Cleveland – Wikipedia

City and county seat of Cuyahoga County, Ohio, United States
This article is about the city in Ohio. For the metropolitan area, see Greater Cleveland. For other uses, see Cleveland ( disambiguation )
City in Ohio, United States

Cleveland ( KLEEV-lənd ), formally the City of Cleveland, is a city in the U.S. express of Ohio, and the county seat of Cuyahoga County. [ 7 ] It is located along the southern shore of Lake Erie, across the U.S. maritime edge with Canada and approximately 60 miles ( 100 kilometers ) west of the Ohio- Pennsylvania country border. The largest city on Lake Erie and one of the most populous urban areas in the country, [ 8 ] Cleveland anchors the Greater Cleveland Metropolitan Statistical Area ( MSA ) and the Cleveland–Akron–Canton Combined Statistical Area ( CSA ). The CSA is the most populous combined statistical sphere in Ohio and the 18th largest in the United States, with a population of 3,633,962 in 2020. [ 9 ] [ 10 ] The city proper, with a 2020 population of 372,624, ranks as the 54th-largest city in the U.S., [ 11 ] as a larger helping of the metropolitan population lives outside the central city. The seven-county metropolitan Cleveland economy, which includes Akron, is the largest in the state. Cleveland was founded in 1796 near the mouthpiece of the Cuyahoga River by General Moses Cleaveland, after whom the city was named. It grew into a major manufacture center ascribable to its location on both the river and the lake land, adenine well as numerous canals and railroad track lines. A port city, Cleveland is connected to the Atlantic Ocean via the Saint Lawrence Seaway. The city ‘s economy relies on diversify sectors such as fabricate, fiscal services, healthcare, biomedicals, and higher education. [ 12 ] The crying domestic product ( GDP ) for the Greater Cleveland MSA was $ 135 billion in 2019. [ 13 ] Combined with the Akron MSA, the seven-county Cleveland–Akron metropolitan economy was $ 175 billion in 2019, the largest in Ohio, accounting for 25 % of the country ‘s GDP. [ 13 ] Designated as a “ Gamma – ” global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, [ 14 ] the city ‘s major cultural institutions include the Cleveland Museum of Art, the Cleveland Museum of Natural History, the Cleveland Orchestra, Playhouse Square, and the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Known as “ The Forest City “ among many other nicknames, Cleveland serves as the center of the Cleveland Metroparks nature allow system. [ 15 ] The city ‘s major league professional sports teams include the Cleveland Browns, the Cleveland Cavaliers, and the Cleveland Guardians .

history [edit ]

institution [edit ]

cleveland was established on July 22, 1796, by surveyors of the Connecticut Land Company when they laid out Connecticut ‘s westerly Reserve into townships and a das kapital city. They named the raw settlement “ Cleaveland ” after their drawing card, General Moses Cleaveland. [ 16 ] Cleaveland oversaw the New England -style design of the plan for what would become the advanced downtown area, centered on Public Square, before returning home, never again to visit Ohio. [ 16 ] The first permanent wave european settler in Cleaveland was Lorenzo Carter, who built a cabin on the banks of the Cuyahoga River. [ 17 ] The settlement served as an important supply station for the U.S. during the Battle of Lake Erie in the War of 1812. [ 18 ] Locals adopted Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry as a civic hero and erected a repository in his honor decades late. [ 19 ] The Village of Cleaveland was incorporated on December 23, 1814. [ 20 ] In hurt of the nearby boggy lowlands and harsh winters, the town ‘s waterfront location proved to be an advantage, giving it access to Great Lakes deal. It grew quickly after the 1832 completion of the Ohio and Erie Canal. This key link between the Ohio River and the Great Lakes connected it to the Atlantic Ocean via the Erie Canal and Hudson River, and former via the Saint Lawrence Seaway. Its products could reach markets on the Gulf of Mexico via the Mississippi River. The town ‘s growth continued with total railroad links. [ 21 ] In 1831, the spelling of the town ‘s name was altered by The Cleveland Advertiser newspaper. In order to fit the name on the newspaper ‘s masthead, the editors dropped the beginning “ a ”, reducing the city ‘s name to Cleveland, which finally became the official spelling. [ 22 ] In 1836, Cleveland, then only on the easterly banks of the Cuyahoga River, was officially incorporated as a city. [ 20 ] That like class, it closely erupted into open war with neighbor Ohio City over a bridge connecting the two communities. [ 23 ] Ohio City remained an independent municipality until its annexation by Cleveland in 1854. [ 20 ]
dwelling to a outspoken group of abolitionists, [ 24 ] [ 25 ] Cleveland ( code-named “ Station Hope ” ) was a major stop consonant on the Underground Railroad for elude african American slaves en route to Canada. [ 26 ] The city besides served as an important center for the Union during the American Civil War. [ 27 ] [ 28 ] Decades by and by, in July 1894, the wartime contributions of those serving the Union from Cleveland and Cuyahoga County would be honored with the opening of the city ‘s Soldiers ‘ and Sailors ‘ Monument on Public Square. [ 29 ]

Growth and expansion [edit ]

After the war, the city witnessed rapid growth. Its prime geographic location as a transportation hub between the East Coast and the Midwest played an authoritative role in its development as a commercial kernel. In 1874, the First Woman ‘s National Temperance Convention was held in Cleveland, and adopted the formation of the Woman ‘s Christian Temperance Union. [ 30 ] Cleveland served as a finish for iron ore shipped from Minnesota, along with ember transported by rail. In 1870, John D. Rockefeller founded Standard Oil in Cleveland. In 1885, he moved its headquarters to New York City, which had become a center of finance and clientele. [ 31 ] By the early twentieth hundred, Cleveland had emerged as a major american manufacture center. Its businesses included automotive companies such as Peerless, People ‘s, Jordan, Chandler, and Winton, maker of the first car driven across the U.S. other manufacturers in Cleveland produced steam-powered cars, which included those by White and Gaeth, and electric cars produced by Baker. [ 32 ] The city ‘s industrial emergence was accompanied by significant strikes and parturiency agitation, as workers demanded better working conditions. In 1881–86, 70-80 % of strikes were successful in improving tug conditions in Cleveland. [ 33 ] Known as the “ Sixth City ” due to its status as the sixth largest U.S. city at the time, [ 34 ] [ 35 ] Cleveland counted major Progressive Era politicians among its leaders, most prominently the democrat Mayor Tom L. Johnson, who was responsible for the development of the Cleveland Mall Plan. [ 36 ] The era of the City Beautiful motion in Cleveland architecture, this period besides saw affluent patrons support the establishment of the city ‘s major cultural institutions. The most outstanding among them were the Cleveland Museum of Art, which opened in 1916, and the Cleveland Orchestra, established in 1918. [ 37 ] [ 38 ]
Italian, Hungarian, Slovene, 1917 multilingual poster in English Polish, and Yiddish, advertising english classes for newfangled immigrants in Cleveland Cleveland ‘s economic growth and industrial jobs attracted boastfully waves of immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe ampere well as Ireland. [ 39 ] african american migrants from the rural South besides arrived in Cleveland ( among other Northeastern and Midwestern cities ) as separate of the Great Migration for jobs, constitutional rights, and relief from racial discrimination. [ 40 ] Between 1910 and 1930, the african american english population of Cleveland grew by more than 400 %. [ 41 ] By 1920, the class in which the Cleveland Indians won their first gear World Series championship, Cleveland had grown into a densely-populated city of 796,841 with a foreign-born population of 30 %, making it the fifth largest city in the nation. [ 42 ] [ 43 ] At this time, Cleveland saw the advance of extremist parturiency movements in answer to the conditions of the largely immigrant and migrant workers. In 1919, the city attracted national attention amid the First Red Scare for the Cleveland May Day Riots, in which socialistic demonstrators clashed with anti-socialists. [ 44 ] [ 45 ] Despite the immigration restrictions of 1921 and 1924, the city ‘s population continued to grow throughout the 1920s. prohibition first took effect in Ohio in May 1919 ( although it was not well-enforced in Cleveland ), became law with the Volstead Act in 1920, and was finally repealed nationally by Congress in 1933. [ 46 ] The ban on alcohol led to the rise of speakeasies throughout the city and organized crime gangs, such as the Mayfield Road Mob, who smuggled moonshine liquor across Lake Erie from Canada into Cleveland. [ 46 ] [ 47 ] The Roaring Twenties besides saw the constitution of Cleveland ‘s Playhouse Square and the rise of the risqué Short Vincent entertainment district. [ 48 ] [ 49 ] [ 50 ] The Bal-Masque balls of the avant-garde Kokoon Arts Club scandalized the city. [ 51 ] [ 52 ] Jazz came to prominence in Cleveland during this period. [ 53 ] [ 54 ] [ 55 ]
In 1929, the city hosted the first gear of many National Air Races, and Amelia Earhart flew to the city from Santa Monica, California in the Women ‘s Air Derby ( nicknamed the “ Powder Puff Derby ” by Will Rogers ). [ 56 ] The Van Sweringen brothers commenced construction of the Terminal Tower skyscraper in 1926 and, by the time it was dedicated in 1930, Cleveland had a population of over 900,000. [ 57 ] [ 42 ] The era of the flapper besides marked the beginning of the aureate historic period in Downtown Cleveland retail, centered on major department stores Higbee ‘s, Bailey ‘s, the May Company, Taylor ‘s, Halle ‘s, and Sterling Lindner Davis, which jointly represented one of the largest and most fashionable shop districts in the state, frequently compared to New York ‘s Fifth Avenue. [ 58 ] Cleveland was hit hard by the Wall Street Crash of 1929 and the subsequent Great Depression. A center of union activity, the city saw meaning department of labor struggles in this period, including strikes by workers against Fisher Body in 1936 and against Republic Steel in 1937. [ 33 ] The city was besides aided by major federal works projects sponsored by President Franklin D. Roosevelt ‘s New Deal. [ 59 ] In commemoration of the centennial of Cleveland ‘s incorporation as a city, the Great Lakes Exposition debuted in June 1936 at the city ‘s North Coast Harbor, along the Lake Erie shore north of business district. [ 60 ] Conceived by Cleveland ‘s business leaders as a room to revitalize the city during the Depression, it drew four million visitors in its beginning season, and seven million by the goal of its second and final season in September 1937. [ 61 ] On December 7, 1941, Imperial Japan attacked Pearl Harbor and declared war on the United States. One of the victims of the attack was a Cleveland native, Rear Admiral Isaac C. Kidd. [ 62 ] The fire signaled America ‘s submission into World War II. A major hub of the “ Arsenal of Democracy “, Cleveland under Mayor Frank Lausche contributed massively to the U.S. war campaign as the fifth largest fabricate center in the nation. [ 62 ] During his tenure, Lausche besides oversaw the establishment of the Cleveland Transit System, the harbinger to the Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority. [ 63 ]

deep 20th and early 21st centuries [edit ]

After the war, Cleveland initially experienced an economic boom, and businesses declared the city to be the “ best location in the state ”. [ 64 ] [ 65 ] In 1949, the city was named an All-America City for the first time and, in 1950, its population reached 914,808. [ 66 ] [ 42 ] In sports, the Indians won the 1948 World Series, the field hockey team, the Barons, became champions of the American Hockey League, and the Browns dominated master football in the 1950s. As a result, along with track and box champions produced, Cleveland was declared the “ City of Champions ” in sports at this time. [ 67 ] The 1950s besides saw the rising popularity of a newfangled music genre that local WJW ( AM ) phonograph record jockey Alan Freed dubbed “ rock and roll “. [ 68 ]
however, by the 1960s, Cleveland ‘s economy began to slow down, and residents increasingly sought new housing in the suburb, reflecting the national trends of suburban growth following federally subsidized highways. [ 69 ] Industrial restructure, particularly in the railway and steel industries, resulted in the personnel casualty of numerous jobs in Cleveland and the region, and the city suffered economically. The burn of the Cuyahoga River in June 1969 brought national attention to the return of industrial pollution in Cleveland and served as a catalyst for the american environmental motion. [ 70 ] Housing discrimination and redlining against african Americans led to racial unrest in Cleveland and numerous other Northern U.S. cities. [ 71 ] [ 72 ] In Cleveland, the Hough riots erupted from July 18 to 23, 1966, and the Glenville Shootout took topographic point from July 23 to 25, 1968. [ 40 ] In November 1967, Cleveland became the first major american english city to elect an african american mayor, Carl B. Stokes, who served from 1968 to 1971 and played an implemental role in restoring the Cuyahoga River. [ 73 ] [ 74 ] In December 1978, during the churning tenure of Dennis Kucinich as mayor, Cleveland became the first major american english city since the Great Depression to enter into a fiscal nonpayment on federal loans. [ 75 ] By the beginning of the 1980s, several factors, including changes in external free craft policies, ostentation, and the savings and lend crisis, contributed to the recession that sternly affected cities like Cleveland. [ 76 ] While unemployment during the period peaked in 1983, Cleveland ‘s rate of 13.8 % was higher than the national average due to the blockage of several steel output centers. [ 77 ] [ 78 ] [ 79 ] The city began a gradual economic recovery under Mayor George V. Voinovich in the 1980s. The business district sphere saw the construction of the Key Tower and 200 Public Square skyscrapers, angstrom well as the development of the Gateway Sports and Entertainment Complex —consisting of Progressive Field and Rocket Mortgage FieldHouse —and the North Coast Harbor, including the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, FirstEnergy Stadium, and the Great Lakes Science Center. [ 80 ] The city emerged from default option in 1987. [ 20 ]
skyline of Cleveland in 2012. By the turn of the twenty-first century, Cleveland succeeded in developing a more diversify economy and gained a national reputation as a center for healthcare and the arts. additionally, it has become a national drawing card in environmental protection, with its successful killing of the Cuyahoga River. [ 81 ] The city ‘s downtown has experienced dramatic economic and population growth since 2010, [ 82 ] but the overall population has continued to decline. [ 83 ] Challenges remain for the city, with economic development of neighborhoods, improvement of city schools, and continued encouragement of fresh immigration to Cleveland being circus tent municipal priorities. [ 84 ] [ 85 ]

geography [edit ]

NASA satellite photograph of Cleveland at night According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 82.47 feather miles ( 213.60 km2 ), of which 77.70 square miles ( 201.24 km2 ) is land and 4.77 square miles ( 12.35 km2 ) is water system. [ 86 ] The shore of Lake Erie is 569 feet ( 173 megabyte ) above sea level ; however, the city lies on a series of irregular bluffs lying roughly latitude to the lake. In Cleveland these bluffs are cut chiefly by the Cuyahoga River, Big Creek, and Euclid Creek. The country rises cursorily from the lake shore elevation of 569 feet. Public Square, less than one mile ( 1.6 kilometer ) inland, sits at an elevation of 650 feet ( 198 meter ), and Hopkins Airport, 5 miles ( 8 kilometer ) inland from the lake, is at an aggrandizement of 791 feet ( 241 m ). [ 87 ] Cleveland borders several inner-ring and streetcar suburb. To the west, it borders Lakewood, Rocky River, and Fairview Park, and to the east, it borders Shaker Heights, Cleveland Heights, South Euclid, and East Cleveland. To the southwest, it borders Linndale, Brooklyn, Parma, and Brook Park. To the south, the city besides borders Newburgh Heights, Cuyahoga Heights, and Brooklyn Heights and to the southeasterly, it borders Warrensville Heights, Maple Heights, and Garfield Heights. To the northeasterly, along the shore of Lake Erie, Cleveland borders Bratenahl and Euclid .

Cityscapes [edit ]

architecture [edit ]

Cleveland ‘s downtown architecture is divers. many of the city ‘s government and civic buildings, including City Hall, the Cuyahoga County Courthouse, the Cleveland Public Library, and Public Auditorium, are clustered around the unfold Cleveland Mall and contribution a coarse neoclassic architecture. They were built in the early twentieth hundred as the leave of the 1903 Group Plan. They constitute one of the most complete examples of City Beautiful blueprint in the United States. [ 88 ] [ 89 ] Completed in 1927 and dedicated in 1930 as separate of the Cleveland Union Terminal building complex, the Terminal Tower was the tallest build up in North America outside New York City until 1964 and the tall in the city until 1991. [ 57 ] It is a archetypal Beaux-Arts skyscraper. The two newer skyscrapers on Public Square, Key Tower ( presently the tallest build in Ohio ) and the 200 Public Square, trust elements of Art Deco computer architecture with postmodernist designs. Cleveland ‘s architectural treasures besides include the Cleveland Trust Company Building, completed in 1907 and renovated in 2015 as a business district Heinen ‘s supermarket, [ 90 ] and the Cleveland Arcade ( sometimes called the Old Arcade ), a five-story arcade built in 1890 and renovated in 2001 as a Hyatt Regency Hotel. [ 91 ] [ 92 ] Running east from Public Square through University Circle is Euclid Avenue, which was known for its prestige and elegance as a residential street. In the belated 1880s, writer Bayard Taylor described it as “ the most beautiful street in the world ”. [ 93 ] Known as “ Millionaires ‘ Row ”, Euclid Avenue was world-renowned as the base of such major figures as John D. Rockefeller, Mark Hanna, and John Hay. [ 94 ] [ 95 ] [ 96 ] Cleveland ‘s landmark ecclesiastical architecture includes the historic Old Stone Church in downtown Cleveland and the onion domed St. Theodosius Russian Orthodox Cathedral in Tremont, [ 97 ] [ 98 ] [ 99 ] along with ten thousand ethnically inhale Roman Catholic churches. [ 100 ]

Parks and nature [edit ]

Downtown Cleveland from Edgewater Park Known locally as the “ Emerald Necklace ”, the Olmsted -inspired Cleveland Metroparks gird Cleveland and Cuyahoga County. The city proper is home to the Metroparks ‘ Brookside and Lakefront Reservations, angstrom well as meaning parts of the Rocky River, Washington, and Euclid Creek Reservations. The Lakefront Reservation, which provides populace access to Lake Erie, consists of four parks : Edgewater Park, Whiskey Island–Wendy Park, East 55th Street Marina, and Gordon Park. [ 101 ] Three more parks fall under the legal power of the Euclid Creek Reservation : Euclid Beach, Villa Angela, and Wildwood Marina. [ 102 ] Bike and hiking trails in the Brecksville and Bedford Reservations, along with Garfield Park further north, provide access to trails in the Cuyahoga Valley National Park. The extensive organization of trails within Cuyahoga Valley National Park extends confederacy into Summit County, offering access to Summit Metro Parks a well. besides included in the arrangement is the celebrated Cleveland Metroparks Zoo, established in 1882. Located in Big Creek Valley, the menagerie has one of the largest collections of primates in North America. [ 103 ] The Cleveland Metroparks provides ample opportunity for outdoor recreational activities. Hiking and biking trails, including single-track batch motorcycle trails, hoist extensively throughout the parks. [ 104 ] Rock climb is available at Whipp ‘s Ledges at the Hinckley Reservation. [ 105 ] During the summer months, kayakers, paddle boarders, and rowing and sailing crews can be seen on the Cuyahoga River and Lake Erie. In the winter months, downhill ski, snowboard, and tubing are available not far from downtown at the Boston Mills/Brandywine and Alpine Valley ski resorts. In accession to the Metroparks, the Cleveland Public Parks District oversees the city ‘s neighborhood parks, the largest of which is the historic Rockefeller Park. The latter is celebrated for its late nineteenth century landmark bridges, the Rockefeller Park Greenhouse, and the Cleveland Cultural Gardens, which celebrate the city ‘s cultural diverseness. [ 106 ] [ 107 ] Just outside of Rockefeller Park, the Cleveland Botanical Garden in University Circle, established in 1930, is the oldest civil garden center in the nation. [ 108 ] In addition, the Greater Cleveland Aquarium, located in the historic FirstEnergy Powerhouse in the Flats, is the alone independent, free-standing aquarium in the state of Ohio. [ 109 ]

Neighborhoods [edit ]

The Cleveland City Planning Commission has formally designated 34 neighborhoods in Cleveland. [ 110 ] Centered on Public Square, Downtown Cleveland is the city ‘s cardinal business zone, encompassing a wide range of subdistricts, such as the Nine-Twelve District, the Campus District, the Civic Center, and Playhouse Square. It besides historically included the bouncy Short Vincent entertainment zone, which emerged in the 1920s, reached its stature in the 1940s and 1950s, and disappeared with the expansion of National City Bank in the late 1970s. [ 49 ] [ 50 ] Mixed-use areas, such as the Warehouse District and the Superior Arts District, are occupied by industrial and position buildings deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as restaurants, cafe, and bars. [ 111 ] The number of downtown condominiums, lofts, and apartments has been on the increase since 2000 and specially 2010, reflecting the neighborhood ‘s dramatic population growth. [ 82 ] Recent downtown developments besides include the Euclid Corridor Project and the revival of East 4th Street. [ 112 ]
Map of the territorial development of Cleveland Clevelanders geographically define themselves in terms of whether they live on the east or west side of the Cuyahoga River. [ 113 ] The East Side includes the neighborhoods of Buckeye–Shaker, Buckeye–Woodhill, Central, Collinwood ( including Nottingham ), Euclid–Green, Fairfax, Glenville, Goodrich–Kirtland Park ( including Asiatown ), Hough, Kinsman, Lee–Miles ( including Lee–Harvard and Lee–Seville ), Mount Pleasant, St. Clair–Superior, Union–Miles Park, and University Circle ( including Little Italy ). The West Side includes the neighborhoods of Brooklyn Centre, Clark–Fulton, Cudell, Detroit–Shoreway, Edgewater, Ohio City, Old Brooklyn, Stockyards, Tremont ( including Duck Island ), West Boulevard, and the four neighborhoods colloquially known as West Park : Kamm ‘s Corners, Jefferson, Bellaire–Puritas, and Hopkins. The Cuyahoga Valley neighborhood ( including the Flats ) is situated between the East and West Sides, while the Broadway–Slavic Village region is sometimes referred to as the South Side. respective neighborhoods have begun to attract the return of the middle class that left the city for the suburb in the 1960s and 1970s. These neighborhoods are on both the West Side ( Ohio City, Tremont, Detroit–Shoreway, and Edgewater ) and the East Side ( Collinwood, Hough, Fairfax, and Little Italy ). much of the growth has been spurred on by attracting creative classify members, which in flex is spurring newfangled residential development. [ 114 ] A live-work partition overlie for the city ‘s near East Side has facilitated the transformation of erstwhile industrial buildings into loft spaces for artists. [ 115 ]

climate [edit ]

Climate chart (explanation)
joule degree fahrenheit m A megabyte joule joule A mho o north five hundred





































Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches

Typical of the Great Lakes area, Cleveland exhibits a continental climate with four distinct seasons, which lies in the humid continental ( Köppen Dfa ) [ 116 ] partition. Summers are hot and humid while winters are cold and white. The Lake Erie shoreline is very close to due east–west from the sass of the Cuyahoga west to Sandusky, but at the sass of the Cuyahoga it turns sharply northeast. This feature is the principal contributor to the lake-effect snow that is typical in Cleveland ( particularly on the city ‘s East Side ) from mid-november until the surface of Lake Erie freezes, normally in belated January or early February. The lake effect besides causes a relative derived function in geographic snow totals across the city : while Hopkins Airport, on the city ‘s far West Side, has only reached 100 inches ( 254 curium ) of snow in a season three times since record-keeping for bamboozle began in 1893, [ 117 ] seasonal totals approaching or exceeding 100 inches ( 254 centimeter ) are not rare as the city ascends into the Heights on the east, where the region known as the ‘ Snow Belt ‘ begins. Extending from the city ‘s East Side and its suburb, the Snow Belt reaches up the Lake Erie shore american samoa far as Buffalo. [ 118 ] The all-time read senior high school in Cleveland of 104 °F ( 40 °C ) was established on June 25, 1988, [ 119 ] and the all-time phonograph record low of −20 °F ( −29 °C ) was set on January 19, 1994. [ 120 ] On average, July is the warmest calendar month with a mean temperature of 74.5 °F ( 23.6 °C ), and January, with a intend temperature of 29.1 °F ( −1.6 °C ), is the cold. Normal annual precipitation based on the 30-year modal from 1991 to 2020 is 41.03 inches ( 1,042 millimeter ). [ 121 ] The least haste occurs on the westerly side and directly along the lake, and the most occurs in the eastern suburb. Parts of Geauga County to the east receive over 44 inches ( 1,100 millimeter ) of liquid precipitation per annum. [ 122 ]

Climate data for Cleveland (Cleveland Airport), 1991–2020 normals,[a] extremes 1871–present[b]
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 73
Mean maximum °F (°C) 58.9
Average high °F (°C) 35.8
Daily mean °F (°C) 29.1
Average low °F (°C) 22.3
Mean minimum °F (°C) 1.3
Record low °F (°C) −20
Average precipitation inches (mm) 2.99
Average snowfall inches (cm) 18.4
Average precipitation days ( ≥ 0.01 in ) 17.7 14.6 14.6 14.8 13.4 11.5 10.7 10.3 10.1 12.1 13.1 15.6 158.5
Average snowy days ( ≥ 0.01 in ) 13.5 10.5 7.2 2.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 3.8 8.4 45.8
Average relative humidity (%) 73.3 73.0 70.4 66.1 67.3 69.0 69.8 73.1 73.7 70.8 71.9 74.1 71.0
Mean monthly sunshine hours 101.0 122.3 167.0 216.0 263.6 294.6 307.2 262.2 219.0 169.5 89.8 67.8 2,280
Percent possible sunshine 34 41 45 54 59 65 67 61 59 49 30 24 51
Average ultraviolet index 2 2 4 6 7 9 9 8 6 4 2 1 5
Source 1: NOAA (relative humidity and sun 1961–1990)[123][124][125]
Source 2: Weather Atlas[126] (sunshine data)
Climate data for Cleveland
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average sea temperature °F (°C) 34.0
Mean daily daylight hours 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 14.0 12.0 11.0 10.0 9.0 12.3
Source: Weather Atlas[126]

Demographics [edit ]










Other Map of racial distribution in Greater Cleveland, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people : At the 2020 census, there were 372,624 people and 170,549 households in the city. The population concentration was 4,901.51 inhabitants per hearty sea mile ( 1,892.5/km2 ). [ 11 ] The median income for a family in the city was $ 30,907. The per caput income for the city was $ 21,223. 32.7 % of the population living below the poverty line. Of the city ‘s population over the age of 25, 17.5 % held a bachelor ‘s degree or higher, and 80.8 % had a high educate diploma or equivalent. [ 11 ] According to the 2010 census, 29.7 % of Cleveland households had children under the long time of 18 know with them, 22.4 % were married couples living together, 25.3 % had a female homeowner with no conserve present, 6.0 % had a male homeowner with no wife give, and 46.4 % were non-families. 39.5 % of all households were made up of individuals, and 10.7 % had person living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average family size was 2.29 and the average syndicate size was 3.11. [ 130 ] In 2010, the medial age in the city was 35.7 years. 24.6 % of residents were under the age of 18 ; 11 % were between the ages of 18 and 24 ; 26.1 % were from 25 to 44 ; 26.3 % were from 45 to 64 ; and 12 % were 65 years of senesce or older. The sex makeup of the city was 48.0 % male and 52.0 % female. [ 128 ]

ethnicity [edit ]

in the first place built in 1905 as the jewish Temple B’nai Jeshurun, this construct on Cleveland ‘s East Side, today known as the Shiloh Baptist Church, now serves the african American community. According to the 2020 census, the racial composing of the city was 40.0 % white, 48.8 % african American, 0.5 % native American, 2.6 % asian, and 4.4 % from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any rush were 11.9 % of the population. [ 11 ] In the 19th and early twentieth centuries, Cleveland saw a massive inflow of immigrants from Ireland, Italy, and the Austro-Hungarian, german, russian, and Ottoman empires, most of whom were attracted by manufacturing jobs. [ 39 ] As a consequence, Cleveland and Cuyahoga County today have substantial communities of Irish ( specially in Kamm ‘s Corners and other areas of West Park ), Italians ( particularly in Little Italy and around Mayfield Road ), Germans, Slovenes and several Central -Eastern european ethnicities, including Czechs, Hungarians, Lithuanians, Poles, Romanians, Russians, Rusyns, Slovaks, Ukrainians, and ex- Yugoslav groups, such as Croats and Serbs. [ 39 ] The presence of Hungarians within Cleveland proper was, at one time, sol great that the city boasted the highest concentration of Hungarians in the world outside of Budapest. [ 131 ] Cleveland has a long-established Jewish community, historically centered on the East Side neighborhoods of Glenville and Kinsman, but now by and large concentrated in East Side suburbs such as Cleveland Heights and Beachwood, home to the Maltz Museum of Jewish Heritage. [ 132 ] The handiness of jobs besides attracted african Americans from the South. Between 1920 and 1970, the black population of Cleveland, largely concentrated on the city ‘s East Side, increased significantly as a result of the First and Second Great Migrations. [ 40 ] Cleveland ‘s Latino community consists chiefly of Puerto Ricans, who make up over 80 % of the city ‘s Hispanic/Latino population, a well as smaller numbers of immigrants from Mexico, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, South and Central America, and Spain. [ 133 ] The city ‘s Asian community, centered on diachronic Asiatown, consists of Chinese, Koreans, Vietnamese, and other groups. [ 134 ] Additionally, the city and the county have significant communities of Albanians, [ 135 ] Arabs ( specially Lebanese, Syrians, and Palestinians ), [ 136 ] Armenians, [ 137 ] French, [ 138 ] Greeks, [ 139 ] Iranians, [ 140 ] Scots, [ 39 ] Turks, [ 141 ] and West Indians. [ 39 ] A 2020 analysis found Cleveland to be the most ethnically and racially divers city in Ohio. [ 142 ] many ethnic festivals are held in Cleveland throughout the year, such as the annual Feast of the Assumption in Little Italy, Russian Maslenitsa in Rockefeller Park, the Cleveland Puerto Rican Parade and Festival in Clark–Fulton, the Cleveland Asian Festival in Asiatown, the greek Festival in Tremont, and the romanian Festival in West Park. Vendors at the West Side Market in Ohio City offer many ethnic foods for sale. Cleveland besides hosts annual polish Dyngus Day and Slovene Kurentovanje celebrations. [ 143 ] [ 144 ] The city ‘s annual Saint Patrick ‘s Day parade brings hundreds of thousands to the streets of Downtown. [ 145 ] The Cleveland Thyagaraja Festival held annually each spring at Cleveland State University is the largest amerind classical music music and dancing festival in the universe outside of India. [ 146 ] Since 1946, the city has annually marked One World Day in the Cleveland Cultural Gardens in Rockefeller Park, celebrating all of its cultural communities. [ 107 ]

religion [edit ]

The inflow of immigrants in the 19th and early twentieth centuries drastically transformed Cleveland ‘s religious landscape. From a homogeneous village of New England Protestants, it evolved into a city with a diverse religious musical composition. The prevailing faith among Clevelanders nowadays is Christianity ( Catholic, Protestant, and Eastern and Oriental Orthodox ), with Jewish, Muslim, Hindu, and Buddhist minorities. [ 147 ]

lyric [edit ]

As of 2020, 85.3 % of Cleveland residents age 5 and older spoke English at home as a basal speech. [ 11 ] 14.7 % spoke a extraneous speech, including spanish, Arabic, Chinese, Albanian, and diverse Slavic languages ( russian, polish, serbo-croat, and Slovene ). [ 11 ]

immigration [edit ]

In 1920, Cleveland proper boasted a foreign-born population of 30 % and, in 1870, that percentage was 42 %. [ 43 ] Although the foreign-born population of Cleveland today is not angstrom big as it once was, the sense of identity remains impregnable among the city ‘s assorted heathen communities, as reflected in the Cleveland Cultural Gardens. Within Cleveland, the neighborhoods with the highest foreign-born populations are Asiatown/Goodrich–Kirtland Park ( 32.7 % ), Clark–Fulton ( 26.7 % ), West Boulevard ( 18.5 % ), Brooklyn Centre ( 17.3 % ), Downtown ( 17.2 % ), University Circle ( 15.9 %, with 20 % in Little Italy ), and Jefferson ( 14.3 % ). [ 148 ] Recent waves of immigration have brought new groups to Cleveland, including Ethiopians and South Asians, [ 149 ] a well as immigrants from Russia and the former USSR, [ 150 ] [ 151 ] Southeast Europe ( specially Albania ), [ 135 ] the Middle East, East Asia, and Latin America. [ 39 ] In the 2010s, the immigrant population of Cleveland and Cuyahoga County began to see significant emergence, becoming one of the fastest growing centers for immigration in the Great Lakes region. [ 85 ] A 2019 study found Cleveland to be the city with the shortest average process prison term in the nation for immigrants to become U.S. citizens. [ 152 ] The city ‘s annual One World Day in Rockefeller Park includes a naturalization ceremony of new immigrants. [ 107 ]

economy [edit ]

Cleveland ‘s placement on the Cuyahoga River and Lake Erie has been key to its emergence. The Ohio and Erie Canal coupled with rail links helped the city become an important business center. Steel and many early manufactured goods emerged as leading industries. The city has since diversified its economy in addition to its fabricate sector. [ 12 ] [ 153 ] [ 33 ] Established in 1914, the Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland is one of 12 U.S. Federal Reserve Banks. [ 154 ] Its downtown build, located on East 6th Street and Superior Avenue, was completed in 1923 by the Cleveland architectural firm Walker and Weeks. [ 155 ] The headquarters of the Federal Reserve System ‘s Fourth District, the bank employs 1,000 people and maintains ramify offices in Cincinnati and Pittsburgh. [ 154 ] The foreman executive officer and president of the united states is Loretta Mester. [ 156 ]
The city is besides home to the corporate headquarters of many large companies such as Aleris, American Greetings, Applied Industrial Technologies, Mettler Toledo, Cleveland-Cliffs, Inc., Parker Hannifin, Eaton, Forest City Enterprises, Heinen ‘s Fine Foods, Hyster-Yale Materials Handling, KeyCorp, Lincoln Electric, Medical Mutual of Ohio, Moen Incorporated, NACCO Industries, Nordson, OM Group, Parker-Hannifin, PolyOne, Progressive, RPM International, Sherwin-Williams Company, Steris, Swagelok, Things Remembered, Third Federal S & L, TransDigm Group, Travel Centers of America and Vitamix. NASA maintains a facility in Cleveland, the Glenn Research Center. Jones Day, one of the largest law firms in the U.S., was founded in Cleveland. [ 157 ] The Cleveland Clinic is the largest secret employer in the city of Cleveland and the country of Ohio, with a work force of complete 50,000 as of 2019. [ 158 ] It carries the differentiation as being among America ‘s best hospitals with top ratings published in U.S. News & World Report. [ 159 ] Cleveland ‘s healthcare sector besides includes University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, MetroHealth checkup center, and the policy company Medical Mutual of Ohio. Cleveland is besides noted in the fields of biotechnology and fuel cell research, led by Case Western Reserve University, the Cleveland Clinic, and University Hospitals of Cleveland. The city is among the top recipients of investment for biotechnology start-ups and inquiry. [ 160 ] technology is another growing sector in Cleveland. In 2005, the city appointed a “ technical school czar ” to recruit engineering companies to the downtown office market, offering connections to the high-speed roughage networks that run underneath business district streets in respective “ high-tech offices ” focused on Euclid Avenue. [ 161 ] Cleveland State University hired a technology transfer officeholder to cultivate engineering transfers from CSU inquiry to marketable ideas and companies in the Cleveland area. local observers have noted that the city is transitioning from a manufacturing-based economy to a health-tech-based economy. [ 162 ]

education [edit ]

Primary and secondary coil education [edit ]

The Cleveland Metropolitan School District is the second-largest K–12 zone in the country of Ohio. It is the only district in Ohio under the direct control of the mayor, who appoints a educate board. [ 163 ] approximately 1 square mile ( 2.6 km2 ) of Cleveland, adjacent the Shaker Square region, is partially of the Shaker Heights City School District. The area, which has been a separate of the Shaker school district since the 1920s, permits these Cleveland residents to pay the like school taxes as the Shaker residents, ampere well as vote in the Shaker school board elections. [ 164 ]
private and parochial schools within Cleveland proper include Benedictine High School, Birchwood School, Cleveland Central Catholic High School, Eleanor Gerson School, Montessori High School at University Circle, St. Ignatius High School, St. Joseph Academy, Villa Angela-St. Joseph High School, Urban Community School, St. Martin de Porres, and The Bridge Avenue School. [ 165 ]

Higher department of education [edit ]

Cleveland is home to a act of colleges and universities. Most big among them is Case Western Reserve University ( CWRU ), a wide recognized research and teaching institution in University Circle. A private university with respective outstanding graduate programs, CWRU was ranked fortieth in the state in 2020 by U.S. News & World Report. [ 166 ] University Circle besides contains the Cleveland Institute of Art and the Cleveland Institute of Music. Cleveland State University ( CSU ), based in Downtown Cleveland, is the city ‘s public four-year university. In accession to CSU, business district hosts the metropolitan campus of Cuyahoga Community College, the county ‘s biennial higher education initiation. Ohio Technical College is besides based in Cleveland. [ 167 ] Cleveland ‘s suburban universities and colleges include Baldwin Wallace University in Berea, John Carroll University in University Heights, Ursuline College in Pepper Pike, and Notre Dame College in South Euclid. [ 168 ]

Public library system [edit ]

Established in 1869, the Cleveland Public Library is one of the largest public libraries in the state with a collection of 10,559,651 materials in 2018. [ 169 ] Its John G. White Special Collection includes the largest chess library in the world equally well as a significant solicitation of folklore and rare books on the Middle East and Eurasia. [ 170 ] [ 171 ] [ 172 ] Under capitulum librarian William Howard Brett, the library adopted an “ open ledge ” philosophy, which allowed patrons assailable access to the library ‘s bookstacks. [ 173 ] [ 174 ] Brett ‘s successor, Linda Eastman, became the beginning woman ever to lead a major library system in the world. [ 175 ] She oversaw the construction of the library ‘s main construction on Superior Avenue, designed by Walker and Weeks and opened on May 6, 1925. [ 173 ] David Lloyd George, British Prime Minister from 1916 to 1922, laid the basis for the build. [ 176 ] The Louis Stokes Wing addition was completed in April 1997. [ 173 ] Between 1904 and 1920, 15 libraries built with funds from Andrew Carnegie were opened in the city. [ 177 ] Known as the “ People ‘s University, ” the library presently maintains 27 branches. [ 169 ] It serves as the headquarter for the CLEVNET library consortium, which includes over 40 public library systems in the Greater Cleveland Metropolitan Area and Northeast Ohio. [ 178 ]

acculturation [edit ]

Performing arts [edit ]

Cleveland is home to Playhouse Square, the moment largest performing arts center in the United States behind New York City ‘s Lincoln Center. [ 179 ] Playhouse Square includes the State, Palace, Allen, Hanna, and Ohio theaters within what is known as the Cleveland Theater District. [ 180 ] The center hosts Broadway musicals, special concerts, speaking engagements, and other events throughout the year. Its house physician performing arts companies include Cleveland Ballet, the Cleveland International Film Festival, the Cleveland Play House, Cleveland State University Department of Theatre and Dance, DANCECleveland, the Great Lakes Theater Festival, and the Tri-C Jazz Fest. [ 181 ] A city with potent traditions in dramaturgy and vaudeville, Cleveland has produced many celebrated performers, most prominently comedian Bob Hope. [ 182 ] Outside Playhouse Square, Cleveland is home to Karamu House, the oldest african american dramaturgy in the state, established in 1915. [ 183 ] On the West Side, the Gordon Square Arts District in Detroit–Shoreway is the location of the Capitol Theatre, the Near West Theatre, and an Off-Off-Broadway Playhouse, the Cleveland Public Theatre. [ 184 ] Cleveland ‘s streetcar suburb of Cleveland Heights and Lakewood are home to the Dobama Theatre and the Beck Center for the Arts respectively. [ 185 ] Cleveland is home to the Cleveland Orchestra, widely considered one of the populace ‘s finest orchestra, and often referred to as the finest in the state. [ 186 ] It is one of the “ Big Five “ major orchestras in the United States. [ 187 ] The Cleveland Orchestra plays at Severance Hall in University Circle during the winter and at Blossom Music Center in Cuyahoga Falls during the summer. [ 188 ] The city is besides home to the Cleveland Pops Orchestra, the Cleveland Youth Orchestra, the Contemporary Youth Orchestra, the Cleveland Youth Wind Symphony, and the biennial Cleveland International Piano Competition which has, in the past, frequently featured The Cleveland Orchestra. One Playhouse Square, now the headquarters for Cleveland ‘s public broadcasters, was initially used as the air studios of WJW ( AM ), where disk cheat Alan Freed beginning popularized the terminus “ rock and bun ”. [ 68 ] Cleveland gained a solid repute in rock music in the 1960s and 1970s as a identify break marketplace for nationally promoted acts and performers. [ 189 ] Its popularity in the city was so great that Billy Bass, the program conductor at the WMMS radio station, referred to Cleveland as “ The Rock and Roll Capital of the World. ” [ 189 ] The Cleveland Agora Theatre and Ballroom has served as a major venue for rock concerts in the city since the 1960s. [ 190 ] From 1974 through 1980, the city hosted the World Series of Rock at Cleveland Municipal Stadium. [ 191 ] jazz and R & B have a long history in Cleveland. many major figures in jazz, including Louis Armstrong, Cab Calloway, Duke Ellington, Ella Fitzgerald, Dizzy Gillespie, Benny Goodman, Billie Holiday, and Don Redman performed in the city, and fabled pianist Art Tatum regularly played in Cleveland clubs during the 1930s. [ 54 ] [ 55 ] Gypsy jazz guitarist Django Reinhardt gave his U.S. debut operation in Cleveland in 1946. [ 192 ] Prominent wind artist Noble Sissle was a graduate of Cleveland Central High School, Artie Shaw worked and performed in Cleveland early in his career, and bandleader Phil Spitalny led his first gear orchestra in Cleveland. The Tri-C Jazz Fest has been held annually in Cleveland at Playhouse Square since 1979, and the Cleveland Jazz Orchestra was established in 1984. [ 54 ] [ 55 ] Joe Siebert ‘s documentary film The Sax Man on the life of Cleveland street saxophonist Maurice Reedus Jr. was released in 2014. [ 193 ] There is a significant hep hop music scene in Cleveland. In 1997, the Cleveland hep hop group Bone Thugs-n-Harmony won a Grammy for their song “ Tha Crossroads “. [ 194 ] The city besides has a history of polka music being popular both by and present, even having a subgenre called Cleveland-style polka named after the city, and is home to the Polka Hall of Fame. This is due in character to the success of Frankie Yankovic, a Cleveland native who was considered America’s Polka King. The square at the intersection of Waterloo Road and East 152nd Street in Cleveland ( ), not far from where Yankovic grew up, was named in his award. [ 195 ]

Film and television [edit ]

Cleveland has served as the setting for many major studio and mugwump films, and, early in american english film history, it was even a center for film production. The first film shoot in Cleveland was in 1897 by the Edison Company. [ 196 ] Before Hollywood became the center for american english film, film maker Samuel R. Brodsky and playwright Robert H. McLaughlin operated a studio apartment at the Andrews mansion on Euclid Avenue ( immediately the WEWS-TV studio apartment ). [ 197 ] There they produced major silent-era features, such as Dangerous Toys ( 1921 ), which are now considered lost. [ 196 ] Brodsky besides directed the weekly Plain Dealer Screen Magazine that ran in theaters in Cleveland and Ohio from 1917 to 1924. [ 196 ] In the “ talking picture “ era, Cleveland featured in numerous classic Hollywood movies, such as Howard Hawks ‘s Ceiling Zero ( 1936 ) with James Cagney and Pat O’Brien, and Hobart Henley ‘s quixotic comedy The Big Pond ( 1930 ) with Maurice Chevalier and Claudette Colbert, which introduced the hit sung “ You Brought a New Kind of Love to Me “. [ 196 ] Michael Curtiz ‘s 1933 pre-Code classic Goodbye Again with Warren William and Joan Blondell was set in Cleveland. Players from the 1948 Cleveland Indians, winners of the World Series, appeared in The Kid from Cleveland ( 1949 ). Cleveland Municipal Stadium features prominently in both that film and The Fortune Cookie ( 1966 ). Written and directed by Billy Wilder, the latter marked Walter Matthau and Jack Lemmon ‘s first on-screen collaboration and features gameday footage of the 1965 Browns. [ 196 ]
Cleveland Fire Department (1900) by the ( 1900 ) by the Edison Company, one of the very first films made in Cleveland other films set in Cleveland include Jules Dassin ‘s Up Tight! ( 1968 ) and Norman Jewison ‘s F.I.S.T. ( 1978 ), the latter sport Sylvester Stallone as a local anesthetic union leader. Paul Simon chose Cleveland as the afford for his only venture into filmmaking, One-Trick Pony ( 1980 ). Clevelander Jim Jarmusch ‘s Stranger Than Paradise ( 1984 ) —a deadpan comedy about two New Yorkers who travel to Florida by manner of Cleveland—was a favored of the Cannes Film Festival, winning the Caméra d’Or. [ 196 ] Both Major League ( 1989 ) and Major League II ( 1994 ) reflected the actual perennial struggles of the Cleveland Indians during the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s. [ 196 ] Several key scenes from Cameron Crowe ‘s Almost Famous ( 2000 ) are set in Cleveland, and both Antwone Fisher ( 2002 ) and The Soloist ( 2009 ) recount the real-life stories of Cleveland natives. Brothers Joe and Anthony Russo —native Clevelanders—filmed their drollery Welcome to Collinwood ( 2002 ) wholly on localization in the city. American Splendor ( 2003 ) —the biopic of Harvey Pekar, writer of the autobiographical comedian of the lapp identify —was besides filmed in Cleveland. Kill the Irishman ( 2011 ) depicts the 1970s turf war in Cleveland between Irish gangster Danny Greene and the Cleveland crime kin, while Draft Day ( 2014 ) features Kevin Costner as general director for the Browns. [ 196 ] [ 198 ] Cleveland has besides doubled for early locations in films. The wedding and reception scenes in The Deer Hunter ( 1978 ), while set in the modest Pittsburgh suburb of Clairton, were shot in Cleveland ‘s Tremont ; U.S. Steel besides permitted the production to film in one of its Cleveland mills. Francis Ford Coppola produced The Escape Artist ( 1982 ), much of which was shot in Downtown Cleveland. A Christmas Story ( 1983 ) was set in Indiana, but drew many of its external shots—including the Parker class home—from Cleveland. The open shots of Air Force One ( 1997 ) were filmed in and above Severance Hall. Downtown Cleveland besides doubled for New York in Spider-Man 3 ( 2007 ) and the climax of The Avengers ( 2012 ). More recently, Captain America: The Winter Soldier ( 2014 ), The Fate of the Furious ( 2017 ), and Judas and the Black Messiah ( 2021 ) were all filmed in the city. future Cleveland productions are handled by the Greater Cleveland Film Commission. [ 196 ] [ 198 ] [ 199 ] In television receiver, the city is the set for the popular network situation comedy The Drew Carey Show, starring Cleveland native Drew Carey. [ 200 ] Hot in Cleveland, a comedy that aired on television receiver Land, premiered on June 16, 2010, and ran for six seasons until its finale on June 3, 2015. [ 201 ] [ 202 ] Later episodes of the reality usher Keeping Up With the Kardashians have been partially filmed in Cleveland, after series star Khloe Kardashian began a relationship with Cleveland Cavaliers center Tristan Thompson. [ 203 ] Cleveland Hustles, the CNBC reality appearance co-created by LeBron James, was filmed in the city. [ 184 ]

literature [edit ]

Langston Hughes, leading poet of the Harlem Renaissance and child of an itinerant copulate, lived in Cleveland as a adolescent and attended Central High School in Cleveland in the 1910s. [ 204 ] At Central High, Hughes was taught by Helen Maria Chesnutt, daughter of celebrated Cleveland-born african american novelist Charles W. Chesnutt. [ 205 ] He besides wrote for the school newspaper and started writing his earlier plays, poems and short stories while living in Cleveland. [ 204 ] The african american avant-garde poet Russell Atkins besides lived in Cleveland. [ 206 ] The american modernist poet Hart Crane was born in nearby Garrettsville, Ohio in 1899. His adolescence was divided between Cleveland and Akron before he moved to New York City in 1916. Aside from factory work during the first populace war, he served as a reporter to The Plain Dealer for a short period, before achieving recognition in the Modernist literary scene. A bantam memorial park is dedicated to Crane along the left field bank of the Cuyahoga in Cleveland. In University Circle, a diachronic marker sits at the location of his Cleveland childhood theater on E. 115 near the Euclid Avenue intersection. On the Case Western Reserve University campus, a statue of him, designed by sculptor William McVey, stands behind the Kelvin Smith Library. [ 207 ] Cleveland was the home of Joe Shuster and Jerry Siegel, who created the comic record character Superman in 1932. [ 208 ] Both attended Glenville High School, and their early collaborations resulted in the initiation of “ The Man of Steel ”. [ 209 ] Harlan Ellison, noted generator of notional fabrication, was born in Cleveland in 1934 ; his family subsequently moved to the nearby town of Painesville, though Ellison moved back to Cleveland in 1949. As a child, he published a series of short stories appearing in the Cleveland News ; he besides performed in a number of productions for the Cleveland Play House. D. A. Levy wrote : “ cleveland : The Rectal Eye Visions ”. Mystery writer Richard Montanari ‘s foremost three novels, Deviant Way, The Violet Hour, and Kiss of Evil are set in Cleveland. Mystery writer, Les Roberts ‘s Milan Jacovich series is besides set in Cleveland. Author and Ohio resident, James Renner set his debut novel, The Man from Primrose Lane in contemporary Cleveland. The Cleveland State University Poetry Center serves as an academic center for poetry. Cleveland continues to have a boom literary and poetry community, [ 210 ] [ 211 ] with regular poetry readings at bookstores, chocolate shops, and assorted other venues. [ 212 ] Cleveland is the site of the Anisfield-Wolf Book Award, established by poet and philanthropist Edith Anisfield Wolf in 1935, which recognizes books that have made significant contributions to the understanding of racism and human diverseness. [ 213 ] Presented by the Cleveland Foundation, it remains the only american book choice focusing on works that address racism and diverseness. [ 214 ] In an early Gay and lesbian studies anthology titled Lavender Culture, [ 215 ] a short while by John Kelsey “ The Cleveland Bar Scene in the Forties ” discusses the gay and lesbian culture in Cleveland and the singular experiences of amateur female impersonators that existed alongside the New York and San Francisco LGBT subcultures. [ 216 ]

Museums and galleries [edit ]

Cleveland has two main artwork museums. The Cleveland Museum of Art is a major american art museum, with a collection that includes more than 40,000 works of art ranging over 6,000 years, from ancient masterpieces to contemporaneous pieces. [ 217 ] The Museum of Contemporary Art Cleveland showcases established and emerging artists, particularly from the Cleveland area, through host and producing impermanent exhibitions. [ 218 ] Both museums offer release entrance fee to visitors, with the Cleveland Museum of Art declaring their museum free and open “ for the benefit of all the people forever. ” [ 37 ] [ 217 ] [ 218 ] Both museums are besides depart of Cleveland ‘s University Circle, a 550-acre ( 2.2 km2 ) concentration of cultural, educational, and medical institutions located 5 miles ( 8.0 kilometer ) east of business district. In addition to the art museums, the vicinity besides includes the Cleveland Botanical Garden, Case Western Reserve University, University Hospitals, Severance Hall, the Cleveland Museum of Natural History, and the Western Reserve Historical Society. besides located at University Circle is the Cleveland Cinematheque at the Cleveland Institute of Art, hailed by The New York Times as one of the nation ‘s best option movie theaters. [ 219 ]
Cleveland is home to the I. M. Pei -designed Rock and Roll Hall of Fame on the Lake Erie waterfront at North Coast Harbor downtown. neighbor attractions include FirstEnergy Stadium, the Great Lakes Science Center, the Steamship Mather Museum, and the USS Cod, a World War II submarine. Designed by architect Levi T. Scofield, the Soldiers ‘ and Sailors ‘ Monument at Public Square is Cleveland ‘s major Civil War memorial and a major attraction in the city. [ 29 ] early city attractions include the Lorenzo Carter Cabin, [ 17 ] the Grays Armory, [ 220 ] the Cleveland Police Museum, [ 221 ] and the Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland ‘s Money Museum. [ 222 ] A Cleveland holiday attraction, particularly for fans of Jean Shepherd ‘s A Christmas Story, is the Christmas Story House and Museum in Tremont. [ 223 ]

Events [edit ]

The Cleveland International Film Festival has been held annually since 1977, and it drew a record 106,000 people in 2017. [ 224 ] Fashion Week Cleveland, the city ‘s annual manner event, is the third-largest manner read of its kind in the United States. [ 225 ] The Cleveland National Air Show, an indirect successor to the National Air Races, has been annually held at the city ‘s Burke Lakefront Airport since 1964. [ 226 ] Sponsored by the Great Lakes Brewing Company, the Great Lakes Burning River Fest, a two-night music and beer festival at Whiskey Island, has been held annually since 2001. [ 227 ] Proceeds from that festival benefit the Burning River Foundation, a local non-profit dedicated to “ improving, maintaining and celebrating the life force of [ Cleveland ‘s ] regional fresh water resources. ” [ 228 ] Cleveland besides hosts an annual vacation display unhorse and celebration, dubbed Winterfest, which is held business district at the city ‘s historic hub, Public Square. [ 229 ]

cuisine [edit ]

Cleveland ‘s mosaic of cultural communities and their assorted culinary traditions have long played an important role in defining the local cuisine. Examples of these can particularly be found in neighborhoods such as Little Italy, Slavic Village, and Tremont. local mainstays of Cleveland ‘s cuisine include an abundance of polish and central european contributions, such as kielbasa, stuff pilfer and pierogies. [ 230 ] Cleveland besides has enough of corn beef, with nationally renowned Slyman ‘s, on the cheeseparing East Side, a perennial achiever of assorted accolades from Esquire Magazine, including being named the best corned beef sandwich in America in 2008. [ 231 ] other famed sandwiches include the Cleveland original, polish Boy, a local darling found at many BBQ and Soul food restaurants. [ 230 ] [ 232 ] With its blue-collar roots well intact, and batch of Lake Erie perch available, the custom of Friday night pisces fries remains animated and thriving in Cleveland, particularly in church-based settings and during the season of Lent. [ 233 ] Cleveland is noted in the world of fame food culture. celebrated local figures include chef Michael Symon and food writer Michael Ruhlman, both of whom achieved local and national attention for their contributions to the culinary world. On November 11, 2007, Symon helped gain the limelight when he was named “ The Next Iron Chef “ on the Food Network. In 2007, Ruhlman collaborated with Anthony Bourdain, to do an sequence of his Anthony Bourdain: No Reservations focusing on Cleveland ‘s restaurant scene. [ 234 ] The national food press—including publications Gourmet, Food & Wine, Esquire and Playboy —has heaped praise on several Cleveland spots for awards including ‘best new restaurant ‘, ‘best steakhouse ‘, ‘best farm-to-table programs ‘ and ‘great new neighborhood eateries ‘. In early 2008, the Chicago Tribune ran a sport article in its ‘Travel ‘ section proclaim Cleveland, America ‘s “ hot new dining city ”. [ 234 ] In 2015, the city was named the 7th best food city in the nation by Time magazine. [ 235 ]

Breweries [edit ]

Ohio produces the fifth most come of beer in the United States, with its largest brewery being Cleveland ‘s Great Lakes Brewing Company. [ 236 ] Cleveland has had a long history of brew, tied to many of its heathen immigrants, and in holocene decades has reemerged as a regional leader in production. [ 237 ] In modern times, dozens of breweries exist in the city limits, including other big producers such as Market Garden Brewery and Platform Beer Company. Breweries can be found somewhere in the city, but the highest assiduity is in the Ohio City neighborhood. [ 238 ] Cleveland is besides home to expansions from early countries, including the scottish BrewDog and German Hofbrauhaus. [ 239 ] [ 240 ]

Sports [edit ]

Cleveland ‘s current major professional sports teams include the Cleveland Guardians ( Major League Baseball ), the Cleveland Browns ( National Football League ), the Cleveland Cavaliers ( National Basketball Association ), the Cleveland Crunch ( Major Arena Soccer League 2 ) and the Cleveland Monsters ( american Hockey League ). local sporting facilities include Progressive Field, FirstEnergy Stadium, Rocket Mortgage FieldHouse, and the Soccer Sportsplex. The Cleveland Monsters of the American Hockey League won the 2016 Calder Cup, the first gear Cleveland AHL team to do thus since the 1964 Barons, [ 241 ]. other professional teams in the city include the Cleveland Charge ( NBA G League ), the Cleveland Fusion ( Women ‘s Football Alliance ) and the Cleveland SC ( National Premier Soccer League ). The Cleveland Guardians, known as the Indians from 1915 to 2021, won the World Series in 1920 and 1948. They besides won the American League pennant, making the World Series in the 1954, 1995, 1997, and 2016 seasons. between 1995 and 2001, Progressive Field ( then known as Jacobs Field ) sold out 455 straight games, a Major League Baseball record until it was broken in 2008. [ 242 ] historically, the Browns have been among the most successful franchises in american football history, winning eight titles during a short period of time— 1946, 1947, 1948, 1949, 1950, 1954, 1955, and 1964. The Browns have never played in a Super Bowl, getting close five times by making it to the NFL / AFC Championship Game in 1968, 1969, 1986, 1987, and 1989. Former owner Art Modell ‘s resettlement of the Browns after the 1995 season ( to Baltimore creating the Ravens ), caused frightful grief and resentment among local fans. [ 243 ] Cleveland mayor, Michael R. White, worked with the NFL and Commissioner Paul Tagliabue to bring back the Browns begin in the 1999 temper, retaining all team history. [ 244 ] In Cleveland ‘s earlier football history, the Cleveland Bulldogs won the NFL Championship in 1924, and the Cleveland Rams won the NFL Championship in 1945 before relocating to Los Angeles. The Cavaliers won the eastern Conference in 2007, 2015, 2016, 2017 and 2018 but were defeated in the NBA Finals by the San Antonio Spurs and then by the Golden State Warriors, respectively. The Cavs won the Conference again in 2016 and won their first NBA Championship coming back from a 3–1 deficit, ultimately defeating the Golden State Warriors. Afterwards, an estimated 1.3 million people attended a parade agree in the Cavs award on June 22, 2016. This was the inaugural clock the city had planned for a championship parade in 50 years. [ 245 ] Previously, the Cleveland Rosenblums dominated the original American Basketball League winning three of the beginning five championships ( 1926, 1929, 1930 ), and the Cleveland Pipers, owned by George Steinbrenner, won the american english Basketball League championship in 1962. [ 246 ] Jesse Owens grew up in Cleveland after moving from Alabama when he was nine. He participated in the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin, where he achieved international fame by winning four aureate medals. A statue commemorating his accomplishment can be found in Downtown Cleveland at Fort Washington Park. [ 247 ] A statue of another celebrated Cleveland athlete, irish american World Featherweight boxing champion Johnny Kilbane, stands in the city ‘s Battery Park on the West Side. [ 248 ] Cleveland State University alum and area native Stipe Miocic won the UFC World Heavyweight Championship at UFC 198 in 2016. Miocic has defended his World Heavyweight Champion style at UFC 203, the first ever UFC World Championship fight held in the city of Cleveland, [ 249 ] and again at UFC 211 and UFC 220. After losing it in 2018, Miocic regained the universe title at UFC 241. Collegiately, NCAA Division I Cleveland State Vikings have 16 varsity sports, nationally known for their Cleveland State Vikings men ‘s basketball team. NCAA Division III Case Western Reserve Spartans have 19 varsity sports, most known for their Case Western Reserve Spartans football team. The headquarters of the Mid-American Conference ( MAC ) are in Cleveland. The league besides stages both its men ‘s and women ‘s basketball tournaments at Rocket Mortgage FieldHouse. several chess championships have taken place in Cleveland. The second American Chess Congress, a predecessor the current U.S. Championship, was held in 1871, and won by George Henry Mackenzie. The 1921 and 1957 U.S. Open Chess Championship besides took place in the city, and were won by Edward Lasker and Bobby Fischer, respectively. The Cleveland Open is held per annum. [ 250 ] The Cleveland Marathon has been hosted annually since 1978. [ 251 ]

environment [edit ]

With its extensive killing of its Lake Erie prop up and the Cuyahoga River, Cleveland has been recognized by national media as an environmental success narrative and a national leader in environmental protective covering. [ 81 ] Since the city ‘s industrialization, the Cuyahoga River had become so involve by industrial pollution that it “ catch fire ” a entire of 13 times beginning in 1868. [ 252 ] It was the river burn of June 1969 that spurred the city to action under Mayor Carl B. Stokes, and played a key role in the passage of the Clean Water Act in 1972 and the National Environmental Policy Act belated that year. [ 74 ] [ 252 ] Since that clock, the Cuyahoga has been extensively cleaned up through the efforts of the city and the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency ( OEPA ). [ 81 ] In 2019, the american Rivers conservation association named the river “ river of the year ” in honor of “ 50 years of environmental revival. ” [ 70 ] In accession to continued efforts to improve fresh water and publicize quality, Cleveland is now exploring renewable energy. The city ‘s two main electric utilities are FirstEnergy and Cleveland Public Power. Its climate action design, updated in December 2018, has a 2050 target of 100 percentage renewable world power, along with reduction of greenhouse gases to 80 percentage below the 2010 horizontal surface. [ 253 ] In recent years, Cleveland has besides been working to address the issue of harmful algal blooms on Lake Erie, fed chiefly by agricultural runoff, which have presented new environmental challenges for the city and for northern Ohio. [ 254 ]

Government and politics [edit ]

Cleveland operates on a mayor–council ( strong mayor ) form of politics, in which the mayor is the head executive. From 1924 to 1931, the city briefly experimented with a council–manager politics under William R. Hopkins and Daniel E. Morgan before returning to the mayor–council arrangement. [ 255 ] The position of the mayor has been held by Frank G. Jackson since 2006. former mayors of Cleveland include progressive Democrat Tom L. Johnson, World War I -era War Secretary and BakerHostetler laminitis Newton D. Baker, U.S. Supreme Court Justice Harold Hitz Burton, two-term Ohio Governor and Senator Frank J. Lausche, former U.S. Health, Education, and Welfare Secretary Anthony J. Celebrezze, two-term Ohio Governor and Senator George V. Voinovich, former U.S. Congressman Dennis Kucinich, and Carl B. Stokes, the beginning african American mayor of a major U.S. city. [ 73 ] Another nationally big Ohio politician, former U.S. President James A. Garfield, was born in Cuyahoga County ‘s Orange Township ( today the Cleveland suburb of Moreland Hills ). [ 256 ] His resting set is the James A. Garfield Memorial in Cleveland ‘s Lake View Cemetery. [ 257 ] From the Civil War era to the 1940s, Cleveland was chiefly dominated by the Republican Party, with the celebrated exceptions of the Johnson and Baker mayoral administrations. [ 255 ] Businessman and Senator Mark Hanna was among Cleveland ‘s most influential Republican figures, both locally and nationally. [ 258 ] In addition to the established support of organized labor, the Cuyahoga County Democratic Party, led by former mayor Ray T. Miller, was able to secure the confirm of the city ‘s heathen european and african american communities in the 1940s. [ 255 ] Beginning with the Lausche administration, Cleveland ‘s political predilection shifted to the Democratic Party and, with the exceptions of the Perk and Voinovich administrations, it has remained dominated by the Democrats ever since. [ 255 ] today, while early parts of Ohio, particularly Cincinnati and the southern parcel of the state, support the Republicans, Cleveland normally produces the strongest digest in the submit for the Democrats. [ 259 ] At the local level, elections are nonpartisan. however, Democrats still dominate every degree of politics. During the 2004 Presidential election, although George W. Bush carried Ohio by 2.1 %, John Kerry carried Cuyahoga County 66.6 % –32.9 %, his largest margin in any Ohio county. [ 260 ] The city of Cleveland supported Kerry over Bush by the even larger margin of 83.3 % –15.8 %. [ 261 ] As a consequence of the 2010 Census, Ohio lost two Congressional seats, which affected Cleveland ‘s districts in the northeast part of the state of matter. [ 262 ] Today, Cleveland is split between two congressional districts. Most of the western part of the city is in the 9th District, represented by Marcy Kaptur. Most of the eastern part of the city, adenine well as most of downtown, is in the 11th District, represented by Marcia Fudge. Both are Democrats, two of four representing Ohio. Cleveland hosted three Republican national conventions in its history, in 1924, 1936, and 2016. [ 263 ] The city besides hosted the radical Republican convention of 1864. [ 264 ] Cleveland has not hosted a national convention for the Democrats, despite the place of Cuyahoga County as a democratic stronghold in Ohio. Cleveland has hosted several national election debates, including the second 1980 U.S. Presidential debate, the 2004 U.S. vice-presidential debate, one 2008 democratic elementary consider, and the foremost 2020 U.S. Presidential argue. [ 265 ] Founded in 1912, the City Club of Cleveland provides a platform for national and local debates and discussions. Known as Cleveland ‘s “ Citadel of Free Speech, ” it is one of the oldest continuous freelancer detached speech and argue forums in the country. [ 266 ] [ 267 ]

Public guard

[edit ]

Police and law enforcement [edit ]

Like in other major american cities, crime in Cleveland is concentrated in areas with higher rates of poverty and lower access to jobs. [ 268 ] [ 269 ] In recent years, the rate of crime in the city has seen a significant decline, following a countrywide swerve in falling crime rates. [ 268 ] Cleveland Police statistics published in 2019 showed that rates for violent crimes and property crimes in Cleveland dropped well in 2018. The pace of property crimes specifically fell by 30 % since 2016. [ 270 ] Cleveland ‘s law enforcement agency is the Cleveland Division of Police, established in 1866. [ 271 ] [ 272 ] The division has 1,444 sworn officers as of 2016. [ 273 ] Cleveland has five police districts. [ 274 ] The district system was introduced in the 1930s by Cleveland Public Safety Director Eliot Ness ( of the Untouchables ), who later run for mayor of Cleveland in 1947. [ 271 ] [ 275 ] The division has been recognized for several “ firsts, ” including the “ first criminal conviction secured by matching a handle print lifted from a crime scene to a defendant. ” [ 272 ] The current Chief of Police is Calvin D. Williams. [ 276 ] In December 2014, the United States Department of Justice announced the findings of a biennial investigation, prompted by a request from Mayor Frank Jackson, to determine whether the Cleveland Police engaged in a radiation pattern of excessive military unit. [ 277 ] [ 278 ] As a result of the Justice Department report, the city agreed to a consent rule to revise its policies and follow through raw independent oversight over the patrol force. [ 279 ] The accept rule, released on May 26, 2015, mandated embroil changes to the Cleveland Police. [ 280 ] [ 281 ] On June 12, 2015, Chief U.S. District Judge Solomon Oliver Jr. approved and signed the accept decree, beginning the process of police reform. [ 282 ]

Fire department [edit ]

Cleveland is served by the firefighters of the Cleveland Division of Fire, established in 1863. [ 283 ] The fire department operates out of 22 active fire stations throughout the city in five battalions. Each battalion is commanded by a Battalion Chief, who reports to an on-duty assistant Chief. [ 284 ] [ 285 ] The Division of Fire operates a fire apparatus fleet of twenty-two engine companies, eight ladder companies, three tower companies, two tax force rescue team companies, hazardous materials ( “ haz-mat ” ) unit, and numerous other limited, support, and reserve units. The current Chief of Department is Angelo Calvillo. [ 286 ]

Emergency Medical Services [edit ]

Cleveland EMS is operated by the city as its own municipal third-service EMS division. Cleveland EMS is the primary provider of Advanced Life Support and ambulance enchant within the city of Cleveland, while Cleveland Fire assists by providing open fire reaction medical worry. [ 287 ] Although a amalgamation between the fire and EMS departments was proposed in the past, the idea was subsequently abandoned. [ 288 ]

Media [edit ]

Cleveland ‘s primary daily newspaper is The Plain Dealer and its consociate on-line publication, [ 289 ] Defunct major newspapers include the Cleveland Press, an good afternoon publication which printed its last edition on June 17, 1982 ; [ 290 ] and the Cleveland News, which ceased publication in 1960. [ 291 ] Additional publications include : the Cleveland Magazine, a regional culture magazine published monthly ; [ 292 ] Crain’s Cleveland Business, a hebdomadally commercial enterprise newspaper ; [ 293 ] and Cleveland Scene, a free alternate weekly composition which absorbed its rival, the Cleveland Free Times, in 2008. [ 294 ] nationally distributed rock magazine Alternative Press was founded in Cleveland in 1985, and the publication ‘s headquarter remain in the city. [ 295 ] [ 296 ] [ 297 ] The digital Belt Magazine was founded in Cleveland in 2013. [ 298 ] Time magazine was published in Cleveland for a brief period from 1925 to 1927. [ 299 ] Cleveland ‘s ethnic publications include : the Call and Post, a weekly newspaper that primarily serves the city ‘s african American community ; [ 300 ] the Cleveland Jewish News, a weekly jewish newspaper ; [ 301 ] the bi-weekly russian terminology Cleveland Russian Magazine for the russian and post-Soviet community ; [ 302 ] the Mandarin Erie Chinese Journal for the city ‘s Chinese community ; [ 303 ] La Gazzetta Italiana in English and Italian for the Italian residential district ; [ 304 ] the Ohio Irish American News for the Irish residential district ; [ 305 ] and the spanish language Vocero Latino News for the Latino community. [ 306 ] Historically, the hungarian terminology newspaper Szabadság served the Hungarian community. [ 307 ]

television receiver [edit ]

Moon over Downtown Cleveland Cleveland is the 19th-largest television grocery store by Nielsen Media Research ( as of 2013 –14 ). [ 308 ] The grocery store is served by 10 wax power stations, including : WEWS-TV ( ABC ), WJW ( Fox ), WKYC ( NBC ), WOIO ( CBS ), WVIZ ( PBS ), WUAB ( The CW ), WVPX-TV ( Ion ), WQHS-DT ( Univision ), WDLI-TV ( Court television ), and the independent WBNX-TV. [ 309 ] The Mike Douglas Show, a nationally syndicated day lecture show, began in Cleveland in 1961 on KYW-TV ( nowadays WKYC ), while The Morning Exchange on WEWS-TV served as the model for Good Morning America. [ 310 ] [ 311 ] Tim Conway and Ernie Anderson first established themselves in Cleveland while working together at KYW-TV and later WJW-TV ( now WJW ). Anderson both created and performed as the vastly popular Cleveland horror host Ghoulardi on WJW-TV ‘s Shock Theater, and was former succeeded by the long-running belated night couple Big Chuck and Lil ‘ John. [ 312 ]

radio [edit ]

Cleveland is directly served by 32 AM and FM radio stations, 22 of which are licensed to the city. commercial FM music stations are frequently the highest-rated stations in the market : WAKS ( contemporary reach radio ), WDOK ( adult contemporaneous ), WENZ ( mainstream urban ), WGAR-FM ( country ), WHLK ( adult hits ), WMJI ( classic hits ), WMMS ( active rock / hot talk ), WNCX ( classical rock candy ), WNWV ( alternative rock ), WQAL ( hot adult contemporary ), and WZAK ( urban adult contemporary ). [ 313 ] [ 314 ] WKSU public radio functions as the local NPR consort, and sister station WCLV airs a classical music format. [ 315 ] College radio receiver stations include WBWC ( Baldwin Wallace University ), WCSB ( Cleveland State University ), WJCU ( John Carroll University ), and WRUW-FM ( Case Western Reserve University ). [ 313 ] News / talk post WTAM serves as the AM flagship for both the Cleveland Cavaliers and Cleveland Guardians. [ 316 ] [ 317 ] Sports oriented stations include sister stations WKNR and WWGK ( ESPN Radio ), WARF ( Fox Sports Radio ) and WKRK-FM ( CBS Sports Radio ). WKNR and WKRK-FM are besides co-flagship stations for the Cleveland Browns. [ 318 ] [ 319 ] [ 320 ] As WJW ( AM ), WKNR was once the home of Alan Freed − the Cleveland magnetic disk jockey credited with first using and popularizing the term “ rock and hustle ” to describe the music writing style. [ 68 ] [ 189 ] News/talk station WHK was one of the beginning radio receiver stations to broadcast in the United States and the first base in Ohio. [ 321 ] [ 322 ] Its early baby post, rock ‘n’ roll station WMMS, dominated Cleveland radio in the 1970s and 1980s and was at that clock one of the highest-rated radio stations in the state. In 1972, WMMS plan conductor Billy Bass coined the give voice “ The Rock and Roll Capital of the World ” to describe Cleveland. In 1987, Playboy named WMMS DJ Kid Leo ( Lawrence Travagliante ) “ The Best Disc Jockey in the area ”. [ 323 ] [ 324 ] [ 325 ]

healthcare [edit ]

Cleveland is home to a number of lead hospital systems, several of which are in University Circle. Most celebrated is the world-renowned Cleveland Clinic, presently led by croatian -born president and CEO Tomislav Mihaljevic. [ 326 ] The clinic is affiliated with Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine. The other major hospital in Cleveland is University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center with its Rainbow Babies & Children ‘s Hospital. Cliff Megerian serves as that system ‘s CEO. [ 327 ] On the city ‘s West Side is the main campus of the MetroHealth System, led by president and CEO Akram Boutros. once known as City Hospital, MetroHealth operates one of two Level I trauma centers in the city, and has respective locations throughout Greater Cleveland. [ 328 ] Founded in 1865, the St. Vincent Charity Medical Center, led by CEO and president Janet Murphy, is the oldest hospital in the city. [ 329 ] In 2013, Cleveland ‘s Global Center for Health Innovation opened with 235,000 hearty feet ( 21,800 m2 ) of display space for healthcare companies across the global. [ 330 ] To take advantage of the proximity of universities and other aesculapian centers in Cleveland, the Veterans Administration moved the region ‘s VA hospital from suburban Brecksville to a new facility in University Circle. [ 331 ] During the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic in the United States, Ohio Governor Mike DeWine reported the earliest cases of the virus in the express to be in the Greater Cleveland Metropolitan Area, specifically Cuyahoga County. [ 332 ] In answer, the Cleveland Clinic engaged in a historic partnership with University Hospitals to offer spare testing for COVID-19, to stop the scatter of the virus in the metropolitan area and throughout the department of state. [ 333 ] [ 334 ]

exile [edit ]

Walkability [edit ]

In 2021, Walk Score ranked Cleveland the seventeenth most walkable of the fifty dollar bill largest cities in the United States., with a Walk Score of 57, a Transit Score of 45, and a Bike Score of 55 ( out of a maximum of 100 ). Cleveland ‘s most walkable areas can be found in the Downtown, Ohio City, Detroit–Shoreway, University Circle, and Buckeye–Shaker Square neighborhoods. [ 335 ]

urban transit systems [edit ]

Streets of Cleveland Cleveland has a bus and train mass passage system operated by the Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority ( RTA ). The railing assign is officially called the RTA Rapid Transit, but local residents refer to it as The Rapid. It consists of three idle rail lines, known as the Blue, Green, and Waterfront Lines, and a heavy rail line, the Red Line. In 2008, RTA completed the HealthLine, a bus rapid theodolite lineage, for which naming rights were purchased by the Cleveland Clinic and University Hospitals. It runs along Euclid Avenue from downtown through University Circle, ending at the Louis Stokes Station at Windermere in East Cleveland. [ 336 ] RTA by and by opened a “ BRT Light ” credit line on the West Side along Clifton Blvd and the Shoreway. In 1968, Cleveland became the first gear city in the nation to have a direct rail transit connection linking the city ‘s downtown to its major airport. [ 63 ] In 2007, the american Public Transportation Association named Cleveland ‘s mass transit system the best in North America. [ 337 ] Cleveland is the merely metropolitan area in the Western Hemisphere with its rail rapid transportation system system having lone one center-city sphere rapid transit station ( Tower City-Public Square ) .

secret automobiles [edit ]

The city of Cleveland has a higher than average percentage of households without a car. In 2016, 23.7 percentage of Cleveland households lacked a cable car, while the national median was 8.7 percentage. Cleveland averaged 1.19 cars per family in 2016, compared to a national average of 1.8. [ 338 ] Like other major cities, the urban concentration of Cleveland reduces the need for private vehicle possession, though as jobs sprawl to urban edges across the United States, connectivity is becoming beyond the scope of public passage systems, including RTA .

Roads [edit ]

Cleveland ‘s road system consists of count streets running roughly north–south, and named avenues, which run roughly east–west. The count streets are designated “ east ” or “ west ”, depending on where they lie in sexual intercourse to Ontario Street, which bisects Public Square. [ 339 ] The number street system extends beyond the city limits into some suburbs on both the West and East Sides. The named avenues that lie both on the east side of the Cuyahoga River and west of Ontario Street receive a “ west ” appellation on street signage. The two business district avenues which span the Cuyahoga change names on the west side of the river. superior Avenue becomes Detroit Avenue on the West Side, and Carnegie Avenue becomes Lorain Avenue. The bridges that make these connections are much called the Detroit–Superior Bridge and the Lorain–Carnegie Bridge .

Freeways [edit ]

Three two-digit Interstate highways serve Cleveland immediately. Interstate 71 begins just southwest of downtown and is the major route from downtown Cleveland to the airport. I-71 runs through the southwestern suburbs and finally connects Cleveland with Columbus and Cincinnati. Interstate 77 begins in downtown Cleveland and runs about due south through the southerly suburbs. I-77 sees the least traffic of the three interstates, although it does associate Cleveland to Akron. Interstate 90 connects the two sides of Cleveland, and is the northern terminal for both I-71 and I-77. Running ascribable east–west through the West Side suburbs, I-90 turns northeast at the articulation with and I-490, and is known as the Innerbelt through business district. At the junction with the Shoreway, I-90 makes a 90-degree turn known in the sphere as Dead Man ‘s Curve, then continues northeast, entering Lake County near the eastern separate with Ohio State Route 2. Cleveland is besides served by two three-digit interstates, Interstate 480, which enters Cleveland briefly at a few points and Interstate 490, which connects I-77 with the junction of I-90 and I-71 just south of downtown. [ 340 ] Two other limited-access highways serve Cleveland. The Cleveland Memorial Shoreway carries State Route 2 along its distance, and at varying points besides carries US 6, US 20 and I-90. The Jennings Freeway ( State Route 176 ) connects I-71 barely south of I-90 to I-480 near the suburb of Parma and Brooklyn Heights. A third highway, the Berea Freeway ( State Route 237 in character ), connects I-71 to the airport and forms region of the boundary between Cleveland and Brook Park. [ 341 ]

Airports [edit ]

Cleveland Hopkins International Airport is the city ‘s major airport and an international airport that once served as a independent hub for United Airlines and Continental Airlines. It holds the distinction of having the beginning airport-to-downtown rapid transit association in North America, established in 1968. In 1930, the airport was the locate of the first airfield lighting system and the first air dealings control loom. in the first place known as Cleveland Municipal Airport, it was the first municipally owned airport in the nation. Cleveland Hopkins is a significant regional air freight hub hosting FedEx Express, UPS Airlines, United States Postal Service, and major commercial freight carriers. In summation to Hopkins, Cleveland is served by Burke Lakefront Airport, on the north shore of downtown between Lake Erie and the Shoreway. Burke is chiefly a commuter and clientele airport. [ 342 ]

seaport [edit ]

1992 forward pass view of the Cleveland harbor, with the mouth of the Cuyahoga River in the foreground ( view towards the east ) The Port of Cleveland, at the Cuyahoga River ‘s mouth, is a major majority freight and container terminal on Lake Erie, receiving much of the raw materials used by the region ‘s fabricate industries. [ 343 ] The Port of Cleveland is the entirely container port on the Great Lakes with bi-weekly container service between Cleveland and the Port of Antwerp in Belgium on a dutch service called the “ Cleveland-Europe Express. ” [ 344 ] In addition to freight, the Port of Cleveland besides welcomes regional and international tourists who pass through the city on Great Lakes cruises. presently docking at Dock 28, barely west of First Energy Stadium. The cruises presently run from mid-may through mid-october .

Railroads [edit ]

Cleveland has a long rich people history as a major railroad hub in the United States. Today, Amtrak, the national passenger train arrangement, provides service to Cleveland, via the Capitol Limited and Lake Shore Limited routes, which stop at Cleveland Lakefront Station. additionally, Cleveland hosts several inter-modal freight railroad terminals, for Norfolk Southern, CSX and several smaller companies. [ 345 ] [ 346 ] There have been several proposals for commuter track in Cleveland, including a study into a Sandusky–Cleveland line. [ 347 ] [ 348 ] Cleveland was besides identified as a hub for the now-suspended Ohio Hub project, which would bring high-speed railing to Ohio. [ 349 ]

Inter-city busbar lines [edit ]

National intercity bus service is provided at a Greyhound station, merely behind the Playhouse Square dramaturgy district. Megabus provides service to Cleveland and has a stop at the Stephanie Tubbs Jones Transit Center on the east side of downtown. [ 350 ] Akron Metro, Brunswick Transit Alternative, Laketran, Lorain County Transit, and Medina County Transit provide connecting bus service to the Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority. Geauga County Transit and Portage Area Regional Transportation Authority ( PARTA ) besides offer connecting bus service in their neighbor areas. [ 351 ]

Hyperloop proposal [edit ]

On February 15, 2018, Hyperloop Transportation Technologies announced that it had signed an agreement with the North Ohio Areawide Coordinating Agency and the Illinois Department of Transportation to conduct a feasibility study for a aforethought Great Lakes Hyperloop system connecting Cleveland to Chicago in a one-half hour. [ 352 ] [ 353 ] [ 354 ] In June 2019, Congress approved $ 5 million to the U.S. Department of Transportation to explore condom standards for this visualize. [ 355 ]

Sister cities and international relations [edit ]

As of 2021, Cleveland maintains cultural, economic, and educational ties with 23 baby cities around the world. [ 356 ] It concluded its inaugural sister city partnership with Lima, Peru in 1964. [ 356 ] The Cleveland Council on World Affairs was established in 1923. [ 357 ] In October 1915 at Cleveland ‘s gypsy National Hall, Czech American and Slovak American representatives signed the Cleveland Agreement, a precursor to the Pittsburgh Agreement, calling for the formation of a joint Czech and Slovak state. [ 358 ] During the Cold War, Cleveland industrialist Cyrus S. Eaton, an apprentice of John D. Rockefeller, played a significant role in promoting negotiation between the US and the USSR. [ 359 ] Cleveland is home to the Consulate General of the Republic of Slovenia, which, until Slovene independence in 1991, served as an official consulate for Tito ‘s Yugoslavia. [ 360 ] [ 361 ] In summation, the Jewish residential district of Greater Cleveland maintains an unofficial supportive relationship with the State of Israel. [ 362 ] The Cleveland Clinic operates the Cleveland Clinic Abu Dhabi hospital and a sports medicine clinic in Toronto, and a Cleveland Clinic hospital campus in London is scheduled to open in 2022. [ 363 ] [ 364 ]
Sister cities [ 356 ]

See besides [edit ]

Notes [edit ]

  1. ^ Mean monthly maximum and minimum ( i.e. the expect highest and lowest temperature readings at any sharpen during the year or given month ) calculated based on data at said placement from 1991 to 2020 .
  2. ^ official records for Cleveland kept at business district from January 1871 to May 1941, and at Hopkins Airport since June 1941. For more information, see ThreadEx
  3. a b From 15 % sample distribution

References [edit ]

far read [edit ]

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