Edinburgh – Wikipedia

capital of Scotland
This article is about the capital of Scotland. For other uses, see Edinburgh ( disambiguation )
capital city and council area in Scotland

Edinburgh ( ; [ 8 ] [ 9 ] [ 10 ] Scots : Edinburgh ; scots Gaelic : Dùn Èideann [ ˈt̪uːn ˈeːtʲən̪ˠ ] ) is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 council areas. Historically region of the county of Midlothian ( interchangeably Edinburghshire before 1921 ), [ 11 ] it is located in Lothian on the southerly shore of the Firth of Forth. Edinburgh is Scotland ‘s second-most populous city and the seventh-most populous city in the United Kingdom. Recognised as the capital of Scotland since at least the fifteenth hundred, Edinburgh is the seat of the scottish Government, the scottish Parliament and the highest courts in Scotland. The city ‘s Palace of Holyroodhouse is the official residence of the monarch in Scotland. The city has long been a center of education, particularly in the fields of medicine, Scots law, literature, doctrine, the sciences and engineering. It is the second-largest fiscal kernel in the United Kingdom, and the city ‘s historical and cultural attractions have made it the UK ‘s second-most visited tourist finish attracting 4.9 million visits, including 2.4 million from overseas in 2018. [ 12 ] [ 13 ] Edinburgh ‘s official population estimates are 488,050 ( mid-2016 ) for the Edinburgh vicinity, [ 1 ] 518,500 ( mid-2019 ) for the City of Edinburgh council area, [ 2 ] and 1,339,380 ( 2014 ) for the wide city region. [ 14 ] Edinburgh lies at the heart of the Edinburgh and South East Scotland city region comprising East Lothian, Edinburgh, Fife, Midlothian, scottish Borders and West Lothian. [ 15 ] The city is the annual venue of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland. It is home to national cultural institutions such as the National Museum of Scotland, the National Library of Scotland and the scottish National Gallery. The University of Edinburgh, founded in 1582 and now one of three in the city, is placed 16th in the QS World University Rankings for 2022. [ 16 ] The city is besides known for the Edinburgh International Festival and the Fringe, the latter being the world ‘s largest annual international arts festival. Historic sites in Edinburgh include Edinburgh Castle, the Palace of Holyroodhouse, the churches of St. Giles, Greyfriars and the Canongate, and the extensive georgian New Town built in the 18th/19th centuries. Edinburgh ‘s Old Town and New Town together are listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, [ 17 ] which has been managed by Edinburgh World Heritage since 1999 .

etymology [edit ]

“ Edin ”, the ancestor of the city ‘s name, derives from Eidyn, the appoint for this area in Cumbric, the Brittonic Celtic language once spoken there. The name ‘s meaning is stranger. [ 18 ] The zone of Eidyn centred on the stronghold Din Eidyn, the dun or hillfort of Eidyn. [ 18 ] This stronghold is believed to have been located at Castle Rock, now the locate of Edinburgh Castle. Eidyn was conquered by the Angles of Bernicia in the seventh century and late occupied by the Scots in the tenth hundred. [ 19 ] As the linguistic process shifted to Northumbrian Old English, which evolved into Scots, the Brittonic din in Din Eidyn was replaced by burh, producing Edinburgh. similarly, din became dùn in Scottish Gaelic, producing Dùn Èideann. [ 18 ] [ 20 ]

Nicknames [edit ]

The city is dearly dub Auld Reekie, [ 21 ] [ 22 ] Scots for Old Smoky, for the views from the country of the smoke-covered Old Town. A comment on a poem in an 1800 collection of the poems of Allan Ramsay said, “ Auld Reeky. A name the country people give edinburgh from the cloud of smoke or reek that is always impending over it. ” [ 23 ] Thomas Carlyle said, “ Smoke obscure hangs over old Edinburgh, —for, ever since Aeneas Silvius ‘s time and early, the people have the art, very strange to Aeneas, of burning a certain classify of black stones, and Edinburgh with its chimney is called ‘Auld Reekie ‘ by the nation people. ” [ 24 ] A character in Walter Scott ‘s The Abbot says “ … yonder stands Auld Reekie—you may see the smoke hover over her at twenty dollar bill miles ‘ distance. ” [ 25 ] Robert Chambers who said that the nickname could not be traced before the reign of Charles II attributed the name to a Fife laird, Durham of Largo, who regulated the bedtime of his children by the pot rising above Edinburgh from the fires of the tenements. “ It ‘s clock immediately bairns, to tak ‘ the beuks, and gang to our beds, for yonder ‘s Auld Reekie, I see, putting on her nicht -cap ! ” [ 26 ] Edinburgh has been popularly called the Athens of the North from the early nineteenth century. [ 27 ] References to Athens, such as Athens of Britain and Modern Athens, had been made ampere early as the 1760s. The similarities were seen to be topographical but besides cerebral. Edinburgh ‘s Castle Rock reminded returning fantastic tourists of the athenian Acropolis, as did aspects of the neoclassic architecture and layout of New Town. [ 27 ] Both cities had flat, prolific agrarian down sloping down to a port respective miles off ( respectively Leith and Piraeus ). intellectually, the scottish nirvana with its humanist and positivist mentality was influenced by Ancient Greek philosophy. [ 28 ] In 1822, artist Hugh William Williams organized an exhibition that showed his paintings of Athens aboard views of Edinburgh, and the mind of a direct parallel between both cities promptly caught the popular imagination. [ 29 ] When plans were drawn up in the early nineteenth hundred to architecturally develop Calton Hill, the purpose of the National Monument directly copied Athens ‘ Parthenon. [ 30 ] Tom Stoppard ‘s character Archie, of Jumpers, said, possibly playing on Reykjavík meaning “ smoky bay ”, that the “ Reykjavík of the South ” would be more appropriate. [ 31 ] The city has besides been known by respective Latin names such as Edinburgum while the adjectival forms Edinburgensis and Edinensis are used in educational and scientific context. [ 32 ] [ 33 ] Edina is a late eighteenth hundred poetic form used by the Scots poets Robert Fergusson and Robert Burns. “ Embra ” or “ Embro ” are colloquialisms from the same meter, [ 34 ] as in Robert Garioch ‘s Embro to the Ploy. [ 35 ] Ben Jonson described it as “ Britaine ‘s early eye ”, [ 36 ] and Sir Walter Scott referred to it as “ yonder empress of the North ”. [ 37 ] Robert Louis Stevenson, besides a son of the city, wrote that Edinburgh “ is what Paris ought to be. ” [ 38 ]

history [edit ]

early on history [edit ]

Edinburgh, showing Arthur ‘s Seat, one of the earliest known sites of human habitation in the area The earliest known human habitation in the Edinburgh area was at Cramond, where testify was found of a Mesolithic camp site dated to c. 8500 BC. [ 39 ] Traces of late Bronze Age and Iron Age settlements have been found on Castle Rock, Arthur ‘s Seat, Craiglockhart Hill and the Pentland Hills. [ 40 ] When the Romans arrived in Lothian at the end of the first hundred AD, they found a Brittonic Celtic tribe whose diagnose they recorded as the Votadini. [ 41 ] The Votadini transitioned into the Gododdin kingdom in the early on Middle Ages, with Eidyn serving as one of the kingdom ‘s districts. During this period, the Castle Rock site, thought to have been the stronghold of Din Eidyn, emerged as the kingdom ‘s major kernel. [ 42 ] The chivalric poem Y Gododdin describes a war band from across the Brittonic universe who gathered in Eidyn before a fatal raid ; this may describe a diachronic consequence around AD 600. [ 43 ] [ 44 ] [ 45 ] In 638, the Gododdin stronghold was besieged by forces patriotic to King Oswald of Northumbria, and around this fourth dimension manipulate of Lothian passed to the Angles. Their influence continued for the adjacent three centuries until around 950, when, during the predominate of Indulf, son of Constantine II, the “ burh ” ( fortress ), named in the 10th-century Pictish Chronicle as oppidum Eden, [ 46 ] was abandoned to the Scots. It thereafter remained, for the most depart, under their legal power. [ 47 ] The imperial burgh was founded by King David I in the early twelfth hundred on land belong to the Crown, though the date of its charter is strange. [ 48 ] The first objective testify of the medieval burgh is a royal charter, c. 1124–1127, by King David I granting a toft in burgo meo de Edenesburg to the Priory of Dunfermline. [ 49 ] Edinburgh was largely in English hands from 1291 to 1314 and from 1333 to 1341, during the Wars of scots Independence. When the English invaded Scotland in 1298, King Edward I chose not to enter the English controlled town of Edinburgh but passed by with his army. [ 50 ] In the center of the fourteenth hundred, the french chronicler Jean Froissart described it as the capital of Scotland ( c. 1365 ), and James III ( 1451–88 ) referred to it in the fifteenth hundred as “ the chief burgh of our kingdom ”. [ 51 ] Despite the end caused by an english attack in 1544, the town lento recovered, [ 52 ] and was at the center of events in the 16th-century scots Reformation [ 53 ] and 17th-century Wars of the Covenant. [ 54 ] In 1582, Edinburgh ‘s town council was given a royal charter by King James VI permitting the administration of a university ; [ 55 ] founded as Tounis College, the initiation developed into the University of Edinburgh, which contributed to Edinburgh growing intellectual importance. [ 56 ]

seventeenth hundred [edit ]

Edinburgh in the seventeenth hundred In 1603, King James VI of Scotland succeeded to the English throne, uniting the crowns of Scotland and England in a personal union known as the Union of the Crowns, though Scotland remained, in all early respects, a separate kingdom. [ 57 ] In 1638, King Charles I ‘s attack to introduce Anglican church forms in Scotland encountered stiff presbyterian opposition culminate in the conflicts of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. [ 58 ] Subsequent Scottish subscribe for Charles Stuart ‘s restoration to the throne of England resulted in Edinburgh ‘s occupation by Oliver Cromwell ‘s Commonwealth of England forces – the New Model Army – in 1650. [ 59 ] In the seventeenth century, Edinburgh ‘s boundaries were still defined by the city ‘s defensive town walls. As a consequence, the city ‘s growing population was accommodated by increasing the acme of the houses. Buildings of 11 storeys or more were common, [ 60 ] and have been described as forerunners of the contemporary skyscraper. [ 61 ] [ 62 ] Most of these honest-to-god structures were replaced by the predominantly priggish buildings seen in today ‘s Old Town. In 1611 an act of parliament created the High Constables of Edinburgh to keep order in the city, thought to be the oldest statutory patrol effect in the earth. [ 63 ]

eighteenth hundred [edit ]

A paint showing Edinburgh characters ( based on John Kay ‘s caricatures ) behind St Giles ‘ Cathedral in the deep eighteenth hundred Following the Treaty of Union in 1706, the Parliaments of England and Scotland passed Acts of Union in 1706 and 1707 respectively, uniting the two kingdoms in the Kingdom of Great Britain effective from 1 May 1707. [ 64 ] As a consequence, the Parliament of Scotland merged with the Parliament of England to form the Parliament of Great Britain, which sat at Westminster in London. The Union was opposed by many Scots, resulting in riots in the city. [ 65 ] By the inaugural half of the eighteenth century, Edinburgh was described as one of Europe ‘s most densely populate, overcrowd and unsanitary towns. [ 66 ] [ 67 ] Visitors were struck by the fact that the social classes shared the lapp urban space, even inhabiting the lapp tenement buildings ; although here a form of social segregation did predominate, whereby shopkeepers and tradesmen tended to occupy the cheaper-to-rent cellars and garrets, while the more comfortable professional classes occupied the more expensive middle floor. [ 68 ] During the Jacobite rise of 1745, Edinburgh was briefly occupied by the Jacobite “ Highland Army ” before its march into England. [ 69 ] After its eventual get the better of at Culloden, there followed a time period of reprisals and peace, largely directed at the rebellious clans. [ 70 ] In Edinburgh, the Town Council, keen to emulate London by initiating city improvements and expansion to the north of the castle, [ 71 ] reaffirmed its belief in the Union and commitment to the Hanoverian sovereign George III by its choice of names for the streets of the New Town : for exemplar, Rose Street and Thistle Street ; and for the imperial family, George Street, Queen Street, Hanover Street, Frederick Street and Princes Street ( in award of George ‘s two sons ). [ 72 ] In the moment half of the hundred, the city was at the heart of the scots Enlightenment, [ 73 ] when thinkers like David Hume, Adam Smith, James Hutton and Joseph Black were familiar figures in its streets. Edinburgh became a major intellectual center, earning it the dub “ Athens of the North ” because of its many neo-classical buildings and repute for learn, recalling ancient Athens. [ 74 ] In the 18th-century fresh The Expedition of Humphry Clinker by Tobias Smollett one character describes Edinburgh as a “ hotbed of genius ”. [ 75 ] Edinburgh was besides a major center for the scots record trade. The highly successful London bookseller Andrew Millar was apprenticed there to James McEuen. [ 76 ] From the 1770s onwards, the professional and business classes gradually deserted the Old Town in favor of the more elegant “ one-family ” residences of the New Town, a migration that changed the city ‘s social character. According to the foremost historian of this development, “ one of social feel was one of the most valuable heritages of old Edinburgh, and its fade was widely and properly lamented. ” [ 77 ]

19th and 20th centuries [edit ]

Edinburgh Castle from the Grassmarket, photographed by George Washington Wilson in 1865An aerial photo of Edinburgh with an aeroplane visible Edinburgh, c. 1920 Despite an enduring myth to the contrary, [ 78 ] Edinburgh became an industrial center [ 79 ] with its traditional industries of impression, brew and distilling continuing to grow in the nineteenth century and joined by raw industries such as rubber works, mastermind works and others. By 1821, Edinburgh had been overtaken by Glasgow as Scotland ‘s largest city. [ 80 ] The city center between Princes Street and George Street became a major commercial and shopping zone, a development partially stimulated by the arrival of railways in the 1840s. The Old Town became an increasingly dilapidated, overcrowded slum with high mortality rates. [ 81 ] Improvements carried out under Lord Provost William Chambers in the 1860s began the transformation of the area into the predominantly victorian Old Town seen today. [ 82 ] More improvements followed in the early twentieth hundred as a solution of the make of Patrick Geddes, [ 83 ] but proportional economic stagnation during the two universe wars and beyond saw the Old Town deteriorate further before major slum clearance in the 1960s and 1970s began to reverse the action. University build developments which transformed the George Square and Potterrow areas proved highly controversial. [ 84 ] Since the 1990s a new “ fiscal district ”, including the Edinburgh International Conference Centre, has grown chiefly on demolish railroad track property to the west of the palace, stretching into Fountainbridge, a run-down 19th-century industrial suburb which has undergo radical variety since the 1980s with the death of industrial and brewery premises. This ongoing development has enabled Edinburgh to maintain its target as the United Kingdom ‘s irregular largest fiscal and administrative center after London. [ 85 ] [ 86 ] Financial services nowadays account for a third base of all commercial office quad in the city. [ 87 ] The exploitation of Edinburgh Park, a new business and engineering parking lot covering 38 acres ( 15 hour angle ), 4 nautical mile ( 6 kilometer ) west of the city center, has besides contributed to the District Council ‘s strategy for the city ‘s major economic regeneration. [ 87 ] In 1998, the Scotland Act, which came into force the pursue class, established a devolve scots Parliament and Scottish Executive ( renamed the scots Government since September 2007 [ 88 ] ). Both based in Edinburgh, they are creditworthy for governing Scotland while reserved matters such as refutation, foreign affairs and some elements of income tax remain the duty of the Parliament of the United Kingdom in London. [ 89 ]

geography [edit ]

cityscape [edit ]

Situated in Scotland ‘s Central Belt, Edinburgh lies on the southerly prop up of the Firth of Forth. The city center is 2+1⁄2 miles ( 4.0 kilometer ) southwest of the shoreline of Leith and 26 miles ( 42 kilometer ) inland, as the corvus flies, from the east coast of Scotland and the North Sea at Dunbar. [ 90 ] While the early burgh grew up near the outstanding Castle Rock, the modern city is much said to be built on seven hills, namely Calton Hill, Corstorphine Hill, Craiglockhart Hill, Braid Hill, Blackford Hill, Arthur ‘s Seat and the Castle Rock, [ 91 ] giving rise to allusions to the seven hills of Rome. [ 92 ] Occupying a narrow-minded gap between the Firth of Forth to the north and the Pentland Hills and their outrunners to the south, the city sprawl over a landscape which is the product of early volcanic activity and subsequently periods of intensive glaciation. [ 93 ] : 64–65 igneous natural process between 350 and 400 million years ago, coupled with blame, led to the creation of sturdy basalt volcanic plugs, which predominate over a lot of the area. [ 93 ] : 64–65 One such case is the Castle Rock which forced the advancing ice sheet to divide, sheltering the softer rock and forming a 1-mile-long ( 1.6 kilometer ) fag end of corporeal to the east, frankincense creating a distinctive crag and tail constitution. [ 93 ] : 64–65 Glacial corrosion on the north side of the crag gouged a deep valley late filled by the immediately drained Nor Loch. These features, along with another hole on the rock candy ‘s south english, formed an ideal natural strongpoint upon which Edinburgh Castle was built. [ 93 ] : 64–65 similarly, Arthur ‘s Seat is the remains of a vent dating from the Carboniferous time period, which was eroded by a glacier moving west to east during the internal-combustion engine age. [ 93 ] : 64–65 erosive action such as pick and abrasion exposed the rocky crag to the west before leaving a tail of lodge glacial material cross to the east. [ 94 ] This process formed the classifiable Salisbury Crags, a serial of teschenite cliffs between Arthur ‘s Seat and the location of the early burgh. [ 95 ] The residential areas of Marchmont and Bruntsfield are built along a series of drumlin ridges south of the city kernel, which were deposited as the glacier receded. [ 93 ] : 64–65 other big landforms such as Calton Hill and Corstorphine Hill are besides products of arctic erosion. [ 93 ] : 64–65 The Braid Hills and Blackford Hill are a series of small summits to the south of the city concentrate that command expansive views looking northwards over the urban sphere to the Firth of Forth. [ 93 ] : 64–65
see of Edinburgh from Blackford Hill Edinburgh is drained by the river named the Water of Leith, which rises at the Colzium Springs in the Pentland Hills and runs for 29 kilometres ( 18 nautical mile ) through the south and west of the city, emptying into the Firth of Forth at Leith. [ 96 ] The nearest the river gets to the city center is at Dean Village on the north-western edge of the New Town, where a abstruse defile is spanned by Thomas Telford ‘s Dean Bridge, built in 1832 for the road to Queensferry. The Water of Leith Walkway is a mixed-use trail that follows the course of the river for 19.6 kilometres ( 12.2 security service ) from Balerno to Leith. [ 97 ]
Panorama of Edinburgh from Edinburgh Castle, with the New Town in the center and Calton Hill to the correct Excepting the shoreline of the Firth of Forth, Edinburgh is encircled by a green belt, designated in 1957, which stretches from Dalmeny in the west to Prestongrange in the east. [ 98 ] With an modal width of 3.2 kilometres ( 2 michigan ) the principal objectives of the green knock were to contain the outward expansion of the city and to prevent the agglomeration of urban areas. [ 98 ] Expansion affecting the green belt is strictly controlled but developments such as Edinburgh Airport and the Royal Highland Showground at Ingliston lie within the zone. [ 98 ] similarly, suburbs such as Juniper Green and Balerno are situated on k knock state. [ 98 ] One feature of the Edinburgh greens belt is the inclusion of parcels of land within the city which are designated k knock, evening though they do not connect with the peripheral call. Examples of these independent wedges of green knock include Holyrood Park and Corstorphine Hill. [ 98 ]
Edinburgh Old Town horizon panorama

Areas [edit ]

Edinburgh includes former towns and villages that retain much of their master fictional character as settlements in being before they were absorbed into the expanding city of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. [ 99 ] Many areas, such as Dalry, contain residences that are multi-occupancy buildings known as tenements, although the more southerly and western parts of the city have traditionally been less built-up with a greater number of detached and semi-detached villas. [ 100 ]
Map showing the areas of central Edinburgh The historic center of Edinburgh is divided in two by the broad green swaddle of Princes Street Gardens. To the south, the view is dominated by Edinburgh Castle, built high on Castle Rock, and the long slam of the Old Town derive towards Holyrood Palace. To the north lie down Princes Street and the New Town. The West End includes the fiscal zone, with policy and bank offices ampere well as the Edinburgh International Conference Centre. Edinburgh ‘s Old and New Towns were listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1995 in realization of the singular character of the Old Town with its chivalric street layout and the planned Georgian New Town, including the border Dean Village and Calton Hill areas. There are over 4,500 list buildings within the city, [ 17 ] a higher proportion relative to area than any other city in the United Kingdom. The palace is perched on top of a rocky crag ( the end of an extinct volcano ) and the Royal Mile runs down the peak of a ridge from it terminating at Holyrood Palace. Minor streets ( called closes or wynds ) lie on either side of the main spine forming a herringbone pattern. [ 101 ] Due to space restrictions imposed by the narrow margin of this landform, the Old Town became dwelling to some of the earliest “ eminent ascend ” residential buildings. Multi-storey dwellings known as lands were the norm from the sixteenth century onwards with ten and football team storeys being typical and one even reaching fourteen or fifteen storeys. [ 102 ] Numerous vaults below street flat were inhabited to accommodate the inflow of incomers, particularly irish immigrants, during the Industrial Revolution. The street has several fine public buildings such as St Giles ‘ Cathedral, the City Chambers and the Law Courts. early places of historical interest nearby are Greyfriars Kirkyard and Mary King ‘s Close. The Grassmarket, running deep below the castle is connected by the exorbitant double terraced Victoria Street. The street layout is typical of the old quarters of many northwestern european cities. The New Town was an 18th-century solution to the problem of an increasingly crowded city which had been confined to the ridge sloping down from the castle. In 1766 a rival to design a “ New Town ” was won by James Craig, a 27-year-old architect. [ 103 ] The plan was a rigid, order grid, which fitted in well with Enlightenment ideas of rationality. The principal street was to be George Street, running along the natural ridge to the north of what became known as the “ Old Town ”. To either side of it are two early main streets : Princes Street and Queen Street. Princes Street has become Edinburgh ‘s independent denounce street and now has few of its georgian buildings in their original state. The three main streets are connected by a series of streets running perpendicular to them. The east and west ends of George Street are terminated by St Andrew Square and Charlotte Square respectively. The latter, designed by Robert Adam, influenced the architectural stylus of the New Town into the early nineteenth century. [ 104 ] Bute House, the official mansion of the First Minister of Scotland, is on the north side of Charlotte Square. [ 105 ] The hollow between the Old and New Towns was once the Nor Loch, which was created for the town ‘s defense but came to be used by the inhabitants for dumping their sewage. It was drained by the 1820s as share of the city ‘s north expansion. Craig ‘s original plan included an ornamental canal on the site of the loch, [ 72 ] but this estimate was abandoned. [ 106 ] Soil excavated while laying the foundations of buildings in the New Town was dumped on the site of the loch to create the slope connecting the Old and New Towns known as The Mound. In the center of the nineteenth hundred the National Gallery of Scotland and Royal Scottish Academy Building were built on The Mound, and tunnels for the railroad track line between Haymarket and Waverley stations were driven through it. The Southside is a residential part of the city, which includes the districts of St Leonards, Marchmont, Morningside, Newington, Sciennes, the Grange and Blackford. The Southside is broadly analogous to the area covered once by the Burgh Muir, and was developed as a residential area after the opening of the South Bridge in the 1780s. The Southside is peculiarly popular with families ( many state and private schools are here ), young professionals and students ( the central University of Edinburgh campus is based around George Square equitable north of Marchmont and the Meadows ), and Napier University ( with major campuses around Merchiston and Morningside ). The area is besides well provided with hotel and “ sleep together and breakfast ” adjustment for visiting festival-goers. These districts frequently feature in works of fiction. For model, Church Hill in Morningside, was the home of Muriel Spark ‘s Miss Jean Brodie, [ 107 ] and Ian Rankin ‘s Inspector Rebus lives in Marchmont and works in St Leonards. [ 108 ]
The Shore, Leith Leith was historically the port of Edinburgh, an musical arrangement of strange go steady that was confirmed by the royal charter Robert the Bruce granted to the city in 1329. [ 109 ] The port developed a separate identity from Edinburgh, which to some extent it calm retains, and it was a matter of great resentment when the two burghs merged in 1920 into the City of Edinburgh. [ 110 ] even today the parliamentary seat is known as “ Edinburgh North and Leith ”. The loss of traditional industries and department of commerce ( the death shipyard closed in 1983 ) resulted in economic decline. [ 111 ] The Edinburgh Waterfront development has transformed old dockland areas from Leith to Granton into residential areas with shopping and leisure facilities and helped rejuvenate the area. With the renovation, Edinburgh has gained the commercial enterprise of cruise liner companies which now provide cruises to Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Germany, and the Netherlands. The coastal suburb of Portobello is characterised by Georgian villa, victorian tenements, a beach and parade and cafés, bars, restaurants and mugwump shops. There are rowing and sailing clubs and a restore victorian swim pool, including turkish baths. The urban area of Edinburgh is about entirely within the City of Edinburgh Council limit, merging with Musselburgh in East Lothian. Towns within easy pass of the city limit include Haddington, Tranent, Prestonpans, Dalkeith, Bonnyrigg, Loanhead, Penicuik, Broxburn, Livingston and Dunfermline. Edinburgh lies at the heart of the Edinburgh & South East Scotland City region with a population in 2014 of 1,339,380. [ 112 ] [ 14 ]

climate [edit ]

Like most of Scotland, Edinburgh has a cool, temperate, nautical climate which, despite its north wind latitude, is milder than places which lie at like latitudes such as Moscow and Labrador. [ 113 ] The city ‘s proximity to the ocean mitigates any large variations in temperature or extremes of climate. Winter day temperatures rarely fall below freezing while summer temperatures are moderate, rarely exceeding 22 °C ( 72 °F ). [ 113 ] The highest temperature recorded in the city was 31.6 °C ( 88.9 °F ) on 25 July 2019 [ 113 ] at Gogarbank, beating the former record of 31 °C ( 88 °F ) on 4 August 1975 at Edinburgh Airport. [ 114 ] The lowest temperature recorded in holocene years was −14.6 °C ( 5.7 °F ) during December 2010 at Gogarbank. [ 115 ] Given Edinburgh ‘s put between the coast and hills, it is renowned as “ the windy city ”, with the prevail wind focus coming from the southwest, which is much associated with warmly, mentally ill air from the North Atlantic Current that can give originate to rainfall – although well less than cities to the west, such as Glasgow. [ 113 ] Rainfall is distributed fairly evenly throughout the year. [ 113 ] Winds from an easterly management are normally drier but well cold, and may be accompanied by haar, a persistent coastal fog. Vigorous Atlantic depressions, known as european windstorms, can affect the city between October and May. [ 113 ] Located slightly north of the city center, the weather station at the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh ( RBGE ) has been an official weather station for the Met Office since 1956. The Met Office operates its own weather post at Gogarbank on the city ‘s western outskirts, near Edinburgh Airport. [ 116 ] This slightly inland station has a slightly wider temperature bridge between seasons, is cloudier and slightly wetter, but differences are minor. temperature and rain records have been kept at the Royal Observatory since 1764. [ 117 ]

Climate data for Edinburgh (RBGE)[a], elevation: 23 m (75 ft), 1991–2020 normals, extremes 1960–present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 15.0
(59.0)
15.2
(59.4)
20.0
(68.0)
22.8
(73.0)
29.0
(84.2)
27.8
(82.0)
31.6
(88.9)
31.4
(88.5)
26.7
(80.1)
24.4
(75.9)
20.6
(69.1)
15.4
(59.7)
31.6
(88.9)
Average high °C (°F) 7.3
(45.1)
8.0
(46.4)
9.7
(49.5)
12.2
(54.0)
14.9
(58.8)
17.4
(63.3)
19.3
(66.7)
19.1
(66.4)
16.9
(62.4)
13.4
(56.1)
9.9
(49.8)
7.3
(45.1)
13.0
(55.4)
Daily mean °C (°F) 4.5
(40.1)
4.8
(40.6)
6.3
(43.3)
8.4
(47.1)
11.0
(51.8)
13.7
(56.7)
15.4
(59.7)
15.3
(59.5)
13.3
(55.9)
10.0
(50.0)
6.8
(44.2)
4.5
(40.1)
9.5
(49.1)
Average low °C (°F) 1.7
(35.1)
1.7
(35.1)
2.9
(37.2)
4.7
(40.5)
7.1
(44.8)
9.9
(49.8)
11.6
(52.9)
11.5
(52.7)
9.7
(49.5)
6.7
(44.1)
3.8
(38.8)
1.6
(34.9)
6.1
(43.0)
Record low °C (°F) −15.5
(4.1)
−11.7
(10.9)
−11.1
(12.0)
−6.1
(21.0)
−2.4
(27.7)
1.1
(34.0)
4.4
(39.9)
2.2
(36.0)
−1.1
(30.0)
−3.7
(25.3)
−8.3
(17.1)
−11.5
(11.3)
−15.5
(4.1)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 64.7
(2.55)
53.1
(2.09)
48.5
(1.91)
40.8
(1.61)
47.6
(1.87)
66.2
(2.61)
72.1
(2.84)
71.6
(2.82)
54.9
(2.16)
75.7
(2.98)
65.3
(2.57)
67.4
(2.65)
727.7
(28.65)
Average precipitation days ( ≥ 1.0 millimeter ) 12.4 9.8 9.8 8.6 9.6 10.4 11.5 10.4 9.9 11.7 11.7 12.3 128.3
Mean monthly sunshine hours 55.2 82.2 117.3 157.3 194.7 161.8 169.9 160.0 130.1 99.4 72.1 49.2 1,449.1
Average ultraviolet index 0 1 2 3 5 5 5 5 3 1 1 0 3
Source: Met Office[118], KNMI[119] and Weather Atlas[120]
Climate data for Edinburgh (Gogarbank)[b], elevation: 57 m (187 ft), 1991–2020 normals
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 6.9
(44.4)
7.5
(45.5)
9.3
(48.7)
12.0
(53.6)
14.9
(58.8)
17.5
(63.5)
19.4
(66.9)
19.2
(66.6)
16.9
(62.4)
13.2
(55.8)
9.5
(49.1)
7.0
(44.6)
12.8
(55.0)
Daily mean °C (°F) 4.2
(39.6)
4.6
(40.3)
6.0
(42.8)
8.2
(46.8)
10.8
(51.4)
13.4
(56.1)
15.2
(59.4)
15.1
(59.2)
13.1
(55.6)
9.8
(49.6)
6.6
(43.9)
4.2
(39.6)
9.3
(48.7)
Average low °C (°F) 1.5
(34.7)
1.6
(34.9)
2.7
(36.9)
4.3
(39.7)
6.7
(44.1)
9.4
(48.9)
11.0
(51.8)
11.0
(51.8)
9.4
(48.9)
6.5
(43.7)
3.6
(38.5)
1.4
(34.5)
5.8
(42.4)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 73.0
(2.87)
61.1
(2.41)
52.5
(2.07)
45.9
(1.81)
50.2
(1.98)
68.8
(2.71)
71.9
(2.83)
74.7
(2.94)
55.2
(2.17)
82.7
(3.26)
73.7
(2.90)
74.9
(2.95)
784.3
(30.88)
Average precipitation days ( ≥ 1.0 millimeter ) 13.3 10.7 10.3 9.2 10.8 11.1 11.4 11.2 10.5 13.0 12.9 13.1 137.4
Mean monthly sunshine hours 47.4 77.5 111.0 147.7 189.5 159.4 160.9 145.7 125.5 94.1 66.9 37.8 1,363.4
Source: Met Office[121]
  1. ^ Weather station is located 0.9 miles ( 1.4 kilometer ) from the Edinburgh city center .
  2. ^ Weather place is located 5.9 miles ( 9.5 kilometer ) from the Edinburgh city center .

demography [edit ]

current [edit ]

Population concentration map The most late official population estimates are 512,150 ( 2016 ) for the Edinburgh settlement ( includes Musselburgh ) [ 122 ] and 518,500 ( 2018 ) for the local authority area. [ 2 ] Edinburgh has a high proportion of young adults, with 19.5 % of the population in their 20s ( exceeded only by Aberdeen ) and 15.2 % in their 30s which is the highest in Scotland. The proportion of Edinburgh ‘s population born in the UK fell from 92 % to 84 % between 2001 and 2011, while the proportion of White Scottish-born fell from 78 % to 70 %. Of those Edinburgh residents born in the UK, 335,000 or 83 % were born in Scotland, with 58,000 or 14 % being born in England. [ 123 ]

† Caribbean as opposed to Caribbean Black
†† previously ‘mixed ‘

Some 13,000 people or 2.7 % of the city ‘s population are of polish origin. 39,500 people or 8.2 % of Edinburgh ‘s population class themselves as Non-White which is an increase from 4 % in 2001. Of the Non-White population, the largest group by far are asian, totalling 26,264 people. Within the asian population, people of taiwanese descent are now the largest sub-group, with 8,076 people, amounting to about 1.7 % of the city ‘s entire population. The city ‘s population of indian origin amounts to 6,470 ( 1.4 % of the entire population ), while there are some 5,858 of Pakistani origin ( 1.2 % of the sum population ). Although they account for only 1,277 people or 0.3 % of the city ‘s population, Edinburgh has the highest number and proportion of people of Bangladeshi origin in Scotland. Over 7,000 people were born in african countries ( 1.6 % of the entire population ) and closely 7,000 in the Americas. With the luminary exception of Inner London, Edinburgh has a higher total of people born in the United States ( over 3,700 ) than any early city in the UK. [ 123 ] The symmetry of people born outside the UK was 15.9 % compared with 8 % in 2001 .

diachronic [edit ]

Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1801 82,560 —    
1811 102,987 +24.7%
1821 138,235 +34.2%
1831 161,909 +17.1%
1841 166,450 +2.8%
1851 193,929 +16.5%
1901 303,638 +56.6%
1911 320,318 +5.5%
1921 420,264 +31.2%
1931 439,010 +4.5%
1951 466,761 +6.3%
Source:
[126]

A census by the Edinburgh presbytery in 1592 recorded a population of 8,003 adults spread evenly north and south of the High Street which runs along the spine of the ridge sloping down from the Castle. [ 127 ] In the 18th and 19th centuries, the population expanded quickly, rising from 49,000 in 1751 to 136,000 in 1831, chiefly due to migration from rural areas. [ 93 ] : 9 As the population grew, problems of overcrowding in the Old Town, peculiarly in the cramp tenements that lined the award day Royal Mile and the Cowgate, were exacerbated. [ 93 ] : 9 Poor sanitary arrangements resulted in a high incidence of disease, [ 93 ] : 9 with outbreaks of cholera occurring in 1832, 1848 and 1866. [ 128 ] The construction of the New Town from 1767 onwards witnessed the migration of the professional and business classes from the unmanageable live conditions in the Old Town to the lower density, higher choice surroundings taking determine on land to the north. [ 129 ] expansion southwards from the Old Town saw more tenements being built in the nineteenth hundred, giving rise to victorian suburbs such as Dalry, Newington, Marchmont and Bruntsfield. [ 129 ] early 20th-century population growth coincided with lower-density suburban development. As the city expanded to the south and west, detached and semi-detached villas with big gardens replaced tenements as the prevailing construction style. however, the 2001 census revealed that over 55 % of Edinburgh ‘s population were hush living in tenements or blocks of flats, a human body in line with early scots cities, but much higher than other british cities, and even central London. [ 130 ] From the early to mid twentieth hundred, the emergence in population, together with slum clearance in the Old Town and early areas, such as Dumbiedykes, Leith, and Fountainbridge, led to the creation of new estates such as Stenhouse and Saughton, Craigmillar and Niddrie, Pilton and Muirhouse, Piershill, and Sighthill. [ 131 ]

religion [edit ]

The High Kirk of Edinburgh, besides known as St Giles ‘ Cathedral In 2018 the Church of Scotland had 20,956 members in 71 congregations in the Presbytery of Edinburgh. [ 132 ] Its most outstanding church is St Giles ‘ on the Royal Mile, first gear dedicated in 1243 but believed to date from before the twelfth century. [ 133 ] Saint Giles is historically the patron ideal of Edinburgh. [ 134 ] St Cuthbert ‘s, situated at the west end of Princes Street Gardens in the shadow of Edinburgh Castle and St Giles ‘ can lay claim to being the oldest christian sites in the city, [ 135 ] though the give St Cuthbert ‘s, designed by Hippolyte Blanc, was dedicated in 1894. [ 136 ] other Church of Scotland churches include Greyfriars Kirk, the Canongate Kirk, St Andrew ‘s and St George ‘s West Church and the Barclay Church. The church of Scotland Offices are in Edinburgh, [ 137 ] as is the Assembly Hall where the annual General Assembly is held. [ 138 ] The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of St Andrews and Edinburgh has 27 parishes across the city. [ 139 ] The Archbishop of St Andrews and Edinburgh has his official residency in Greenhill, [ 140 ] and the diocesan offices are in nearby Marchmont. [ 141 ] The Diocese of Edinburgh of the scottish Episcopal Church has over 50 churches, half of them in the city. [ 142 ] Its concentrate is the late-19th-century Gothic manner St Mary ‘s Cathedral in the West end ‘s Palmerston Place. [ 143 ] Orthodox Christianity is represented by Pan, Romanian and Russian Orthodox churches. There are several autonomous churches in the city, both Catholic and Protestant, including Charlotte Chapel, Carrubbers Christian Centre, Bellevue Chapel and Sacred Heart. [ 144 ] There are besides churches belonging to Quakers, Christadelphians, [ 145 ] Seventh-day Adventists, Church of Christ, Scientist, The Church of Jesus Christ of latter-day Saints ( LDS Church ) and Elim Pentecostal Church. Muslims have several places of worship across the city. edinburgh Central Mosque, the largest muslim place of idolize, is located in Potterrow on the city ‘s Southside, near Bristo Square. construction was largely financed by a endowment from King Fahd of Saudi Arabia [ 146 ] and was completed in 1998. [ 147 ] There is besides an Ahmadiyya Muslim community. [ 148 ] The first recorded bearing of a Jewish community in Edinburgh dates back to the deep eighteenth century. [ 149 ] Edinburgh ‘s Orthodox synagogue, opened in 1932, is in Salisbury Road and can accommodate a congregation of 2000. A big jewish congregation besides meets in the city. A Sikh gurdwara and a Hindu mandir are located in Leith. [ 150 ] [ 151 ] The city besides has a Brahma Kumaris center in the Polwarth area. [ 152 ] The Edinburgh Buddhist Centre, run by the Triratna Buddhist Community, once situated in Melville Terrace, now runs sessions at the Healthy Life Centre, Bread Street. [ 153 ] other Buddhist traditions are represented by groups which meet in the capital : the Community of Interbeing ( followers of Thich Nhat Hanh ), Rigpa, Samye Dzong, Theravadin, Pure Land and Shambala. There is a Sōtō Zen Priory in Portobello [ 154 ] and a Theravadin Thai Buddhist Monastery in Slateford Road. [ 155 ] Edinburgh is home to a Baháʼí community, [ 156 ] and a theosophical Society meets in Great King Street. [ 157 ] Edinburgh has an Inter-Faith Association. [ 158 ] Edinburgh has over 39 graveyards and cemeteries, many of which are listed and of historic character, including several erstwhile church burial grounds. [ 159 ] Examples include Old Calton Burial Ground, Greyfriars Kirkyard and Dean Cemetery. [ 160 ] [ 161 ] [ 162 ]

economy [edit ]

Edinburgh has the strongest economy of any city in the United Kingdom outside London and the highest percentage of professionals in the UK with 43 % of the population holding a degree-level or professional reservation. [ 163 ] According to the Centre for International Competitiveness, it is the most competitive large city in the United Kingdom. [ 164 ] It besides has the highest gross value added per employee of any city in the UK outside London, measuring £57,594 in 2010. [ 165 ] It was named european Best Large City of the Future for Foreign Direct Investment and Best Large City for Foreign Direct Investment Strategy in the Financial Times fDi magazine awards 2012/13. In the nineteenth hundred, Edinburgh ‘s economy was known for bank and insurance, print and printing, and brewing and distill. today, its economy is based chiefly on fiscal services, scientific inquiry, higher education, and tourism. [ 166 ] In March 2010, unemployment in Edinburgh was relatively moo at 3.6 %, and it remains systematically below the scottish modal of 4.5 %. [ 167 ] Edinburgh is the moment most chew the fat city by foreign visitors in the UK after London. banking has been a mainstay of the Edinburgh economy for over 300 years, since the Bank of Scotland was established by an act of the scots Parliament in 1695. today, the fiscal services industry, with its particularly hard policy and investment sectors, and underpin by Edinburgh-based firms such as scottish Widows and Standard Life Aberdeen, accounts for the city being the UK ‘s second gear fiscal center after London and Europe ‘s one-fourth in terms of equity assets. [ 168 ] The NatWest Group ( once Royal Bank of Scotland Group ) opened new global headquarters at Gogarburn in the west of the city in October 2005. The city is home to the headquarters of Bank of Scotland, Sainsbury ‘s Bank, [ 169 ] Tesco Bank, [ 170 ] and TSB Bank .
tourism is besides an significant element in the city ‘s economy. As a World Heritage Site, tourists visit historic sites such as Edinburgh Castle, the Palace of Holyroodhouse and the Old and New Towns. Their numbers are augmented in August each year during the Edinburgh Festivals, which attracts 4.4 million visitors, [ 167 ] and generates over £100m for the local economy. [ 171 ] As the center of Scotland ‘s government and legal system, the public sector plays a central role in Edinburgh ‘s economy. many departments of the scots Government are in the city. other major employers include NHS Scotland and local government administration. [ 166 ] When the £1.3bn Edinburgh & South East Scotland City Region Deal was signed in 2018, the region ‘s Gross Value Added ( GVA ) contribution to the scots economy was cited as £33bn, or 33 % of the country ‘s output. But the Deal ‘s partners noted that prosperity was not evenly spread across the city region, citing 22.4 % of children living in poverty and a dearth of low-cost house. [ 172 ]

culture [edit ]

Festivals and celebrations [edit ]

Edinburgh festival [edit ]

The city hosts a series of festivals that run between the end of July and early September each year. The best know of these events are the Edinburgh Festival Fringe, the Edinburgh International Festival, the Edinburgh Military Tattoo, the Edinburgh Art Festival and the Edinburgh International Book Festival. [ 173 ]

The longest established of these festivals is the Edinburgh International Festival, which was beginning held in 1947 [ 174 ] and consists chiefly of a program of high-profile dramaturgy productions and classical music performances, featuring external directors, conductors, dramaturgy companies and orchestras. [ 175 ] This has since been overtaken in size by the Edinburgh Fringe which began as a program of fringy acts alongside the “ official ” Festival and has become the world ‘s largest perform arts festival. In 2017, about 3400 different shows were staged in 300 venues across the city. [ 176 ] [ 177 ] Comedy has become one of the mainstays of the Fringe, with numerous well-known comedians getting their first ‘break ‘ there, often by being chosen to receive the Edinburgh Comedy Award. [ 178 ] The Edinburgh Military Tattoo, occupies the Castle Esplanade every night for three weeks each August, with massed pipe bands and military bands drawn from around the world. Performances end with a short firework display. american samoa well as the summer festivals, many other festivals are held during the rest of the class, including the Edinburgh International Film Festival [ 179 ] and Edinburgh International Science Festival. [ 180 ] The summer of 2020 was the foremost time in its 70-year history that the Edinburgh festival was not run, being cancelled ascribable to the COVID-19 pandemic. [ 181 ] This affected many of the tourist-focused businesses in Edinburgh which depend on the versatile festivals over summer to return an annual net income. [ 182 ]

Edinburgh ‘s Hogmanay [edit ]

A Viking longship being burn during Edinburgh ‘s annual Hogmanay celebrations The annual Edinburgh Hogmanay celebration was primitively an cozy street party focused on the Tron Kirk in the Old Town ‘s High Street. Since 1993, it has been formally organised with the concentrate moved to Princes Street. In 1996, over 300,000 people attended, leading to ticketing of the main street party in by and by years up to a limit of 100,000 tickets. [ 183 ] Hogmanay now covers four days of processions, concerts and fireworks, with the street party beginning on Hogmanay. option tickets are available for entrance into the Princes Street Gardens concert and Cèilidh, where well-known artists perform and ticket holders can participate in traditional scots cèilidh dance. The event attracts thousands of people from all over the world. [ 183 ]

Beltane and early festivals [edit ]

On the night of 30 April the Beltane Fire Festival takes position on Calton Hill, involving a procession followed by scenes inspired by pagan erstwhile spring fertility celebrations. [ 184 ] At the begin of October each class the Dussehra Hindu Festival is besides held on Calton Hill. [ 185 ]

Music, dramaturgy and movie [edit ]

Outside the Festival season, Edinburgh supports several theatres and production companies. The Royal Lyceum Theatre has its own company, while the King ‘s Theatre, Edinburgh Festival Theatre and Edinburgh Playhouse stage bombastic tour shows. The Traverse Theatre presents a more contemporaneous repertory. Amateur theater companies productions are staged at the Bedlam Theatre, Church Hill Theatre and King ‘s Theatre among others. [ 186 ] The Usher Hall is Edinburgh ‘s premier venue for classical music, deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as periodic popular music concerts. [ 187 ] It was the venue for the Eurovision Song Contest 1972. other halls staging music and field include The Hub, the Assembly Rooms and the Queen ‘s Hall. The scots Chamber Orchestra is based in Edinburgh. [ 188 ]
Edinburgh has two repertoire cinema, the Edinburgh Filmhouse and The Cameo, adenine well as the independent Dominion Cinema and a range of multiplexes. [ 189 ] Edinburgh has a healthy popular music scene. occasionally large concerts are staged at Murrayfield and Meadowbank, while mid-sized events take place at smaller venues such as ‘The Corn Exchange ‘, ‘The Liquid Rooms ‘ and ‘The Bongo Club ‘. In 2010, PRS for Music listed Edinburgh among the UK ‘s top ten ‘most melodious ‘ cities. [ 190 ] several city pubs are well known for their survive performances of folk music music. They include ‘Sandy Bell ‘s ‘ in Forrest Road, ‘Captain ‘s Bar ‘ in South College Street and ‘Whistlebinkies ‘ in South Bridge. Like many other cities in the UK, numerous cabaret venues host electronic dancing music events. [ 191 ] Edinburgh is home to a flourishing group of contemporary composers such as Nigel Osborne, Peter Nelson, Lyell Cresswell, Hafliði Hallgrímsson, Edward Harper, Robert Crawford, Robert Dow and John McLeod. McLeod ‘s music is heard regularly on BBC Radio 3 and throughout the UK. [ 192 ]

Media [edit ]

Newspapers [edit ]

The main local anesthetic newspaper is the Edinburgh Evening News. It is owned and published alongside its sister titles The Scotsman and Scotland on Sunday by JPIMedia. [ 193 ]

radio [edit ]

The city has two commercial radio stations : forth 1, a station which broadcasts mainstream chart music, and Forth 2 on medium wave which plays classic hits. [ 194 ] Capital Radio Scotland and Eklipse Sports Radio besides have transmitters covering Edinburgh. Along with the UK national radio stations, Radio Scotland and the Gaelic lyric military service BBC Radio nan Gàidheal are besides broadcast. DAB digital radio is broadcast over two local multiplexes. BFBS Radio broadcasts from studios on the base at Dreghorn Barracks across the city on 98.5FM as character of its UK Bases network

television [edit ]

television, along with most radio services, is broadcast to the city from the Craigkelly transmitting place situated in Fife on the opposite slope of the Firth of Forth [ 195 ] and the Black Hill transmitting station in North Lanarkshire to the west. There are no television stations based in the city. Edinburgh Television existed in the deep 1990s to early 2003 [ 196 ] and STV Edinburgh existed from 2015 to 2018. [ 197 ] [ 198 ]

Museums, libraries and galleries [edit ]

Edinburgh has many museums and libraries. These include the National Museum of Scotland, the National Library of Scotland, National War Museum, the Museum of Edinburgh, Surgeons ‘ Hall Museum, the Writers ‘ Museum, the Museum of Childhood and Dynamic Earth. The museum on The Mound has exhibits on money and trust. [ 199 ] Edinburgh Zoo, covering 82 acres ( 33 hour angle ) on Corstorphine Hill, is the second most inflict paid tourist attraction in Scotland, [ 200 ] and home plate to two elephantine pandas, Tian Tian and Yang Guang, on loanword from the People ‘s Republic of China. Edinburgh is besides home to The Royal Yacht Britannia, decommissioned in 1997 and nowadays a five-star visitor attraction and evening events venue permanently berthed at Ocean Terminal. Edinburgh contains Scotland ‘s three National Galleries of Art ampere well as numerous smaller artwork galleries. [ 201 ] The national collection is housed in the scots National Gallery, located on The Mound, comprising the linked National Gallery of Scotland build and the Royal Scottish Academy building. contemporaneous collections are shown in the scots National Gallery of Modern Art which occupies a split locate at Belford. The scots National Portrait Gallery on Queen Street focuses on portraits and photography .
The council-owned City Art Centre in Market Street mounts regular art exhibitions. Across the road, The Fruitmarket Gallery offers first exhibitions of contemporary art, featuring solve by british and international artists with both emerging and established external reputations. [ 202 ] The city hosts several of Scotland ‘s galleries and organisations dedicated to contemporaneous ocular art. Significant strands of this infrastructure include Creative Scotland, Edinburgh College of Art, Talbot Rice Gallery ( University of Edinburgh ), corporate Gallery ( based at the City Observatory ) and the Edinburgh Annuale. There are besides many small secret shops/galleries that provide space to showcase works from local artists. [ 203 ]

Shopping [edit ]

The venue around Princes Street is the main shopping area in the city kernel, with memento shops, chain stores such as Boots the Chemist, Edinburgh Woollen Mill, H & M and Jenners. [ 204 ] George Street, north of Princes Street, is the favored placement for some upmarket shops and freelancer stores. [ 204 ] At the east conclusion of Princes Street, the redevelop St James Quarter opened its doors in June 2021, [ 205 ] while following to the Balmoral Hotel and Waverley Station is the Waverley Mall. Multrees Walk, adjacent to the St. James Centre, is a late accession to the central denounce zone, dominated by the bearing of Harvey Nichols. Shops here include Louis Vuitton, Mulberry and Calvin Klein. [ 204 ] Edinburgh besides has significant retail parks outside the city center. These include The Gyle Shopping Centre and Hermiston Gait in the west of the city, Cameron Toll Shopping Centre, Straiton Retail Park ( actually equitable outside the city, in Midlothian ) and Fort Kinnaird in the south and east, and Ocean Terminal in the north on the Leith waterfront. [ 206 ]

government [edit ]

local government [edit ]

Following local government reorganization in 1996, the City of Edinburgh Council constitutes one of the 32 council areas of Scotland. [ 207 ] Like all other local authorities of Scotland, the council has powers over most matters of local administration such as caparison, planning, local transportation, parks, economic development and re-formation. [ 208 ] The council comprises 58 elective councillors, returned from 17 multi-member electoral wards in the city. [ 209 ] Following the 2007 City of Edinburgh Council election the incumbent Labour Party lost majority control of the council after 23 years to a Liberal Democrat / SNP coalescence. [ 210 ] The 2012 City of Edinburgh Council election saw a scots Labour/SNP coalescence. The 2017 City of Edinburgh Council election, saw a good continuation of this administration, but with the SNP as the largest party. The city ‘s coat of arms was registered by the Lord Lyon King of Arms in 1732. [ 211 ]

scottish Parliament [edit ]

Edinburgh, like all of Scotland, is represented in the scots Parliament, situated in the Holyrood area of the city. For electoral purposes, the city is divided into six constituencies which, along with 3 seats outside of the city, form part of the Lothian region. [ 212 ] Each constituency elects one Member of the scottish Parliament ( MSP ) by the first past the post system of election, and the area elects seven extra MSPs to produce a result based on a form of proportional representation. [ 212 ] As of the 2016 election, the Scottish National Party have three MSPs : Ash Denham for Edinburgh Eastern, Ben Macpherson for Edinburgh Northern and Leith and Gordon MacDonald for Edinburgh Pentlands constituencies. Alex Cole-Hamilton of the scots Liberal Democrats represents Edinburgh Western, Daniel Johnson of the Scottish Labour Party represents Edinburgh Southern constituency, and erstwhile Leader of the Scottish Conservative Party, Ruth Davidson represents the Edinburgh Central constituency. In summation, the city is besides represented by seven regional MSPs representing the Lothian electoral region : The Conservatives have three regional MSPs : Jeremy Balfour, Miles Briggs and Gordon Lindhurst, Labour have two regional MSPs : Sarah Boyack and Neil Findlay, Scottish Greens have one regional MSP : Alison Johnstone and there is one independent MSP : Andy Wightman ( elected as a Scottish Green ) .

UK Parliament [edit ]

Edinburgh is besides represented in the House of Commons of the United Kingdom by five Members of Parliament. The city is divided into Edinburgh North and Leith, Edinburgh East, Edinburgh South, Edinburgh South West, and Edinburgh West, [ 213 ] each constituency electing one extremity by the first past the post system. Edinburgh is represented by three MPs affiliated with the Scottish National Party, one Liberal Democrat MP in Edinburgh West and one Labour MP in Edinburgh South .

transport [edit ]

Edinburgh Airport is Scotland ‘s busiest airport and the principal international gateway to the capital, handling over 14.7 million passengers, it was besides the sixth-busiest airport in the United Kingdom by sum passengers in 2019. [ 214 ] [ 215 ] In prediction of rising passenger numbers, the former hustler of the airport BAA outlined a conscription masterplan in 2011 to provide for the expansion of the airfield and the terminal construction. In June 2012, Global Infrastructure Partners purchased the airport for £807 million. [ 216 ] The possibility of building a second runway to cope with an increase numeral of aircraft movements has besides been mooted. [ 217 ] travel in Edinburgh is undertaken predominantly by bus. Lothian Buses, the successor company to Edinburgh Corporation Transport Department, operate the majority of city bus topology services within the city and to surrounding suburbs, with the most routes running via Princes Street. Services further afield engage from the Edinburgh Bus Station off St Andrew Square and Waterloo Place and are operated chiefly by Stagecoach East Scotland, Scottish Citylink, National Express Coaches and Borders Buses. Lothian Buses besides operates all of the city ‘s branded public go buses, night bus topology service and airport bus liaison. [ 218 ] In 2019, Lothian Buses recorded 124.2 million passenger journeys. [ citation needed ]
Edinburgh Waverley is the second-busiest railway station in Scotland, with only Glasgow Central handling more passengers. On the attest of passenger entries and exits between April 2015 and March 2016, Edinburgh Waverley is the fifth-busiest station outside London ; it is besides the UK ‘s second biggest station in terms of the number of platforms and area size. [ 219 ] Waverley is the terminus for most trains arriving from London King ‘s Cross and the deviation point for many railing services within Scotland operated by Abellio ScotRail. To the west of the city center lies Haymarket Station which is an important commuter end. Opened in 2003, Edinburgh Park post serves the Gyle clientele parking lot in the west of the city and the nearby Gogarburn headquarters of the Royal Bank of Scotland. The Edinburgh Crossrail route connects Edinburgh Park with Haymarket, Edinburgh Waverley and the suburban stations of Brunstane and Newcraighall in the east of the city. [ 220 ] There are besides commuter lines to South Gyle and Dalmeny, the latter serving South Queensferry by the Forth Bridges, and to Wester Hailes and Curriehill in the southwest of the city. To tackle traffic congestion, Edinburgh is now served by six parking lot and ride sites on the periphery of the city at Sheriffhall ( in Midlothian ), Ingliston, Riccarton, Inverkeithing ( in Fife ), Newcraighall and Straiton ( in Midlothian ). A referendum of Edinburgh residents in February 2005 rejected a proposal to introduce congestion charging in the city. [ 221 ]
Edinburgh Trams became functional on 31 May 2014. The city had been without a tramcar system since Edinburgh Corporation Tramways ceased on 16 November 1956. [ 222 ] Following parliamentary approval in 2007, structure began in early 2008. The first stage of the project was expected to be completed by July 2011 [ 223 ] but, following delays caused by extra utility cultivate and a long-running contractual dispute between the council and the main contractile organ, Bilfinger SE, the project was rescheduled. [ 224 ] [ 225 ] [ 226 ] The cost of the visualize rose from the original projection of £545 million to £750 million in mid-2011 [ 227 ] and some suggest it could finally exceed £1 billion. [ 228 ] The completed line is 8.7 miles ( 14.0 kilometer ) in length, running from Edinburgh Airport, west of the city, to its terminal at York Place in the city center ‘s East end. It was originally planned to continue down Leith Walk to Ocean Terminal and end at Newhaven. Should the master plan be taken to completion, trams will besides run from Haymarket through Ravelston and Craigleith to Granton Square on the Waterfront Edinburgh. [ 229 ] long-run proposals envisage a line running west from the airport to Ratho and Newbridge and another connecting Granton Square to Newhaven via Lower Granton Road, frankincense completing the Line 1 ( North Edinburgh ) loop. [ 230 ] A further production line serving the south of the city has besides been suggested .
Edinburgh tramline map Lothian Buses and Edinburgh Trams are both owned and operated by Transport for Edinburgh. Despite its modern transmit links, Edinburgh has been named the most congested city in the UK for the fourth year running. [ 231 ]

education [edit ]

There are three universities in Edinburgh, the University of Edinburgh, Heriot-Watt University and Edinburgh Napier University. Established by royal lease in 1583, the University of Edinburgh is one of Scotland ‘s ancient universities and is the fourth oldest in the state after St Andrews, Glasgow and Aberdeen. [ 232 ] in the first place centred on Old College the university expanded to premises on The Mound, the Royal Mile and George Square. [ 232 ] today, the King ‘s Buildings in the south of the city contain most of the schools within the College of Science and Engineering. In 2002, the checkup school moved to purpose built accommodation adjacent to the new Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh at Little France. The university is placed 16th in the QS World University Rankings for 2022. [ 16 ] Heriot-Watt University is based at the Riccarton campus in the west of Edinburgh. primitively established in 1821 as the world ‘s beginning mechanics ‘ institute it was granted university condition by imperial rent in 1966. It has other campuses in the scottish Borders, Orkney, United Arab Emirates and Putrajaya in Malaysia. It takes the mention Heriot-Watt from Scottish inventor James Watt and Scottish philanthropist and goldsmith George Heriot. Heriot-Watt University has been named International University of the year by The Times and Sunday Times Good University Guide 2018. In the latest research Excellence Framework, it was ranked overall in the top 25 % of UK universities and 1st in Scotland for research impact. Edinburgh Napier University was originally founded as the Napier College which was renamed Napier Polytechnic in 1986 and gained university condition in 1992. [ 233 ] Edinburgh Napier University has campuses in the south and west of the city, including the former Merchiston Tower and Craiglockhart Hydropathic. [ 233 ] It is home to the Screen Academy Scotland. Queen Margaret University was located in Edinburgh before it moved to a new campus just outside the city limit on the edge of Musselburgh in 2008. [ 234 ] Until 2012 further education colleges in the city included Jewel and Esk College ( incorporating Leith Nautical College founded in 1903 ), Telford College, opened in 1968, and Stevenson College, opened in 1970. These have immediately been amalgamated to form Edinburgh College. Scotland ‘s Rural College besides has a campus in south Edinburgh. early institutions include the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh and the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh which were established by royal rent in 1506 and 1681 respectively. The Trustees Drawing Academy of Edinburgh, founded in 1760, became the Edinburgh College of Art in 1907. [ 235 ] There are 18 nursery, 94 chief and 23 secondary schools administered by the City of Edinburgh Council. [ 236 ] Edinburgh is home to The Royal High School, one of the oldest schools in the area and the universe. The city besides has several mugwump, fee-paying schools including Edinburgh Academy, Fettes College, George Heriot ‘s School, George Watson ‘s College, Merchiston Castle School, Stewart ‘s Melville College and The Mary Erskine School. In 2009, the symmetry of pupils attending independent schools was 24.2 %, far above the scots national median of just over 7 % and higher than in any other area of Scotland. [ 237 ] In August 2013, the City of Edinburgh Council opened the city ‘s first stand-alone Gaelic primary school, Bun-sgoil Taobh na Pàirce. [ 238 ]

healthcare [edit ]

The main NHS Lothian hospitals serving the Edinburgh area are the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, which includes the University of Edinburgh Medical School, and the westerly General Hospital, [ 239 ] which has a boastfully cancer discussion center and nurse-led Minor Injuries Clinic. [ 240 ] The Royal Edinburgh Hospital in Morningside specialises in genial health. The Royal Hospital for Sick Children, colloquially referred to as ‘the Sick Kids ‘, is a specialist paediatrics hospital. There are two private hospitals : Murrayfield Hospital in the west of the city and Shawfair Hospital in the south. Both are owned by Spire Healthcare. [ 239 ]

fun [edit ]

Edinburgh has three football clubs that play in the scottish Professional Football League ( SPFL ) : heart of Midlothian, founded in 1874, Hibernian, founded in 1875 and Edinburgh City, founded in 1966. Heart of Midlothian and Hibernian are known locally as “ Hearts ” and “ Hibs ”, respectively. Both play in the scots Premiership. [ 241 ] They are the oldest city rivals in Scotland and the Edinburgh bowler hat is one of the oldest bowler hat matches in world football. Both clubs have won the Scottish league backing four times. Hearts have won the scots Cup eight times and the Scottish League Cup four times. Hibs have won the scottish Cup and the Scottish League Cup three times each. Edinburgh City were promoted to Scottish League Two in the 2015–16 season, becoming the first club to win promotion to the SPFL via the pyramid arrangement playoffs. Edinburgh was besides home to four other former Scottish Football League clubs : the original Edinburgh City ( founded in 1928 ), Leith Athletic, Meadowbank Thistle and St Bernard ‘s. Meadowbank Thistle played at Meadowbank Stadium until 1995, when the club moved to Livingston and became Livingston F.C. The scottish national team has very occasionally played at Easter Road and Tynecastle, although its normal home stadium is Hampden Park in Glasgow. St Bernard’s ‘ New Logie Green was used to host the 1896 scottish Cup Final, the entirely prison term the equal has been played outside Glasgow. [ 242 ] The city besides plays host to Lowland Football League clubs Civil Service Strollers, Edinburgh University and Spartans, american samoa well as East of Scotland League clubs Craigroyston, Edinburgh United, Heriot-Watt University, Leith Athletic, Lothian Thistle Hutchison Vale, and Tynecastle .
In women ‘s football, Hearts, Hibs and Spartans play in the SWPL 1. [ 243 ] Hutchison Vale play in the SWPL 2. [ 244 ]

rugby [edit ]

The Scotland national rugby marriage team and the professional Edinburgh Rugby team dally at Murrayfield Stadium, which is owned by the scottish Rugby Union and besides used for early events, including music concerts. It is the largest capacity stadium in Scotland, seating 67,144 spectators. [ 245 ] Edinburgh is besides home to Scottish Premiership teams Boroughmuir RFC, Currie RFC, the Edinburgh Academicals, Heriot ‘s Rugby Club and Watsonians RFC. [ 246 ] The Edinburgh Academicals grind at Raeburn Place was the location of the world ‘s first international rugby game on 27 March 1871, between Scotland and England. [ 247 ] Rugby league is represented by the Edinburgh Eagles who play in the Rugby League Conference Scotland Division. Murrayfield Stadium has hosted the Magic Weekend where all Super League matches are played in the stadium over one weekend .

other sports [edit ]

The scottish cricket team, which represents Scotland internationally, play their home matches at the Grange cricket baseball club. [ 248 ] The Murrayfield Racers are the latest of a sequence of ice field hockey clubs in the scots capital. previously Edinburgh was represented by the Edinburgh Capitals (who folded in 2018), the original Murrayfield Racers (who folded in 1996) and the Edinburgh Racers. The club play their home games at the Murrayfield Ice Rink and have competed in the eleven-team professional Scottish National League ( SNL ) since the 2018–19 season. [ 249 ] next door to Murrayfield Ice Rink is a 7-sheeter dedicate curl facility where curl up is played from October to March each season. Caledonia Pride are the only women ‘s professional basketball team in Scotland. Established in 2016, the team compete in the UK wide Women ‘s british Basketball League and play their home matches at the Oriam National Performance Centre. Edinburgh besides has respective men ‘s basketball teams within the scots National League. Boroughmuir Blaze, City of Edinburgh Kings and Edinburgh Lions all compete in Division 1 of the National League, and Pleasance B.C. compete in Division 2. The Edinburgh Diamond Devils is a baseball club which won its first scottish backing in 1991 as the “ Reivers. ” 1992 saw the team repeat the accomplishment, becoming the first team to do so in league history. The like year saw the depart of their first youth team, the Blue Jays. The golf club adopted its introduce name in 1999. [ 250 ] Edinburgh has besides hosted national and international sports events including the World Student Games, the 1970 british Commonwealth Games, [ 251 ] the 1986 Commonwealth Games [ 251 ] and the inaugural 2000 Commonwealth Youth Games. [ 252 ] For the 1970 Games the city built Olympic standard venues and facilities including Meadowbank Stadium and the Royal Commonwealth Pool. The Pool undergo renovation in 2012 and hosted the Diving competition in the 2014 Commonwealth Games which were held in Glasgow. [ 253 ] In American football, the scottish Claymores played WLAF / NFL Europe games at Murrayfield, including their World Bowl 96 victory. From 1995 to 1997 they played all their games there, from 1998 to 2000 they split their home matches between Murrayfield and Glasgow ‘s Hampden Park, then moved to Glasgow full-time, with one final Murrayfield appearance in 2002. [ 254 ] The city ‘s most successful non-professional team are the Edinburgh Wolves who play at Meadowbank Stadium. [ 255 ] The Edinburgh Marathon has been held per annum in the city since 2003 with more than 16,000 runners taking function on each occasion. [ 256 ] Its organisers have called it “ the fastest marathon in the UK ” due to the elevation spend of 40 metres ( 130 foot ). [ 257 ] The city besides organises a half-marathon, adenine well as 10 kilometer ( 6.2 miles ) and 5 kilometer ( 3.1 michigan ) races, including a 5 kilometer ( 3 miles ) race on 1 January each year. Edinburgh has a speedway team, the Edinburgh Monarchs, which, since the loss of its stadium in the city, has raced at the Lothian Arena in Armadale, West Lothian. The Monarchs have won the Premier League championship five times in their history, in 2003 [ 258 ] and again in 2008, [ 259 ] 2010, 2014 and 2015 .

luminary residents [edit ]

Edinburgh has a long literary tradition, which became specially apparent during the scottish Enlightenment. This inheritance and the city ‘s alert literary life in the introduce led to it being declared the inaugural UNESCO City of Literature in 2004. [ 260 ] [ 261 ] Prominent authors who have lived in Edinburgh include the economist Adam Smith, born in Kirkcaldy and author of The Wealth of Nations, [ 262 ] James Boswell, biographer of Samuel Johnson ; Sir Walter Scott, godhead of the historic novel and generator of works such as Rob Roy, Ivanhoe, and Heart of Midlothian ; James Hogg, generator of The Private Memoirs and Confessions of a Justified Sinner ; Robert Louis Stevenson, godhead of Treasure Island, Kidnapped, and The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde ; Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, the creator of Sherlock Holmes ; Muriel Spark, generator of The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie ; Irvine Welsh, generator of Trainspotting, whose novels are by and large set in the city and often written in colloquial Scots ; [ 263 ] Ian Rankin, writer of the Inspector Rebus series of crime thrillers, Alexander McCall Smith, generator of the No. 1 Ladies ‘ Detective Agency series, [ 264 ] and J. K. Rowling, writer of Harry Potter, who wrote much of her first book in Edinburgh coffee shops and nowadays lives in the Cramond area of the city. [ 265 ]
Statue of James Clerk Maxwell, George Street, Edinburgh Scotland has a rich history of skill and engineer, with Edinburgh producing a count of leadership figures. John Napier, inventor of logarithm, was born in Merchiston Tower and lived and died in the city. [ 266 ] His house nowadays forms character of the original campus of Napier University which was named in his award. He lies buried under St. Cuthbert ‘s Church. James Clerk Maxwell, founder of the modern theory of electromagnetism, was born at 14 India Street ( nowadays the home of the James Clerk Maxwell Foundation ) and educated at the Edinburgh Academy and the University of Edinburgh, [ 262 ] as was the engineer and telephone pioneer Alexander Graham Bell. [ 262 ] James Braidwood, who organised Britain ‘s first base municipal ardor brigade, was besides born in the city and began his career there. early names connected with the city include Max Born, physicist and Nobel laureate ; [ 267 ] Charles Darwin, the biologist who propounded the theory of natural survival ; [ 262 ] David Hume, philosopher, economist and historian ; [ 262 ] James Hutton, regarded as the “ Father of Geology ” ; [ 262 ] Joseph Black, the pharmacist and one of the founders of thermodynamics ; [ 262 ] pioneering aesculapian researchers Joseph Lister and James Young Simpson ; [ 262 ] pharmacist and inventor of the component nitrogen Daniel Rutherford ; Colin Maclaurin, mathematician and developer of the Maclaurin series, [ 268 ] and Ian Wilmut, the geneticist involved in the clone of Dolly the sheep just outside Edinburgh. [ 262 ] The thrust carcase of Dolly the sheep is now on display in the National Museum of Scotland. [ 269 ] The latest in a long line of science celebrities associated with the city is theoretical physicist and Nobel Prizewinner Professor Emeritus Peter Higgs, born in Newcastle but resident in Edinburgh for most of his academic career, after whom the Higgs boson atom has been named. [ 270 ]
Edinburgh has been the birthplace of actors like Alastair Sim and Sir Sean Connery, known for being the first cinematic James Bond, [ 271 ] the comedian and actor Ronnie Corbett, good known as one of The Two Ronnies, [ 272 ] and the impressionist Rory Bremner. celebrated artists from the city include the portrait painters Sir Henry Raeburn, Sir David Wilkie and Allan Ramsay. The city has produced or been home to some very successful musicians in recent decades, peculiarly Ian Anderson, front man man of the band Jethro Tull, The Incredible String Band, the folk music duo The Corries, Wattie Buchan, star singer and initiation extremity of punk rocker band The Exploited, Shirley Manson, lead singer of the ring Garbage, the Bay City Rollers, The Proclaimers, Boards of Canada and Idlewild .
Edinburgh is the birthplace of early british Prime Minister Tony Blair who attended the city ‘s Fettes College. [ 273 ] ill-famed criminals from Edinburgh ‘s past include Deacon Brodie, head of a trades club and Edinburgh city council member by day but a burglar by nox, who is said to have been the inspiration for Robert Louis Stevenson ‘s fib, the Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde, [ 274 ] and murderers Burke and Hare who delivered fresh corpses for dissection to the celebrated anatomist Robert Knox. [ 275 ] Another long-familiar Edinburgh resident was Greyfriars Bobby. The little Skye Terrier reputedly kept watch over his dead master ‘s grave in Greyfriars Kirkyard for 14 years in the 1860s and 1870s, giving rise to a report of canine devotion which plays a part in attracting visitors to the city. [ 276 ]

International relations [edit ]

Twin towns and sister cities [edit ]

The City of Edinburgh has entered into 14 external twinning arrangements since 1954. [ 277 ] Most of the arrangements are styled as Twin Cities but the agreement with Kraków is designated as a Partner City, [ 277 ] and the agreement with Kyoto Prefecture is officially styled as a Friendship Link, reflecting its condition as the entirely region to be twinned with Edinburgh. [ 277 ]
For a number of consulates in Edinburgh, see List of diplomatic missions in Scotland .

See besides [edit ]

Notes [edit ]

References [edit ]

further reading [edit ]

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