all other Sony-affiliated businesses after rape allegations against music producer Dr. Luke were made by musical artist Kesha. Kesha asked a New York City Supreme Court to free her from her compress with Sony Music, but the court denied the request, prompting a widespread public and media response. [ 84 ]

list of Sony Music Entertainment labels [edit ]

flagship phonograph record labels [edit ]

Genre-limited phonograph record labels [edit ]

Country music
Christian/gospel music
  • Provident Label Group
  • RCA Inspiration
  • Kingdom Life Records
  • DeJountae Records
Dance/electronic music
Latin American/Latin pop music
Classical/jazz music
Metal music
Progressive music

Others [edit ]

Sony Music UK[88][89]
  • Columbia Records UK[90]
  • Relentless Records
  • 5K Records[91]
  • Black Butter Records (joint-venture)[92]
  • Dream Life Records[93]
  • Insanity Records (joint-venture)[94]
  • Magic Star[95]
  • Robots + Humans[96]
  • Since ’93[97]
  • Sony Music Nashville UK[98]
  • WEAREBLK (joint-venture)[99]
  • District 18 Entertainment (joint-venture)
Independent music distribution
Catalog
Distributed labels
International

previously affiliated labels [edit ]

See besides [edit ]

References [edit ]

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