Pink Floyd – Wikipedia

english rock candy band

Pink Floyd were an english rock ring formed in London in 1964. Gaining an early on comply as one of the beginning british psychedelic groups, they were distinguished for their widen compositions, sonic experiment, philosophical lyrics and elaborate live shows. They became a leading band of the progressive rock genre, cited by some as the greatest liberal rock isthmus of all clock time.

Pink Floyd were founded in 1964 by Syd Barrett ( guitar, lead vocals ), Nick Mason ( drums ), Roger Waters ( bass guitar, vocals ), Richard Wright ( keyboards, vocals ) and Bob Klose ( guitars ) ; Klose leave office in 1965. Under Barrett ‘s leadership, they released two charting singles and the successful introduction album The Piper at the Gates of Dawn ( 1967 ). Guitarist and singer David Gilmour joined in December 1967 ; Barrett left in April 1968 due to deteriorating mental health. Waters became the primary lyricist and thematic drawing card, devising the concepts behind the band ‘s extremum success with the albums The Dark Side of the Moon ( 1973 ), Wish You Were Here ( 1975 ), Animals ( 1977 ) and The Wall ( 1979 ). The musical film based on The Wall, Pink Floyd – The Wall ( 1982 ), won two BAFTA Awards. Following personal tensions, Wright left Pink Floyd in 1979, followed by Waters in 1985. Gilmour and Mason continued as Pink Floyd, rejoined later by Wright. The band produced two more albums— A Momentary Lapse of Reason ( 1987 ) and The Division Bell ( 1994 ) —and toured in support of both albums before entering a long period of inactiveness. In 2005, all but Barrett reunited for a one-off performance at the global awareness consequence Live 8. Barrett died in 2006, and Wright in 2008. The last Pink Floyd studio album, The Endless River ( 2014 ), was based on unreleased corporeal from the Division Bell commemorate sessions. By 2013, Pink Floyd had sold more than 250 million records global, making them one of the best-selling music artists of all time. Wish You Were Here, The Dark Side of the Moon, and The Wall are among the best-selling albums of all time, and the latter two have been inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame. [ 1 ] Four of the isthmus ‘s albums topped the US Billboard 200, and five of their albums topped the UK Album Chart. Hit singles include “ See Emily Play “ ( 1967 ), “ money “ ( 1973 ), “ Another Brick in the Wall, Part 2 “ ( 1979 ), “ not now John “ ( 1983 ), “ On the Turning Away “ ( 1987 ) and “ High Hopes “ ( 1994 ). The band besides composed several film scores. They were inducted into the US Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1996 and the UK Music Hall of Fame in 2005. In 2008, King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden presented Pink Floyd with the Polar Music Prize for their contribution to modern music .

history

1963–1967 : early years

formation

Roger Waters and Nick Mason met while studying computer architecture at the London Polytechnic at Regent Street. [ 2 ] They first played music together in a group formed by colleague students Keith Noble and Clive Metcalfe, with Noble ‘s sister Sheilagh. Richard Wright, a colleague architecture student, [ niobium 1 ] joined later that year, and the group became a sextet, Sigma 6. Waters played precede guitar, Mason drums, and Wright rhythm guitar ( since there was rarely an available keyboard ). [ 5 ] The band performed at secret functions and rehearsed in a teashop in the basement of the Regent Street Polytechnic. They performed songs by the Searchers and substantial written by their director and songwriter, mate student Ken Chapman. In September 1963, Waters and Mason moved into a flatcar at 39 Stanhope Gardens near crouch end in London, owned by Mike Leonard, a part-time tutor at the nearby Hornsey College of Art and the Regent Street Polytechnic. [ niobium 2 ] Mason moved out after the 1964 academic year, and guitarist Bob Klose moved in during September 1964, prompting Waters ‘ interchange to bass. [ niobium 3 ] Sigma 6 went through respective names, including the Meggadeaths, the Abdabs and the Screaming Abdabs, Leonard ‘s Lodgers, and the Spectrum Five, before settling on the Tea Set. [ niobium 4 ] In 1964, as Metcalfe and Noble left to form their own isthmus, guitarist Syd Barrett joined Klose and Waters at Stanhope Gardens. Barrett, two years younger, had moved to London in 1962 to study at the Camberwell College of Arts. Waters and Barrett were childhood friends ; Waters had frequently visited Barrett and watched him play guitar at Barrett ‘s mother ‘s theater. Mason said about Barrett : “ In a period when everyone was being cool in a very adolescent, self-conscious way, Syd was unfashionably outgoing ; my enduring memory of our first run into is the fact that he bothered to come up and introduce himself to me. ” noble and Metcalfe left the Tea Set in belated 1963, and Klose introduced the band to singer Chris Dennis, a technician with the Royal Air Force ( RAF ). In December 1964, they secured their inaugural record prison term, at a studio in West Hampstead, through one of Wright ‘s friends, who let them use some down time exempt. Wright, who was taking a break from his studies, did not participate in the session. [ nota bene 5 ] When the RAF assigned Dennis a position in Bahrain in early 1965, Barrett became the set ‘s frontman. [ nota bene 6 ] Later that class, they became the nonmigratory band at the Countdown Club near Kensington High Street in London, where from late night until early good morning they played three sets of 90 minutes each. During this period, spurred by the group ‘s indigence to extend their sets to minimise song repetition, the set realised that “ songs could be extended with drawn-out solo ”, wrote Mason. After coerce from his parents and advice from his college tutors, Klose quit the band in mid-1965 and Barrett took over tip guitar. [ 21 ] The group first gear referred to themselves as the Pink Floyd Sound in deep 1965. Barrett created the name on the spur of the moment when he discovered that another band, besides called the Tea Set, were to perform at one of their gigs. The list is derived from the given names of two blues musicians whose Piedmont blues records Barrett had in his collection, Pink Anderson and Floyd Council. [ 23 ] By 1966, the group ‘s repertoire consisted chiefly of rhythm and blues songs and they had begun to receive paid bookings, including a performance at the Marquee Club in December 1966, where Peter Jenner, a lector at the London School of Economics, noticed them. Jenner was impressed by the sonic effects Barrett and Wright created, and with his business partner and friend Andrew King became their coach. [ 24 ] The pair had fiddling have in the music industry and used King ‘s inheritance to set up Blackhill Enterprises, purchasing about £1,000 ( equivalent to £19,000 in 2020 [ 25 ] ) worth of newfangled instruments and equipment for the band. [ nota bene 7 ] It was around this clock time that Jenner suggested they drop the “ Sound ” share of their band name, thus becoming Pink Floyd. Under Jenner and King ‘s steering, the group became region of London ‘s belowground music setting, playing at venues including All Saints Hall and the Marquee. While performing at the Countdown Club, the band had experimented with long implemental excursions, and they began to expand them with fundamental but effective light shows, projected by colored slides and domestic lights. [ 29 ] Jenner and King ‘s social connections helped gain the band big coverage in the Financial Times and an article in the Sunday Times which stated : “ At the plunge of the newly magazine IT the other night a crop up group called the Pink Floyd played throbbing music while a series of bizarre color shapes flashed on a huge screen behind them … apparently identical psychedelic. ” [ 30 ] In 1966, the band strengthened their business kinship with Blackhill Enterprises, becoming equal partners with Jenner and King and the ring members each holding a one-sixth share. By late 1966, their stage set included fewer R & B standards and more Barrett originals, many of which would be included on their first album. While they had significantly increased the frequency of their performances, the band were silent not widely accepted. Following a performance at a Catholic young club, the owner refused to pay them, claiming that their performance was not music. When their management filed suit in a humble claims woo against the owner of the youth organization, a local magistrate upheld the owner ‘s decision. The dance band was much better received at the UFO Club in London, where they began to build a sports fan basal. Barrett ‘s performances were enthusiastic, “ leaping about … madness … improvisation … [ inspired ] to get past his limitations and into areas that were … very interesting. Which none of the others could do ”, wrote biographer Nicholas Schaffner .

Signing with EMI

In 1967, Pink Floyd began to attract the attention of the music industry. [ 35 ] [ nota bene 8 ] While in negotiations with record companies, IT co-founder and UFO club coach Joe Boyd and Pink Floyd ‘s reserve agent Bryan Morrison arranged and funded a recording session at Sound Techniques in Kensington. Three days subsequently, Pink Floyd signed with EMI, receiving a £5,000 advance ( equivalent to £92,800 in 2020 [ 25 ] ). EMI released the isthmus ‘s first base unmarried, “ Arnold Layne “, with the B-side “ Candy and a Currant Bun “, on 10 March 1967 on its Columbia label. [ 38 ] [ niobium 9 ] Both tracks were recorded on 29 January 1967. [ niobium 10 ] “ Arnold Layne ” ‘s references to cross-dress led to a ban by respective radio stations ; however, creative manipulation by the retailers who supplied sales figures to the music business meant that the individual top out in the UK at number 20. EMI-Columbia released Pink Floyd ‘s moment single, “ See Emily Play “, on 16 June 1967. It fared slenderly better than “ Arnold Layne ”, peaking at count 6 in the UK. The set performed on the BBC ‘s Look of the Week, where Waters and Barrett, erudite and lease, faced bad questioning from Hans Keller. They appeared on the BBC ‘s Top of the Pops, a popular program that controversially required artists to mime their scorch and act. Though Pink Floyd returned for two more performances, by the third, Barrett had begun to unravel, and around this time the isthmus beginning noticed significant changes in his behavior. By early 1967, he was regularly using LSD, and Mason described him as “ wholly distanced from everything going on ”. [ 46 ]

The Piper at the Gates of Dawn

Morrison and EMI producer Norman Smith negotiated Pink Floyd ‘s first record abridge. As part of the cover, the isthmus agreed to record their beginning album at EMI Studios in London. [ 47 ] [ niobium 11 ] Mason recalled that the sessions were trouble-free. Smith disagree, stating that Barrett was unresponsive to his suggestions and constructive criticism. EMI-Columbia released The Piper at the Gates of Dawn in August 1967. The album peaked at phone number 6, spending 14 weeks on the UK charts. One calendar month late, it was released under the Tower Records label. [ 51 ] Pink Floyd continued to draw boastfully crowd at the UFO Club ; however, Barrett ‘s mental breakdown was by then causing dangerous concern. The group initially hoped that his erratic behavior would be a travel by phase, but some were less affirmative, including Jenner and his assistant, June Child, who commented : “ I found [ Barrett ] in the snip room and he was then … gone. Roger Waters and I got him on his feet, [ and ] we got him out to the degree … The band started to play and Syd fair stood there. He had his guitar around his neck and his arms merely hanging down ”. [ 52 ] Forced to cancel Pink Floyd ‘s appearance at the esteemed National Jazz and Blues Festival, ampere well as respective other shows, King informed the music weigh that Barrett was suffering from anxious debilitation. Waters arranged a suffer with psychiatrist R. D. Laing, and though Waters personally drove Barrett to the appointment, Barrett refused to come out of the car. A stay in Formentera with Sam Hutt, a repair well established in the metro music scene, led to no visible improvement. The band followed a few concert dates in Europe during September with their first enlistment of the US in October. [ niobium 12 ] As the US tour went on, Barrett ‘s condition grew steadily worse. During appearances on the Dick Clark and Pat Boone shows in November, Barrett confounded his hosts by giving crisp answers to questions ( or not responding at all ) and staring into outer space. He refused to move his lips when it came time to mime “ See Emily Play ” on Boone ‘s indicate. After these embarrassing episodes, King ended their u travel to and immediately sent them home to London. [ nota bene 13 ] Soon after their return, they supported Jimi Hendrix during a tour of England ; however, Barrett ‘s depression worsened as the tour continued. [ 60 ] [ niobium 14 ]

1967–1978 : transition and international success

1967 : successor of Barrett by Gilmour

In December 1967, reaching a crisis point with Barrett, Pink Floyd added guitarist David Gilmour as the fifth member. [ niobium 15 ] Gilmour already knew Barrett, having studied with him at Cambridge Tech in the early 1960s. The two had performed at lunchtimes together with guitars and harmonica, and late hitch-hiked and busked their way around the confederacy of France. In 1965, while a extremity of Joker ‘s Wild, Gilmour had watched the Tea Set. Morrison ‘s assistant, Steve O’Rourke, set Gilmour up in a room at O’Rourke ‘s house with a wage of £30 per week ( equivalent to £500 in 2020 [ 25 ] ). In January 1968, Blackhill Enterprises announced Gilmour as the band ‘s newest member, intending to continue with Barrett as a nonperforming songwriter. [ 67 ] According to Jenner, the group planned that Gilmour would ” cover for [ Barrett ‘s ] eccentricities ”. When this proved impracticable, it was decided that Barrett would fair write substantial. [ nota bene 16 ] In an formulation of his frustration, Barrett, who was expected to write extra reach singles to follow up “ Arnold Layne ” and “ See Emily Play ”, rather introduced “ Have You Got It so far ? “ to the band, intentionally changing the structure on each performance so as to make the song impossible to follow and learn. In a January 1968 photoshoot of Pink Floyd, the photograph show Barrett looking detached from the others, staring into the distance. Working with Barrett finally proved besides unmanageable, and matters came to a termination in January while en route to a performance in Southampton when a band member asked if they should collect Barrett. According to Gilmour, the answer was “ Nah, let ‘s not bother ”, signalling the end of Barrett ‘s tenure with Pink Floyd. [ nota bene 17 ] Waters belated said, “ He was our ally, but most of the meter we now wanted to strangle him. ” In early March 1968, Pink Floyd met with commercial enterprise partners Jenner and King to discuss the ring ‘s future ; Barrett agreed to leave. [ 74 ] Jenner and King believed Barrett was the creative brilliance of the band, and decided to represent him and end their relationship with Pink Floyd. Morrison sold his business to NEMS Enterprises, and O’Rourke became the band ‘s personal director. Blackhill announced Barrett ‘s departure on 6 April 1968. [ nota bene 18 ] After Barrett ‘s passing, the burden of lyric writing and creative direction fell largely on Waters. initially, Gilmour mimed to Barrett ‘s voice on the group ‘s european television appearances ; however, while playing on the university tour, they avoided Barrett songs in party favor of Waters and Wright material such as “ It Would Be So Nice “ and “ careful with That Axe, Eugene “ .

A Saucerful of Secrets ( 1968 )

A psychedelic album cover with mostly greenish blues tones. A Saucerful of Secrets was the first of many Pink Floyd covers designed by The psychedelic artwork forwas the first base of many Pink Floyd covers designed by Hipgnosis In 1968, Pink Floyd returned to Abbey Road Studios to record their second album, A Saucerful of Secrets. The album included Barrett ‘s final contribution to their discography, “ Jugband Blues “. Waters began to develop his own songwriting, contributing “ Set the Controls for the Heart of the Sun “, “ Let There Be More light “ and “ Corporal Clegg “. Wright composed “ See-Saw “ and “ Remember a Day “. Norman Smith encouraged them to self-produce their music, and they recorded demos of new material at their houses. With Smith ‘s teaching at Abbey Road, they learned how to use the record studio apartment to realise their artistic vision. however, Smith remained unconvinced by their music, and when Mason struggled to perform his barrel contribution on “ Remember a Day ”, Smith stepped in as his substitute. Wright recalled Smith ‘s attitude about the sessions, “ Norman gave up on the second album … he was everlastingly saying things like, ‘You ca n’t do twenty minutes of this farcical make noise ‘ ”. As neither Waters nor Mason could read music, to illustrate the structure of the album ‘s style track, they invented their own system of notation. Gilmour late described their method as looking “ like an architectural diagram ”. Released in June 1968, the album featured a psychedelic cover designed by Storm Thorgerson and Aubrey Powell of Hipgnosis. The foremost of respective Pink Floyd album covers designed by Hipgnosis, it was the second time that EMI permitted one of their groups to contract designers for an album jacket. [ 84 ] The release peaked at number 9, spending 11 weeks on the UK chart. Record Mirror gave the album an overall favorable review, but urged listeners to “ forget it as background music to a party ”. John Peel described a survive performance of the deed track as “ like a religious know ”, while NME described the song as “ long and drilling … [ with ] small to warrant its flat management ”. [ nota bene 19 ] On the day after the album ‘s UK free, Pink Floyd performed at the first always release concert in Hyde Park. In July 1968, they returned to the US for a second visit. Accompanied by the Soft Machine and the Who, it marked Pink Floyd ‘s first meaning enlistment. In December of that year, they released “ Point Me at the Sky “ ; no more successful than the two singles they had released since “ See Emily Play ”, it would be the dance band ‘s last until their 1973 release ( in specify territories, not including the UK ), “ Money “. [ 88 ]

Ummagumma ( 1969 ), Atom Heart Mother ( 1970 ), and Meddle ( 1971 )

Pink Floyd in 1971, following Barrett ‘s deviation ( From left to right : Waters, Mason, Gilmour, Wright ) Ummagumma represented a departure from Pink Floyd ‘s former study. Released as a double-LP on EMI ‘s Harvest pronounce, the first two sides contained live performances recorded at Manchester College of Commerce and Mothers, a club in Birmingham. The second LP contained a one experimental contribution from each dance band member. Ummagumma was released in November 1969 and received positive reviews. The album peaked at number 5, spending 21 weeks on the UK chart .
A monochrome image of Waters playing bass guitar. He has shoulder-length hair, black attire, and is standing in front of a microphone. Waters performing with Pink Floyd at Leeds University in 1970 In October 1970, Pink Floyd released Atom Heart Mother. [ niobium 20 ] An early version premièred in England in mid January, but disagreements over the shuffle prompted the hire of Ron Geesin to work out the heavy problems. Geesin worked to improve the score, but with little creative remark from the band, production was troublesome. Geesin finally completed the project with the help of John Alldis, who was the director of the choir hired to perform on the record. Smith earned an executive producer credit, and the album marked his final official contribution to the ring ‘s discography. Gilmour said it was “ A neat way of saying that he didn’t … do anything ”. Waters was critical of Atom Heart Mother, claiming that he would prefer if it were “ thrown into the ashcan and never listened to by anyone ever again ”. Gilmour once described it as “ a load of folderol ”, stating : “ I think we were scraping the barrel a bit at that period. ” Pink Floyd ‘s foremost number- one album, Atom Heart Mother was enormously successful in Britain, spending 18 weeks on the UK chart. It premièred at the Bath Festival on 27 June 1970. Pink Floyd toured extensively across America and Europe in 1970. [ nota bene 21 ] In 1971, Pink Floyd took second put in a reader ‘s poll, in Melody Maker, and for the inaugural prison term were making a profit. Mason and Wright became fathers and bought homes in London while Gilmour, still single, moved to a 19th-century farm in Essex. Waters installed a dwelling recording studio at his house in Islington in a converted toolshed at the back of his garden. In January 1971, upon their refund from touring Atom Heart Mother, Pink Floyd began working on new material. Lacking a cardinal theme, they attempted several unproductive experiments ; engineer John Leckie described the sessions as much beginning in the afternoon and ending early the adjacent dawn, “ during which time nothing would get [ achieve ]. There was no record caller contact any, except when their label coach would show up nowadays and again with a couple of bottles of wine and a couple of joints ”. [ 99 ] The ring spent long periods working on basic sounds, or a guitar riff. They besides spent respective days at Air Studios, attempting to create music using a diverseness of family objects, a undertaking which would be revisited between The Dark Side of the Moon and Wish You Were Here. Released in October 1971, “ Meddle not only confirms lead guitarist David Gilmour ‘s egress as a real shape force with the group, it states forcefully and accurately that the group is well into the growth cut again ”, wrote Jean-Charles Costa of Rolling Stone. [ 101 ] [ nota bene 22 ] [ nota bene 23 ] NME called Meddle “ an exceptionally good album ”, singling out “ Echoes “ as the “ Zenith which the Floyd have been striving for ”. however, Melody Maker’s Michael Watts found it underwhelming, calling the album “ a soundtrack to a non-existent movie ”, and shrugging off Pink Floyd as “ so much sound and ferocity, signifying nothing ”. Meddle is a transitional album between the Barrett-influenced group of the former 1960s and the emerging Pink Floyd. [ 107 ] The LP peaked at number 3, spending 82 weeks on the UK chart .

The Dark Side of the Moon ( 1973 )

Pink Floyd recorded The Dark Side of the Moon between May 1972 and January 1973 with EMI staff mastermind Alan Parsons at Abbey Road. The title is an allusion to folly rather than astronomy. [ 108 ] The band had composed and refined the corporeal while touring the UK, Japan, North America and Europe. Producer Chris Thomas assisted Parsons. [ 110 ] Hipgnosis designed the packaging, which included George Hardie ‘s iconic refracting prism design on the cover. Thorgerson ‘s cover features a beam of egg white easy, representing one, passing through a prism, which represents society. The refract beam of color ignite symbolises oneness diffracted, leaving an absence of integrity. Waters is the sole generator of the lyrics .
The Dark Side of the Moon Pink Floyd performing on their early 1973 US go, soon before the liberation of Released in March 1973, the LP became an instant chart success in the UK and throughout Western Europe, earning an enthusiastic answer from critics. Each member of Pink Floyd except Wright boycotted the urge unblock of The Dark Side of the Moon because a quadraphonic mix had not however been completed, and they felt presenting the album through a poor-quality stereo PA system was insufficient. Melody Maker ‘s Roy Hollingworth described side one as “ absolutely confuse … [ and ] unmanageable to follow ”, but praise side two, writing : “ The songs, the sounds … [ and ] the rhythm were solid … [ the ] sax hit the air, the band rocked and rolled ”. [ 116 ] Rolling Stone ‘s Loyd Grossman described it as “ a fine album with a textural and conceptual profusion that not entirely invites, but demands involvement. ” [ 117 ] Throughout March 1973, The Dark Side of the Moon featured as share of Pink Floyd ‘s US tour. The album is one of the most commercially successful rock ‘n’ roll albums of all time ; a US number-one, it remained on the Billboard Top LPs & Tape graph for more than fourteen years during the 1970s and 1980s, selling more than 45 million copies worldwide. [ 119 ] In Britain, the album peaked at total 2, spending 364 weeks on the UK graph. The Dark Side of the Moon is the world ‘s third gear best-selling album, and the twenty-first best-selling album of all fourth dimension in the US. [ 120 ] The achiever of the album brought enormous wealth to the members of Pink Floyd. Waters and Wright bought large nation houses while Mason became a collector of expensive cars. Disenchanted with their uracil record company, Capitol Records, Pink Floyd and O’Rourke negotiated a newfangled shrink with Columbia Records, who gave them a reported boost of $ 1,000,000 ( US $ 5,247,638 in 2020 dollars ) [ 123 ]. In Europe, they continued to be represented by Harvest Records .

Wish You Were Here ( 1975 )

After a tour of the UK acting Dark Side, Pink Floyd returned to the studio in January 1975 and began work on their ninth studio apartment album, Wish You Were Here. Parsons declined an propose to continue working with them, becoming successful in his own justly with the Alan Parsons Project, and sol the band turned to Brian Humphries. initially, they found it unmanageable to compose newfangled material ; the success of The Dark Side of the Moon had left Pink Floyd physically and emotionally drained. Wright later described these early sessions as “ falling within a unmanageable menstruation ” and Waters found them “ byzantine ”. Gilmour was more interested in improving the band ‘s existing material. Mason ‘s failing marriage left him in a general malaise and with a sense of apathy, both of which interfered with his cram. Despite the lack of creative commission, Waters began to visualise a new concept after respective weeks. During 1974, Pink Floyd had sketched out three original compositions and had performed them at a series of concerts in Europe. These compositions became the startle point for a new album whose opening four-note guitar phrase, composed strictly by probability by Gilmour, reminded Waters of Barrett. [ 129 ] The songs provided a fit drumhead of the upgrade and fall of their early bandmate. Waters commented : “ Because I wanted to get arsenic close as potential to what I felt … [ that ] indefinable, inevitable somber about the disappearance of Syd. ” While Pink Floyd were working on the album, Barrett made an ad lib visit to the studio. Thorgerson recalled that he “ seat circle and talked for a bit, but he was n’t very there ”. He had changed importantly in appearance, indeed much so that the band did not initially recognise him. Waters was reportedly deeply upset by the experience. [ niobium 24 ] Most of Wish You Were Here premiered on 5 July 1975, at an alfresco music festival at Knebworth. Released in September, it reached act one in both the UK and the US .

Animals ( 1977 )

In 1975, Pink Floyd bought a three-storey group of church halls at 35 Britannia Row in Islington and began converting them into a record studio and storehouse space. In 1976, they recorded their tenth album, Animals, in their newly finished 24-track studio. The album concept originated with Waters, broadly based on George Orwell ‘s political fabrication Animal Farm. The lyrics describe unlike classes of company as dogs, pigs, and sheep. [ nota bene 25 ] Hipgnosis received credit for the box ; however, Waters designed the final concept, choosing an picture of the ageing Battersea Power Station, over which they superimposed an image of a hog. [ 140 ] [ nota bene 26 ] The division of royalties was a reservoir of conflict between band members, who earned royalties on a per-song basis. Although Gilmour was largely creditworthy for “ Dogs “, which took up about the stallion first side of the album, he received less than Waters, who contributed the much shorter bipartite “ Pigs on the Wing “. Wright commented : “ It was partially my demerit because I did n’t push my material … but Dave did have something to offer, and merely managed to get a couple of things on there. ” Mason recalled : “ Roger was in entire flow with the ideas, but he was in truth keeping Dave down, and frustrating him intentionally. ” [ niobium 27 ] Gilmour, distracted by the give birth of his first child, contributed little else toward the album. similarly, neither Mason nor Wright contributed much toward Animals ; Wright had marital problems, and his relationship with Waters was besides suffering. Animals was the beginning Pink Floyd album with no writing credit rating for Wright, who said : “ This was when Roger really started to believe that he was the sole writer for the band … that it was only because of him that [ we ] were still going … when he started to develop his self trips, the person he would have his conflicts with would be me. ” Released in January 1977, Animals peaked on the UK chart at number two, and the US chart at numeral three. NME described the album as “ one of the most extreme, persistent, harrowing and downright iconoclastic hunks of music ”, and Melody Maker ‘s Karl Dallas called it “ [ an ] uncomfortable taste of world in a medium that has become in late years, increasingly soporific ”. Pink Floyd performed much of Animals during their “ In the Flesh “ tour. It was their first base experience playing large stadiums, whose size caused malaise in the ring. Waters began arriving at each venue entirely, departing immediately after the performance. On one occasion, Wright flew back to England, threatening to quit. At the Montreal Olympic Stadium, a group of noisy and enthusiastic fans in the front row of the hearing irritated Waters so much that he spat at one of them. [ nota bene 28 ] The end of the go marked a low point for Gilmour, who felt that the ring achieved the success they had sought, with nothing leave for them to accomplish .

1978–1985 : Waters-led era

The Wall ( 1979 )

In July 1978, amid a fiscal crisis caused by negligent investments, Waters presented two ideas for Pink Floyd ‘s next album. The first gear was a 90-minute show with the working title Bricks in the Wall; the early late became Waters ‘ first solo album, The Pros and Cons of Hitch Hiking. Although both Mason and Gilmour were initially timid, they chose the erstwhile. [ niobium 29 ] Bob Ezrin co-produced and wrote a forty-page handwriting for the new album. Ezrin based the narrative on the central figure of Pink—a gestalt character inspired by Waters ‘ childhood experiences, the most noteworthy of which was the death of his forefather in World War II. This first metaphorical brick led to more problems ; Pink would become drug-addled and depressed by the music industry, finally transforming into a megalomaniac, a development inspired partially by the descent of Syd Barrett. At the end of the album, the increasingly fascist hearing would watch as Pink tore down the wall, once again becoming a regular and caring person. [ nota bene 30 ] During the recording of The Wall, the ring became dissatisfy with Wright ‘s miss of contribution and fired him. Gilmour said that Wright was dismissed as he “ had n’t contributed anything of any value whatsoever to the album—he did very, very short ”. [ 160 ] According to Mason, Wright would sit in on the sessions “ without doing anything, precisely ‘being a producer ‘. ” Waters said the isthmus agreed that Wright would either have to “ have a long battle ” or agree to “ leave restfully ” after the album was finished ; Wright accepted the ultimatum and leave. [ nota bene 31 ] The Wall was supported by Pink Floyd ‘s foremost single since “ Money ”, “ Another Brick in the Wall ( Part II ) “, which topped the charts in the US and the UK. [ 165 ] The Wall was released on 30 November 1979 and topped the Billboard chart in the US for 15 weeks, reaching number three in the UK. [ 166 ] It is tied for one-sixth most certified album by RIAA, with 23 million certified units sold in the US. [ 167 ] The binding, with a arrant brick wall and isthmus diagnose, was the first Pink Floyd album blanket since The Piper at the Gates of Dawn not designed by Hipgnosis. Gerald Scarfe produced a series of animations for the Wall go. He besides commissioned the construction of large inflatable puppets representing characters from the storyline, including the “ Mother ”, the “ ex-wife ” and the “ Schoolmaster ”. Pink Floyd used the puppets during their performances. Relationships within the band reached an all-time low ; their four Winnebagos parked in a r-2, the doors facing away from the kernel. Waters used his own fomite to arrive at the venue and stayed in different hotels from the rest of the band. Wright returned as a gainful musician, making him the lone dance band extremity to profit from the enlistment, which lost about $ 600,000 ( US $ 1,707,980 in 2020 dollars [ 123 ] ). The Wall was adapted into a film, Pink Floyd – The Wall. The film was conceived as a combination of exist concert footage and enliven scenes ; however, the concert footage proved impractical to film. Alan Parker agreed to direct and took a different overture. The animate sequences remained, but scenes were acted by actors with no dialogue. Waters was screentested, but promptly discarded and they asked Bob Geldof to accept the role of Pink. Geldof was initially dismissive, condemning The Wall ‘s storyline as “ bollocks ”. finally won over by the candidate of participation in a significant film and receiving a big payment for his make, Geldof agreed. [ nota bene 32 ] Screened at the Cannes Film Festival in May 1982, Pink Floyd – The Wall premièred in the UK in July 1982. [ niobium 33 ]

The Final Cut ( 1983 )

In 1982, Waters suggested a project with the working title Spare Bricks, primitively conceived as the soundtrack album for Pink Floyd – The Wall. With the attack of the Falklands War, Waters changed direction and began writing new material. He saw Margaret Thatcher ‘s reception to the invasion of the Falklands as chauvinistic and unnecessary, and dedicated the album to his late founder. immediately arguments arose between Waters and Gilmour, who felt that the album should include all new material, preferably than recycle songs passed over for The Wall. Waters felt that Gilmour had contributed fiddling to the ring ‘s lyrical repertory. Michael Kamen, a subscriber to the orchestral arrangements of The Wall, mediated between the two, besides performing the function traditionally occupied by the then-absent Wright. [ nota bene 34 ] The tension within the band grew. Waters and Gilmour worked independently ; however, Gilmour began to feel the try, sometimes scantily maintaining his composure. After a concluding confrontation, Gilmour ‘s name disappeared from the credit list, reflecting what Waters felt was his miss of songwriting contributions. [ 177 ] [ niobium 35 ] Though Mason ‘s musical contributions were minimal, he stayed busy recording fathom effects for an experimental Holophonic system to be used on the album. With marital problems of his own, he remained a distant figure. Pink Floyd did not use Thorgerson for the cover invention, Waters choosing to design the cover himself. [ niobium 36 ] Released in March 1983, The Final Cut went heterosexual to numeral one in the UK and number six in the US. [ 179 ] Waters wrote all the lyrics, arsenic well as all the music on the album. [ 180 ] Gilmour did not have any substantial quick for the album and asked Waters to delay the recording until he could write some songs, but Waters refused. Gilmour late commented : “ I ‘m surely guilty at times of being lazy … but he was n’t right about wanting to put some duff tracks on The Final Cut. ” [ niobium 37 ] Rolling Stone magazine gave the album five stars, with Kurt Loder calling it “ a greatest accomplishment … artwork rock ‘s crowning masterpiece ”. [ niobium 38 ] Loder viewed The Final Cut as “ basically a Roger Waters solo album ”. [ 185 ]

Waters ‘ deviation and legal battles

Gilmour recorded his second alone album, About Face, in 1984, and used it to express his feelings about a diverseness of topics, from the murder of John Lennon to his relationship with Waters. He later stated that he used the album to distance himself from Pink Floyd. Soon afterwards, Waters began touring his first solo album, The Pros and Cons of Hitch Hiking ( 1984 ). Wright formed Zee with Dave Harris and recorded Identity, which went about unnoticed upon its turn. [ niobium 39 ] Mason released his moment solo album, Profiles, in August 1985. Gilmour, Mason, Waters and O’Rourke met for dinner in 1984 to discuss their future. Mason and Gilmour left the restaurant think that Pink Floyd could continue after Waters had finished The Pros and Cons of Hitch Hiking, noting that they had had several hiatuses before ; however, Waters left believing that Mason and Gilmour had accepted that Pink Floyd were finished. Mason said that Waters late saw the meet as “ duplicity preferably than diplomacy ”, and wrote in his memoir : “ intelligibly, our communication skills were still troublingly nonexistent. We left the restaurant with diametrically opposed views of what had been decided. ” [ 189 ] Following the unblock of The Pros and Cons of Hitch Hiking, Waters publicly insisted that Pink Floyd would not reunite. He contacted O’Rourke to discuss ensconce future royalty payments. O’Rourke felt obliged to inform Mason and Gilmour, which angered Waters, who wanted to dismiss him as the ring ‘s director. He terminated his management sign with O’Rourke and employed Peter Rudge to manage his affairs. [ niobium 40 ] Waters wrote to EMI and Columbia announcing he had left the dance band, and asked them to release him from his contractual obligations. Gilmour believed that Waters left to hasten the death of Pink Floyd. Waters later stated that, by not making raw albums, Pink Floyd would be in breach of contract—which would suggest that royalty payments would be suspended—and that the other band members had forced him from the group by threatening to sue him. He went to the high Court in an attempt to dissolve the band and prevent the habit of the Pink Floyd diagnose, declaring Pink Floyd “ a spend impel creatively ”. [ 191 ] When Waters ‘ lawyers discovered that the partnership had never been formally confirmed, Waters returned to the high Court in an attempt to obtain a veto over foster use of the band ‘s name. Gilmour responded with a weight-lift let go of affirming that Pink Floyd would continue to exist. The sides reached an out-of-court agreement, finalised on Gilmour ‘s houseboat the Astoria on Christmas Eve 1987. [ 193 ] In 2013, Waters said he regretted the lawsuit and had failed to appreciate that the Pink Floyd name had commercial value freelancer of the ring members. [ 194 ]

1985–1994 : Gilmour-led earned run average

A Momentary Lapse of Reason ( 1987 )

A colour image Gilmour's houseboat and studio the Astoria, anchored in a river. The background is green forest and it is a bright sunny day. Astoria recording studio Therecording studio apartment In 1986, Gilmour began recruiting musicians for what would become Pink Floyd ‘s inaugural album without Waters, A Momentary Lapse of Reason. [ nota bene 41 ] There were legal obstacles to Wright ‘s re-admittance to the ring, but after a meet in Hampstead, Pink Floyd invited Wright to participate in the occur sessions. Gilmour late stated that Wright ‘s presence “ would make us stronger legally and musically ”, and Pink Floyd employed him as a musician with weekly earnings of $ 11,000. [ 197 ] Recording sessions began on Gilmour ‘s houseboat, the Astoria, moored along the River Thames. [ nota bene 42 ] The group found it unmanageable to work without Waters ‘ creative management ; to write lyrics, Gilmour worked with respective songwriters, including Eric Stewart and Roger McGough, finally choosing Anthony Moore. Wright and Mason were out of practice ; Gilmour said they had been “ destroyed by Roger ”, and their contributions were minimal. [ 202 ]
A Momentary Lapse of Reason was released in September 1987. Storm Thorgerson, whose creative input signal was absent from The Wall and The Final Cut, designed the album cover. To drive home plate that Waters had left the band, they included a group photograph on the inside cover, the first since Meddle. [ nota bene 43 ] The album went true to number three in the UK and the US. Waters commented : “ I think it ‘s eloquent, but a quite cagey counterfeit … The songs are poor in general … [ and ] Gilmour ‘s lyrics are third-rate. ” Although Gilmour initially viewed the album as a fall to the band ‘s circus tent shape, Wright disagree, state : “ Roger ‘s criticisms are fair. It ‘s not a band album at all. ” Q cartridge holder described the album as basically a Gilmour solo album. Waters attempted to subvert the Momentary Lapse of Reason go by contacting promoters in the US and threatening to sue them if they used the Pink Floyd diagnose. Gilmour and Mason funded the start-up costs with Mason using his Ferrari 250 GTO as collateral. early rehearsals for the approaching go were chaotic, with Mason and Wright entirely out of exercise. Realising he had taken on besides much sour, Gilmour asked Ezrin to assist them. As Pink Floyd toured North America, Waters ‘ Radio K.A.O.S. tour was on juncture, close by, though in much smaller venues than those hosting his former band ‘s performances. Waters issued a writ for copyright fees for the band ‘s use of the flying bull. Pink Floyd responded by attaching a large set of male genitalia to its bottom to distinguish it from Waters ‘ invention. The parties reached a legal agreement on 23 December ; Mason and Gilmour retained the right to use the Pink Floyd name in perpetuity and Waters received single rights to, among other things, The Wall.

The Division Bell ( 1994 )

A colour photograph of two large silver-grey iron sculptures of opposing silhouetted faces. The sculptures are standing in a brown wheat field with a blue sky behind them. The Division Bell, designed by The album artwork for, designed by Storm Thorgerson, was intended to represent the absence of Barrett and Waters from the dance band. For respective years Pink Floyd had busied themselves with personal pursuits, such as filming and competing in the La Carrera Panamericana and recording a soundtrack for a film based on the consequence. [ nota bene 44 ] In January 1993, they began working on a modern album, The Division Bell, returning to Britannia Row Studios, where for respective days, Gilmour, Mason and Wright worked collaboratively, improvising material. After about two weeks, the ring had adequate ideas to begin creating songs. Ezrin returned to co-produce the album and production moved to the Astoria, where the isthmus worked from February to May 1993. contractually, Wright was not a penis of the dance band, and said, “ It came close to a sharpen where I was n’t going to do the album. ” however, he earned five co-writing credits, his first on a Pink Floyd album since 1975 ‘s Wish You Were Here. Gilmour ‘s future wife, Polly Samson, is besides credited ; she helped Gilmour write several tracks, including “ high Hopes “, a collaborative arrangement which, though initially tense, “ pulled the whole album together, ” according to Ezrin. They hired Michael Kamen to arrange the orchestral parts ; Dick Parry and Chris Thomas besides returned. [ 218 ] Writer Douglas Adams provided the album deed and Thorgerson the cover artwork. [ nota bene 45 ] Thorgerson drew inspiration for the album cover from the Moai monoliths of Easter Island ; two opposing faces forming an imply third confront about which he commented : “ the absent face—the ghost of Pink Floyd ‘s past, Syd and Roger ”. To avoid competing against early album releases, as had happened with A Momentary Lapse, Pink Floyd set a deadline of April 1994, at which point they would resume touring. The Division Bell reached number 1 in the UK and the US, and spent 51 weeks on the UK graph. Pink Floyd spent more than two weeks rehearsing in a airdock at Norton Air Force Base in San Bernardino, California, before opening on 29 March 1994, in Miami, with an about identical road crowd to that used for their Momentary Lapse of Reason tour. [ 223 ] They played a variety of Pink Floyd favourites, and late changed their setlist to include The Dark Side of the Moon in its entirety. [ niobium 46 ] The go, Pink Floyd ‘s last, ended on 29 October 1994. [ nota bene 47 ] Mason published a memoir, Inside Out: A Personal History of Pink Floyd, in 2004. [ 227 ]

2005–present : reunion, deaths, and The Endless River

live 8 reunion

On 2 July 2005, Waters, Gilmour, Mason and Wright performed together as Pink Floyd for the first time in more than 24 years, at the Live 8 concert in Hyde Park, London. [ 228 ] The reunion was arranged by live 8 personal digital assistant Bob Geldof ; after Gilmour declined the offer, Geldof asked Mason, who contacted Waters. About two weeks former, Waters called Gilmour, their first conversation in two years, and the next day Gilmour agreed. In a argument to the press, the dance band stressed the humbleness of their problems in the context of the Live 8 event. They planned their setlist at the Connaught Hotel in London, followed by three days of rehearsals at Black Island Studios. The sessions were debatable, with disagreements over the style and pace of the songs they were practising ; the running order was decided on the eve of the event. [ 229 ] At the begin of their performance of “ wish You Were here ”, Waters told the audience : “ [ It is ] quite emotional, standing up here with these three guys after all these years, standing to be counted with the respite of you … we ‘re doing this for everyone who ‘s not here, and particularly of course for Syd. ” At the goal, Gilmour thanked the hearing and started to walk off the stage. Waters called him spinal column, and the band shared a group embrace. Images of the hug were a favored among Sunday newspapers after live 8. [ nota bene 48 ] Waters said of their about 20 years of animosity : “ I do n’t think any of us came out of the years from 1985 with any credit … It was a bad, damaging time, and I regret my part in that electronegativity. ” Though Pink Floyd turned down a compress worth £136 million for a final enlistment, Waters did not rule out more performances, suggesting it ought to be for a charity event merely. however, Gilmour told the Associated Press that a reunion would not happen : “ The [ Live 8 ] rehearsals convinced me [ that ] it was n’t something I wanted to be doing a batch of … There have been all sorts of farewell moments in people ‘s lives and careers which they have then rescinded, but I think I can reasonably flatly say that there wo n’t be a tour or an album again that I take separate in. It is n’t to do with animosity or anything like that. It ‘s equitable … I ‘ve been there, I ‘ve done it. ” [ 234 ] In February 2006, Gilmour was interviewed for the italian newspaper La Repubblica, which declared : “ solitaire for fans in mourning. The news is official. Pink Floyd the trade name is dissolved, finished, decidedly deceased. ” [ 235 ] Asked about the future of Pink Floyd, Gilmour responded : “ It ‘s over … I ‘ve had enough. I ‘m 60 years old … it is much more comfortable to work on my own. ” [ 235 ] Gilmour and Waters repeatedly said that they had no plans to reunite. [ 236 ] [ 237 ] [ niobium 49 ]

Deaths of Barrett and Wright

Barrett died on 7 July 2006, at his home in Cambridge, aged 60. [ 239 ] His funeral was held at Cambridge Crematorium on 18 July 2006 ; no Pink Floyd members attended. Wright said : “ The ring are very naturally upset and sad to hear of Syd Barrett ‘s death. Syd was the guiding light up of the early band line-up and leaves a bequest which continues to inspire. ” [ 239 ] Although Barrett had faded into obscurity over the decades, the national imperativeness praised him for his contributions to music. [ nota bene 50 ] On 10 May 2007, Waters, Gilmour, Wright and Mason performed at the Barrett protection concert “ Madcap ‘s last laugh ” at the Barbican Centre in London. Gilmour, Wright and Mason performed the Barrett compositions “ Bike “ and “ Arnold Layne ”, and Waters performed a solo interpretation of his song “ Flickering Flame ”. [ 242 ] Wright died of an undisclosed form of cancer on 15 September 2008, aged 65. [ 243 ] His early bandmates paid tributes to his life and work ; Gilmour said : “ In the welter of arguments about who or what was Pink Floyd, Rick ‘s enormous stimulation was frequently forgotten. He was docile, retiring and individual but his soulful voice and play were vital, charming components of our most spot Pink Floyd sound. ” [ 244 ] A week after Wright ‘s death, Gilmour performed “ Remember a Day ” from A Saucerful of Secrets, written and primitively sung by Wright, in protection to him on BBC Two ‘s Later… with Jools Holland. [ 245 ] Keyboardist Keith Emerson released a affirmation praising Wright as the “ spine ” of Pink Floyd. [ 246 ]

far performances and rereleases

On 10 July 2010, Waters and Gilmour performed together at a charity event for the Hoping Foundation. The consequence, which raised money for palestinian children, took place at Kiddington Hall in Oxfordshire, England, with an hearing of approximately 200. [ 247 ] In tax return for Waters ‘ appearance at the consequence, Gilmour performed “ comfortably Numb ” at Waters ‘ performance of The Wall [ 248 ] [ niobium 51 ] at the London O2 Arena on 12 May 2011, singing the choruses and playing the two guitar solo. Mason besides joined, playing tambourine for “ Outside the Wall “ with Gilmour on mandolin. [ nota bene 52 ] On 26 September 2011, Pink Floyd and EMI launched an exhaustive re-release campaign under the deed Why Pink Floyd…?, reissuing the back catalog in newly remastered versions, including “ experience ” and “ Immersion ” multi-disc multi-format editions. The albums were remastered by James Guthrie, co-producer of The Wall. [ 251 ] In November 2015, Pink Floyd released a limited edition EP, 1965: Their First Recordings, comprising six songs recorded prior to The Piper at the Gates of Dawn. [ 252 ]

The Endless River ( 2014 ) and Nick Mason ‘s Saucerful of Secrets

In 2012, Gilmour and Mason revisited recordings made with Wright during the Division Bell sessions to create a new Pink Floyd album. They recruited seance musicians to help record newly parts and “ by and large harness studio technology ”. [ 253 ] Waters was not involved. [ 254 ] Mason described the album as a tribute to Wright : “ I think this record is a full way of recognising a distribute of what he does and how his bring was at the heart of the Pink Floyd heavy. Listening back to the sessions, it very brought home to me what a special player he was. ” [ 255 ] The Endless River was released on 7 November 2014, the second Pink Floyd album distributed by Parlophone following the release of the twentieth anniversary editions of The Division Bell earlier in 2014. [ 256 ] Though it received desegregate reviews, [ 257 ] it became the most pre-ordered album of all time on Amazon UK [ 258 ] and debuted at number one in several countries. [ 259 ] [ 260 ] The vinyl edition was the fastest-selling UK vinyl spill of 2014 and the fastest-selling since 1997. [ 261 ] Gilmour said The Endless River would be Pink Floyd ‘s last album, saying : “ I think we have successfully commandeered the best of what there is … It ‘s a dishonor, but this is the end. ” [ 262 ] There was no supporting enlistment, as Gilmour felt it was impossible without Wright. [ 263 ] [ 264 ] In 2015, Gilmour reiterated that Pink Floyd were “ done ” and that to reunite without Wright would be incorrect. [ 265 ] Mason said in 2018 that, while he remained close to both, Gilmour and Waters remained “ at loggerheads ”. [ 266 ] In November 2016, Pink Floyd released a box jell, The Early Years 1965–1972, comprising outtakes, live recordings, remixes, and films from their early career. [ 267 ] It was followed in December 2019 by The Later Years, compiling Pink Floyd ‘s function after Waters ‘ departure. The rig includes a remixed translation of A Momentary Lapse of Reason with more contributions by Wright and Mason, and an expanded reissue of the exist album Delicate Sound of Thunder. [ 268 ] In November 2020, the reissue of Delicate Sound of Thunder was given a standalone unblock on multiple formats. [ 269 ] Pink Floyd ‘s Live at Knebworth 1990 operation, previously released as separate of the Later Years box set, was released on certificate of deposit and vinyl on 30 April. [ 270 ] In 2018, Mason formed a newly isthmus, Nick Mason ‘s Saucerful of Secrets, to perform Pink Floyd ‘s early material. The band includes Gary Kemp of Spandau Ballet and longtime Pink Floyd confederate Guy Pratt. [ 271 ] They toured Europe in September 2018 [ 272 ] and North America in 2019. [ 273 ] Waters joined the band at the New York Beacon Theatre to perform vocals for “ Set the Controls for the Heart of the Sun “. [ 274 ]

musicianship

Genres

Considered one of the UK ‘s first psychedelic music groups, Pink Floyd began their career at the avant-garde of London ‘s clandestine music picture, [ niobium 53 ] appearing at UFO Club and Middle Earth ( club ). According to Rolling Stone : “ By 1967, they had developed an unmistakably psychedelic sound, performing long, loud suitelike compositions that touched on arduous rock, blues, area, tribe, and electronic music. ” Released in 1968, the song “ careful with That Axe, Eugene ” helped galvanise their reputation as an art rock group. early genres attributed to the band are space rock candy, experimental rock candy, [ 280 ] acid rock, [ 282 ] [ 283 ] proto-prog, [ 284 ] experimental pop ( while under Barrett ), psychedelic pop, and psychedelic rock. [ 287 ] O’Neill Surber comments on the music of Pink Floyd :

rarely will you find Floyd dishing up catchy hooks, tunes short enough for air-play, or predictable three-chord blues progressions ; and never will you find them spending much time on the usual pop album of woo, party, or self-hype. Their sonic population is expansive, acute, and challenging … Where most early bands neatly fit the songs to the music, the two forming a classify of autonomous and seamless wholly complete with memorable hooks, Pink Floyd tends to set lyrics within a broader soundscape that much seems to have a life of its own … Pink Floyd employs elongated, stand-alone instrumentals which are never mere vehicles for showing off ace but are planned and integral parts of the operation .

During the recently 1960s, the press labelled Pink Floyd ‘s music psychedelic pop music, liberal pop and progressive rock ; they gained a follow as a psychedelic pop group. [ 293 ] In 1968, Wright said : “ It ‘s hard to see why we were cast as the first british psychedelic group. We never saw ourselves that way … we realised that we were, after all, only playing for fun … tied to no particular form of music, we could do whatever we wanted … the emphasis … [ is ] firm on spontaneity and improvisation. ” Waters said by and by : “ There was n’t anything ‘grand ‘ about it. We were amusing. We were useless. We could n’t play at all so we had to do something stupid and ‘experimental ‘ … Syd was a genius, but I would n’t want to go binding to playing ‘ interstellar Overdrive ‘ for hours and hours. ” Unconstrained by conventional pop formats, Pink Floyd were innovators of progressive rock during the 1970s and ambient music during the 1980s .

Gilmour ‘s guitar work

“ While Waters was Floyd ‘s lyricist and conceptualist, Gilmour was the band ‘s voice and its independent instrumental focus. ”

—Alan di Perna, in Guitar World, May 2006
Rolling Stone critic Alan di Perna praised Gilmour ‘s guitar work as integral to Pink Floyd ‘s sound, and described him as the most significant guitarist of the 1970s, “ the missing link between Hendrix and Van Halen “. [ 298 ] Rolling Stone named him the 14th greatest guitarist of all time. [ 298 ] In 2006, Gilmour said of his technique : “ [ My ] fingers make a classifiable legal … [ they ] are n’t very fast, but I think I am instantaneously recognizable … The room I play melodies is connected to things like Hank Marvin and the Shadows. ” Gilmour ‘s ability to use fewer notes than most to express himself without sacrificing strength or beauty drew a favorable comparison to jazz trumpeter Miles Davis. In 2006, Guitar World writer Jimmy Brown described Gilmour ‘s guitar style as “ characterised by dim-witted, huge-sounding riffs ; gutsy, well-paced solo ; and rich, ambient chordal textures. ” According to Brown, Gilmour ‘s solo on “ Money ”, “ Time “ and “ Comfortably Numb “ “ cut through the desegregate like a laser beam through fog. ” Brown described the “ Time ” solo as “ a masterpiece of give voice and motivic development … Gilmour paces himself throughout and builds upon his initial idea by leaping into the upper register with gut-wrenching one-and-one-half-step ‘over bends ‘, soulful trio arpeggios and a typically impeccable bar vibrato. ” Brown described Gilmour ‘s give voice as intuitive and possibly his best asset as a contribute guitarist. Gilmour explained how he achieved his touch tone : “ I normally use a fuzz box, a delay and a bright EQ specify … [ to get ] sing prolong … you need to play loud—at or near the feedback doorsill. It ‘s just thus much more fun to play … when bent notes slice good through you like a razor blade. ”

sonic experiment

Throughout their career, Pink Floyd experimented with their fathom. Their second unmarried, “ See Emily Play ” premiered at the Queen Elizabeth Hall in London, on 12 May 1967. During the performance, the group first base used an early quadraphonic device called an Azimuth Co-ordinator. The device enabled the restrainer, normally Wright, to manipulate the band ‘s overstate legal, combined with read tapes, projecting the sounds 270 degrees around a venue, achieving a sonic twirl effect. In 1972, they purchased a custom-built PA which featured an upgrade four-channel, 360-degree system. Waters experimented with the VCS 3 synthesizer on Pink Floyd pieces such as “ On the Run “, “ Welcome to the Machine “, and “ In the Flesh ? “. [ 305 ] He used a binson echorec 2 stay effect on his bass-guitar track for “ One of These Days “. Pink Floyd used innovative sound effects and state of matter of the artwork audio recording technology during the recording of The Final Cut. Mason ‘s contributions to the album were about entirely limited to work with the experimental Holophonic system, an sound recording process proficiency used to simulate a cubic effect. The organization used a conventional stereo tape to produce an impression that seemed to move the audio around the hearer ‘s head when they were wearing headphones. The work enabled an engineer to simulate moving the sound to behind, above or beside the hearer ‘s ears .

Film scores

Pink Floyd besides composed several movie scores, starting in 1968, with The Committee. In 1969, they recorded the score for Barbet Schroeder ‘s film More. The soundtrack proved beneficial : not only did it pay well but, along with A Saucerful of Secrets, the material they created became part of their live shows for some clock time thereafter. While composing the soundtrack for director Michelangelo Antonioni ‘s movie Zabriskie Point, the band stayed at a luxury hotel in Rome for about a calendar month. Waters claimed that, without Antonioni ‘s ceaseless changes to the music, they would have completed the work in less than a week. finally he used only three of their recordings. One of the pieces turned down by Antonioni, called “ The Violent Sequence ”, subsequently became “ Us and Them ”, included on 1973 ‘s The Dark Side of the Moon. In 1971, the band again worked with Schroeder on the movie La Vallée, for which they released a soundtrack album called Obscured by Clouds. They composed the material in about a week at the Château d’Hérouville near Paris, and upon its release, it became Pink Floyd ‘s first gear album to break into the top 50 on the US Billboard chart .

survive performances

A monochrome image of members of the band. The photograph is taken from a distance, and is bisected horizontally by the forward edge of the stage. Each band member and his equipment is illuminated from above by bright spotlights, also visible. A long-haired man holds a guitar and sings into a microphone on the left of the image. Central, another man is seated behind a large drumkit. Two men on the right of the image hold a saxophone or a bass guitar and appear to be looking in each other's general direction. In the foreground, silhouetted, are the heads of the audience. The Dark Side of the Moon at A live operation ofat Earls Court, curtly after its release in 1973 : ( l–r ) Gilmour, Mason, Dick Parry, Waters Regarded as pioneers of live music performance and renowned for their lavish degree shows, Pink Floyd besides set high standards in audio quality, making manipulation of advanced sound effects and quadraphonic loudspeaker systems. [ 312 ] From their earliest days, they employed ocular effects to accompany their psychedelic music while performing at venues such as the UFO Club in London. Their slide-and-light prove was one of the first in british rock, and it helped them become popular among London ‘s underground. To celebrate the launch of the London Free School ‘s magazine International Times in 1966, they performed in front of 2,000 people at the opening of the Roundhouse, attended by celebrities including Paul McCartney and Marianne Faithfull. In mid-1966, road director Peter Wynne-Willson joined their road crew, and updated the band ‘s lighting fishing gear with some innovative ideas including the practice of polarisers, mirrors and stretched condoms. [ 314 ] After their record deal with EMI, Pink Floyd purchased a Ford Transit vanguard, then considered excessive dance band department of transportation. On 29 April 1967, they headlined an nightlong event called The 14 Hour Technicolour Dream at the Alexandra Palace, London. Pink Floyd arrived at the festival at around three o’clock in the morning after a long journey by vanguard and ferry from the Netherlands, taking the stage just as the sun was beginning to rise. [ niobium 54 ] In July 1969, precipitated by their space-related music and lyrics, they took part in the live BBC television coverage of the Apollo 11 moon bring, performing an instrumental firearm which they called “ Moonhead “. In November 1974, they employed for the inaugural time the large round screen that would become a staple of their exist shows. In 1977, they employed the use of a bombastic inflatable floating slob named “ Algie ”. Filled with helium and propane, Algie, while floating above the consultation, would explode with a forte noise during the In the Flesh Tour. The behavior of the audience during the enlistment, a well as the big size of the venues, proved a firm influence on their concept album The Wall. The subsequent The Wall Tour featured a 40 feet ( 12 meter ) high wall, built from cardboard bricks, constructed between the band and the hearing. They projected animations onto the wall, while gaps allowed the hearing to view versatile scenes from the floor. They commissioned the initiation of several giant star inflatables to represent characters from the narrative. One strike feature of speech of the tour was the performance of “ Comfortably Numb ”. While Waters sang his open verse, in dark, Gilmour waited for his discriminative stimulus on top of the wall. When it came, bright aristocratic and white lights would abruptly reveal him. Gilmour stood on a flightcase on castors, an insecure setup supported from behind by a technician. A bombastic hydraulic platform supported both Gilmour and the technical school. During the Division Bell Tour, an nameless person using the name Publius posted a message on an internet newsgroup inviting fans to solve a riddle purportedly concealed in the new album. White lights in front of the stage at the Pink Floyd concert in East Rutherford spelled out the words Enigma Publius. During a telecast concert at Earls Court on 20 October 1994, person projected the word “ riddle ” in big letters on to the backdrop of the stage. Mason by and by acknowledged that their record ship’s company had instigated the Publius Enigma mystery, preferably than the band .

lyric themes

Marked by Waters ‘ philosophical lyrics, Rolling Stone described Pink Floyd as “ purveyors of a distinctively night vision ”. Author Jere O’Neill Surber wrote : “ their interests are accuracy and illusion, biography and death, time and space, causality and luck, compassion and nonchalance. ” Waters identified empathy as a central subject in the lyrics of Pink Floyd. Author George Reisch described Meddle ‘s psychedelic musical composition, “ Echoes ”, as “ built around the congress of racial equality idea of genuine communication, sympathy, and collaboration with others. ” Despite having been labelled “ the gloomiest man in rock candy ”, writer Deena Weinstein described Waters as an existentialist, dismissing the unfavorable nickname as the result of misinterpretation by music critics .

Disillusionment, absence, and non-being

Waters ‘ lyrics to Wish You Were Here ‘s “ Have a Cigar “ distribute with a sensed lack of sincerity on the part of music industry representatives. The birdcall illustrates a dysfunctional dynamic between the set and a read label executive who congratulates the group on their current sales achiever, implying that they are on the same team while revealing that he mistakenly believes “ Pink ” is the name of one of the band members. According to writer David Detmer, the album ‘s lyrics share with the “ dehumanize aspects of the worldly concern of department of commerce ”, a situation the artist must endure to reach their audience. absence as a lyric theme is common in the music of Pink Floyd. Examples include the absence of Barrett after 1968, and that of Waters ‘ father, who died during the second World War. Waters ‘ lyrics besides explored unfulfilled political goals and unsuccessful endeavours. Their film seduce, Obscured by Clouds, deal with the loss of youthful exuberance that sometimes comes with ageing. longtime Pink Floyd album traverse couturier, Storm Thorgerson, described the lyrics of Wish You Were Here : “ The estimate of presence withhold, of the ways that people pretend to be present while their minds are very elsewhere, and the devices and motivations employed psychologically by people to suppress the entire effect of their presence, finally boiled down to a single theme, absence : The absence of a person, the absence of a feel. ” [ 331 ] [ niobium 55 ] Waters commented : “ it ‘s about none of us very being there … [ it ] should have been called Wish We Were Here “. O’Neill Surber explored the lyrics of Pink Floyd and declared the issue of non-being a common subject in their music. [ nota bene 56 ] Waters invoked non-being or non-existence in The Wall, with the lyrics to “ Comfortably Numb ” : “ I caught a fleeting glimpse, out of the corner of my center. I turned to look, but it was gone, I can not put my finger on it nowadays, the child is grown, the dream is gone. ” Barrett referred to non-being in his final contribution to the band ‘s catalogue, “ Jugband Blues ” : “ I ‘m most obliged to you for making it clear that I ‘m not here. ”

exploitation and oppression

Author Patrick Croskery described Animals as a alone blend of the “ mighty sounds and indicative themes ” of Dark Side with The Wall ‘s portrait of aesthetic alienation. He drew a parallel between the album ‘s political themes and that of Orwell ‘s Animal Farm. Animals begins with a thought experiment, which asks : “ If you did n’t care what happened to me. And I did n’t care for you ”, then develops a beast legend based on anthropomorphize characters using music to reflect the individual states of heed of each. The lyrics ultimately paint a picture of dystopia, the inevitable solution of a world barren of empathy and compassion, answering the doubt posed in the opening lines. The album ‘s characters include the “ Dogs ”, representing ardent capitalists, the “ Pigs ”, symbolising political corruption, and the “ Sheep ”, who represent the exploited. Croskery described the “ Sheep ” as being in a “ submit of delusion created by a mislead cultural identity ”, a false consciousness. The “ Dog ”, in his hardworking pastime of opportunism and success, ends up depress and alone with no one to trust, absolutely lacking aroused satisfaction after a life of exploitation. Waters used Mary Whitehouse as an case of a “ Pig ” ; being person who in his estimate, used the exponent of the politics to impose her values on company. At the album ‘s conclusion, Waters returns to empathy with the lyric statement : “ You know that I care what happens to you. And I know that you care for me excessively. ” however, he besides acknowledges that the “ Pigs ” are a continuing terror and reveals that he is a “ Dog ” who requires shelter, suggesting the necessitate for a remainder between state, commerce and community, versus an ongoing battle between them .

Alienation, war, and insanity

“ When I say, ‘I ‘ll see you on the dark side of the moonlight ‘ … what I mean [ is ] … If you feel that you ‘re the only matchless … that you seem brainsick [ because ] you think everything is crazy, you ‘re not alone. ”

—Waters, quoted in Harris, 2005
O’Neill Surber compared the lyrics of Dark Side of the Moon ‘s “ Brain Damage “ with Karl Marx ‘s theory of self-alienation ; “ there ‘s person in my head, but it ‘s not me. ” [ nota bene 57 ] The lyrics to Wish You Were Here ‘s “ Welcome to the Machine ” suggest what Marx called the alienation of the thing ; the song ‘s supporter preoccupied with material possessions to the point that he becomes estranged from himself and others. Allusions to the alienation of man ‘s species being can be found in Animals ; the “ Dog ” reduced to living instinctively as a non-human. The “ Dogs ” become alienated from themselves to the extent that they justify their lack of integrity as a “ necessary and defendable ” position in “ a cutthroat populace with no room for empathy or moral principle ” wrote Detmer. alienation from others is a reproducible theme in the lyrics of Pink Floyd, and it is a core element of The Wall. War, viewed as the most severe consequence of the materialization of alienation from others, is besides a core chemical element of The Wall, and a recurring theme in the band ‘s music. Waters ‘ father died in battle during the second World War, and his lyrics often alluded to the cost of war, including those from “ Corporal Clegg “ ( 1968 ), “ dislodge Four “ ( 1972 ), “ Us and Them “ ( 1973 ), “ When the Tigers Broke Free “ and “ The Fletcher Memorial Home “ from The Final Cut ( 1983 ), an album dedicated to his late church father and subtitled A Requiem for the Postwar Dream. [ 347 ] The themes and writing of The Wall express Waters ‘ upbringing in an english society depleted of men after the irregular World War, a discipline that negatively affected his personal relationships with women. Waters ‘ lyrics to The Dark Side of the Moon deal with the pressures of modern life and how those pressures can sometimes cause insanity. He viewed the album ‘s explication of genial illness as illuminating a universal condition. however, Waters besides wanted the album to communicate positivity, calling it “ an exhortation … to embrace the cocksure and reject the negative. ” Reisch described The Wall as “ less about the experience of lunacy than the habits, institutions, and social structures that create or cause fury. ” The Wall ‘s protagonist, Pink, is ineffective to deal with the circumstances of his liveliness, and overcome by feelings of guilt, slowly closes himself off from the outside worldly concern inside a barrier of his own make. After he completes his alienation from the global, Pink realises that he is “ crazy, over the rainbow ”. He then considers the hypothesis that his condition may be his own blame : “ have I been guilty all this time ? ” Realising his greatest fear, Pink believes that he has let everyone down, his overbearing mother wisely choosing to smother him, the teachers rightly criticising his poetic aspirations, and his wife justified in leaving him. He then stands test for “ prove feelings of an about human nature ”, further exacerbating his alienation of species being. As with the writings of philosopher Michel Foucault, Waters ‘ lyrics suggest Pink ‘s insanity is a intersection of modern life, the elements of which, “ custom-made, codependancies, and psychopathologies ”, contribute to his angst, according to Reisch .

bequest

Pink Floyd are one of the most commercially successful and influential rock bands of all time. [ 356 ] They have sold more than 250 million records worldwide, including 75 million certified units in the United States, and 37.9 million albums sold in the US since 1993. [ 357 ] The Sunday Times Rich List, Music Millionaires 2013 ( UK ), ranked Waters at phone number 12 with an estimated fortune of £150 million, Gilmour at number 27 with £85 million and Mason at phone number 37 with £50 million. [ 358 ] In 2003, Rolling Stone ‘s 500 Greatest Albums of All Time list included The Dark Side of the Moon at number 43, [ 359 ] The Wall at issue 87, [ 360 ] Wish You Were Here at number 209, [ 361 ] and The Piper at the Gates of Dawn at phone number 347. [ 362 ] And in 2004, on their 500 Greatest Songs of All Time list, Rolling Stone included “ comfortably Numb “ at issue 314, “ Wish You Were hera “ at act 316, and “ Another Brick in the Wall, Part 2 “ at count 375. [ 363 ] In 2004, MSNBC ranked Pink Floyd number 8 on their list of “ The 10 Best Rock Bands Ever ”. [ 364 ] In the lapp year, Q named Pink Floyd as the biggest band of all clock time according to “ a points system that measured sales of their biggest album, the scale of their biggest headline display and the total issue of weeks spent on the UK album chart ”. [ 365 ] Rolling Stone ranked them numeral 51 on their list of “ The 100 Greatest Artists of All Time ”. [ 366 ] VH1 ranked them count 18 in the number of the “ 100 Greatest Artists of All Time ”. [ 367 ] Colin Larkin ranked Pink Floyd total 3 in his tilt of the ‘Top 50 Artists of All Time ‘, a ranking based on the accumulative votes for each artist ‘s albums included in his All Time Top 1000 Albums. [ 368 ] In 2008, the head rock and popular critic of The Guardian, Alexis Petridis, wrote that the band occupy a unique place in progressive rock, submit, “ Thirty years on, prog is still persona not grata [ … ] only Pink Floyd—never truly a prog ring, their preference for long songs and ‘concepts ‘ notwithstanding—are permitted into the 100 best album lists. ” [ 369 ] The writer Eric Olsen has called Pink Floyd “ the most bizarre and experimental multi-platinum band of the album rock earned run average “. [ 370 ] Pink Floyd have won several awards. In 1981 audio engineer James Guthrie won the Grammy Award for “ Best Engineered Non-Classical Album ” for The Wall, and Roger Waters won the british Academy of Film and Television Arts prize for “ Best Original Song Written for a Film ” in 1983 for “ Another Brick in the Wall ” from The Wall film. [ 371 ] In 1995, Pink Floyd won the Grammy for “ Best Rock Instrumental Performance ” for “ isolated “. [ 372 ] In 2008, King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden presented Pink Floyd with the Polar Music Prize for their contribution to advanced music ; Waters and Mason attended the ceremony and accepted the award. [ 373 ] They were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1996, the UK Music Hall of Fame in 2005, and the Hit Parade Hall of Fame in 2010. [ 374 ] Pink Floyd have influenced numerous artists. David Bowie called Barrett a significant inhalation, and The Edge of U2 bought his inaugural check pedal point after hearing the open guitar chords to “ Dogs “ from Animals. [ 375 ] early bands and artists who cite them as an influence include Queen, Radiohead, Steven Wilson, Marillion, Queensrÿche, Nine Inch Nails, the Orb and the Smashing Pumpkins. [ 376 ] Pink Floyd were an influence on the neo-progressive rock subgenre which emerged in the 1980s. [ 377 ] The English rock ‘n’ roll band Mostly Autumn “ fuse the music of Genesis and Pink Floyd ” in their sound. [ 378 ] Pink Floyd were admirers of the Monty Python comedy group, and helped finance their 1975 film Monty Python and the Holy Grail. [ 379 ] In 2016, Pink Floyd became the second band ( after the Beatles ) to feature on a series of UK postage stamps issued by the Royal Mail. [ 380 ] In May 2017, to mark the fiftieth anniversary of Pink Floyd ‘s first individual, an audio-visual exhibition, Their Mortal Remains, opened at the Victoria and Albert Museum in London. [ 381 ] The exhibition featured analysis of cover art, conceptual prop from the stage shows, and photograph from Mason ‘s personal archive. [ 382 ] [ 383 ] It was extended for two weeks beyond its plan close date of 1 October. [ 384 ]

Band members

discography

Studio albums

Concert tours

Notes

References

Sources

far reading

Books
Documentaries

  • CreateSpace (2009). Pink Floyd: Meddle (Streaming video). Sexy Intellectual. ASIN B002J4V9RI.
  • John Edginton (Director) (2012). Pink Floyd: The Story of Wish You Were Here (Colour, NTSC, DVD). Eagle Rock Entertainment. ASIN B007X6ZRMA.
  • Matthew Longfellow (Director) (2003). Classic Albums: The Making of The Dark Side of the Moon (Colour, Dolby, NTSC, DVD). Eagle Rock Entertainment. ASIN B0000AOV85.
  • Pink Floyd (2007). Pink Floyd – Then and Now (Colour, NTSC DVD). Pride. ASIN B007EQQX04.
  • Pink Floyd (2010). Pink Floyd – Whatever Happened to Pink Floyd? (Colour, NTSC, DVD). Sexy Intellectual. ASIN B004D0AMN8.

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