David Bowie – Wikipedia

english singer-songwriter and actor

David Robert Jones ( 8 January 1947 – 10 January 2016 ), known professionally as David Bowie ( BOH-ee ), [ 2 ] was an english singer-songwriter and actor. A lead figure in the music diligence, Bowie is regarded as one of the most influential musicians of the twentieth hundred. He was acclaimed by critics and musicians, peculiarly for his advanced knead during the 1970s. His career was marked by reinvention and ocular presentation, and his music and stagecraft had a significant shock on popular music. Bowie developed an sake in music as a child. He studied art, music and plan before embarking on a master career as a musician in 1963. “ Space Oddity “, released in 1969, was his beginning top-five entrance on the UK Singles Chart. After a time period of experiment, he re-emerged in 1972 during the glam rock earned run average with his flamboyant and androgynous alter ego Ziggy Stardust. The character was spearheaded by the success of Bowie ‘s unmarried “ Starman “ and album The Rise and Fall of Ziggy Stardust and the Spiders from Mars, which won him widespread popularity. In 1975, Bowie ‘s style shifted towards a sound he characterised as “ formative soul “, initially alienating many of his united kingdom fans but garnering him his first major US crossover voter success with the number-one one “ Fame “ and the album Young Americans. In 1976, Bowie starred in the cult film The Man Who Fell to Earth and released Station to Station. In 1977, he further confounded expectations with the electronic -inflected album Low, the first of three collaborations with Brian Eno that came to be known as the “ Berlin Trilogy “. “Heroes” ( 1977 ) and Lodger ( 1979 ) followed ; each album reached the UK top five and received last critical praise.

After uneven commercial success in the late 1970s, Bowie had three number-one hits : the 1980 single “ Ashes to Ashes “, its album Scary Monsters (and Super Creeps), and “ Under press “ ( a 1981 collaboration with Queen ). He reached his acme commercial achiever in 1983 with Let’s Dance : its claim track topped both the UK and US charts. Throughout the 1990s and 2000s, Bowie continued to experiment with musical styles, including industrial and jungle. He besides continued acting : his roles included Major Jack Celliers in Merry Christmas, Mr. Lawrence ( 1983 ), Jareth the Goblin King in Labyrinth ( 1986 ), Pontius Pilate in The Last Temptation of Christ ( 1988 ), and Nikola Tesla in The Prestige ( 2006 ), among other film and television receiver appearances and cameo. He stopped touring after 2004 and his last alive performance was at a charity event in 2006. In 2013, Bowie returned from a decade-long record foramen with The Next Day. He remained musically active until his death from liver cancer at his home plate in New York City. He died two days after both his 69th birthday and the passing of his final examination album, Blackstar ( 2016 ). During his life, his record sales, estimated at over 100 million records cosmopolitan, made him one of the best-selling music artists of all time. In the UK, he was awarded ten-spot platinum, eleven amber and eight silver album certifications, and released 11 number-one albums. In the US, he received five platinum and nine gold certifications. He was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1996. Rolling Stone named him among the greatest artists in history and – after his death – the “ greatest rock star ever ” .

early animation

David Robert Jones was born on 8 January 1947 in Brixton, London. His mother, Margaret Mary “ Peggy ” ( née Burns ; 2 October 1913 – 2 April 2001 ), [ 3 ] was born at Shorncliffe Army Camp near Cheriton, Kent. Her agnate grandparents were irish immigrants who had settled in Manchester. She worked as a wait at a film in Royal Tunbridge Wells. His father, Haywood Stenton “ John ” Jones ( 21 November 1912 – 5 August 1969 ), [ 3 ] was from Doncaster, Yorkshire and worked as a promotions officer for the children ‘s jacob’s ladder Barnardo ‘s. The family lived at 40 Stansfield Road, on the boundary between Brixton and Stockwell in the south London borough of Lambeth. Bowie attended Stockwell Infants School until he was six years previous, acquiring a reputation as a endow and single-minded child—and a defiant brawler. From 1953 Bowie moved with his kin to Bickley and then Bromley Common, before settling in Sundridge Park in 1955 where he attended Burnt Ash Junior School. [ 9 ] His voice was considered “ adequate ” by the school choir, and he demonstrated above-average abilities in playing the fipple flute. At the senesce of nine, his dancing during the newly introduced music and apparent motion classes was strikingly imaginative : teachers called his interpretations “ vividly artistic ” and his poise “ astonishing ” for a child. The same year, his interest in music was far stimulated when his father brought home a collection of american 45s by artists including the Teenagers, the Platters, Fats Domino, Elvis Presley ( who shared Bowie ‘s birthday ), and Little Richard. Upon listening to Little Richard ‘s sung “ Tutti Frutti “, Bowie would late say that he had “ heard God ”. [ 13 ] Bowie was first impress with Presley when he saw his cousin Kristina dance to “ Hound Dog “ soon after it was released in 1956. According to Kristina, she and David “ danced like possess elves ” to records of assorted artists. [ 14 ] By the end of the watch year, Bowie had taken up the uke and tea-chest sea bass, begun to participate in skiffle sessions with friends, and had started to play the piano ; meanwhile, his degree presentation of numbers by both Presley and Chuck Berry —complete with gyrations in tribute to the original artists—to his local Wolf Cub group was described as “ mesmerizing … like person from another satellite ”. Having encouraged his son to follow his dream of being an entertainer since he was a toddler, in the late 1950s David ‘s father took him to meet singers and early performers preparing for the Royal Variety Performance, introducing him to Alma Cogan and Tommy Steele. [ 14 ] After taking his eleven-plus examination at the conclusion of his Burnt Ash Junior education, Bowie went to Bromley Technical High School. It was an unusual technical school, as biographer Christopher Sandford wrote :

Despite its status it was, by the time David arrived in 1958, as rich in arcane ritual as any [ English ] populace school. There were houses named after eighteenth-century statesmen like Pitt and Wilberforce. There was a uniform and an elaborate system of rewards and punishments. There was besides an stress on languages, skill and peculiarly design, where a collegiate atmosphere flourished under the tutelage of Owen Frampton. In David ‘s score, Frampton led through power of personality, not reason ; his colleagues at Bromley Tech were celebrated for neither and yielded the school ‘s most talented pupils to the arts, a government so liberal that Frampton actively encouraged his own son, Peter, to pursue a melodious career with David, a partnership briefly entire thirty years late .

Bowie ‘s parental stepbrother, Terry Burns, was a substantial influence on his early life. Burns, who was 10 years older than Bowie, suffered from schizophrenia and seizures, and lived alternately at home and in psychiatric wards ; while living with Bowie, he introduced the younger man to many of his lifelong influences, such as mod jazz, Buddhism, Beat poetry, and the eclipse. In addition to Burns, a significant proportion of Bowie ‘s stretch family members had schizophrenia spectrum disorders, including an aunt who was institutionalised and another who underwent a lobotomy ; this has been labelled as an charm on his early work. Bowie studied art, music, and design, including layout and typeset. After Burns introduced him to modern wind, his enthusiasm for players like Charles Mingus and John Coltrane led his mother to give him a Grafton sax in 1961. He was soon receiving lessons from baritone saxophonist Ronnie Ross. [ 18 ] He received a unplayful injury at school in 1962 when his ally George Underwood punched him in the leave center during a fight over a girlfriend. After a series of operations during a four-month hospitalization, his doctors determined that the wrong could not be fully repaired and Bowie was left with defective depth sensing and anisocoria ( a permanently dilated student ), which gave a false depression of a exchange in the iris ‘ color, mistakenly suggesting he had heterochromia iridum ( one iris a different color to the early ) ; his eye former became one of Bowie ‘s most recognizable features. [ 21 ] Despite their affray, Bowie remained on thoroughly terms with Underwood, who went on to create the artwork for Bowie ‘s early albums .

Music career

1962–1967 : early career to debut album

Bowie looking to the camera A craft ad photograph of Bowie in 1967 Bowie formed his first base band, the Konrads, in 1962 at the senesce of 15. Playing guitar-based rock ‘n’ roll and peal at local young person gatherings and weddings, the Konrads had a varying line-up of between four and eight members, Underwood among them. When Bowie left the technical school the follow class, he informed his parents of his purpose to become a pop star. His mother arranged his employment as an electrician ‘s spouse. Frustrated by his bandmates ‘ limited aspirations, Bowie left the Konrads and joined another set, the King Bees. He wrote to the newly successful washing-machine entrepreneur John Bloom inviting him to “ do for us what Brian Epstein has done for the Beatles —and make another million. ” bloom did not respond to the offer, but his referral to Dick James ‘s spouse Leslie Conn led to Bowie ‘s first personal management shrink. Conn quickly began to promote Bowie. His debut individual, “ Liza Jane “, credited to Davie Jones with the King Bees, was not commercially successful. Dissatisfied with the King Bees and their repertory of Howlin ‘ Wolf and Willie Dixon covers, Bowie quit the band less than a month by and by to join the Manish Boys, another blues outfit, who incorporated tribe and soul— ” I used to dream of being their Mick Jagger “, Bowie was to recall. Their cover of Bobby Bland ‘s “ I Pity the Fool “ was no more successful than “ Liza Jane ”, and Bowie soon moved on again to join the Lower Third, a blues trio strongly influenced by the Who. “ You ‘ve Got a Habit of Leaving “ fared no better, signalling the end of Conn ‘s contract. Declaring that he would exit the pop music world “ to study mime at Sadler ‘s Wells “, Bowie however remained with the Lower Third. His new coach, Ralph Horton, belated implemental in his transition to solo artist, soon witnessed Bowie ‘s move to even another group, the Buzz, yielding Bowie ‘s fifth abortive one, “ Do Anything You Say “. While with the Buzz, Bowie besides joined the Riot Squad ; their recordings, which included one of Bowie ‘s original songs and material by The Velvet Underground, went unreleased. Kenneth Pitt, introduced by Horton, took over as Bowie ‘s coach. Dissatisfied with Davy ( and Davie ) Jones, which in the mid-1960s invite confusion with Davy Jones of the Monkees, he took on the degree name David Bowie after the 19th-century American initiate James Bowie and the knife he had popularised. His April 1967 solo unmarried, “ The Laughing Gnome “, using speeded-up thus high vocals, failed to chart. Released six weeks subsequently, his album debut, David Bowie, an amalgam of pop, psychedelia, and music hall, met the same destiny. It was his last secrete for two years .

1968–1971 : Space Oddity to Hunky Dory

Studying the dramatic arts under Lindsay Kemp, from avant-garde field and mime to commedia dell’arte, Bowie became immersed in the creation of character to present to the world. Satirising life in a british prison, the Bowie composition “ Over The Wall We Go ” became a 1967 single for Oscar ; another Bowie sung, “ Silly Boy Blue ”, was released by Billy Fury the stick to year. Playing acoustic guitar, Hermione Farthingale formed a group with Bowie and guitarist John Hutchinson named Feathers ; between September 1968 and early 1969 the trio gave a small count of concerts combining folk music, Merseybeat, poetry, and mime. After the break-up with Farthingale, Bowie moved in with Mary Finnigan as her lodger. In February and March 1969, he undertook a unretentive enlistment with Marc Bolan ‘s couple Tyrannosaurus Rex, as third on the bill, performing a mimic act. On 11 July 1969, “ Space Oddity ” was released five days ahead of the Apollo 11 launching, and reached the acme five in the UK. Continuing the divergence from rock and seethe and blues begun by his knead with Farthingale, Bowie joined forces with Finnigan, Christina Ostrom and Barrie Jackson to run a folk music golf club on Sunday nights at the Three Tuns public house in Beckenham High Street. The club was influenced by the Arts Lab campaign, developing into the Beckenham Arts Lab and became extremely popular. The Arts Lab hosted a loose festival in a local park, the national of his song “ memory of a Free Festival “. Bowie ‘s second album followed in November ; in the first place issued in the UK as David Bowie, it caused some confusion with its harbinger of the same name, and the early US release was rather titled Man of Words/Man of Music ; it was reissued internationally in 1972 by RCA Records as Space Oddity. Featuring philosophic post- hippie lyrics on peace, love, and morality, its acoustic tribe rock occasionally fortified by hard rock, the album was not a commercial success at the clock of its handout. Bowie met Angela Barnett in April 1969. They married within a year. Her shock on him was immediate, and her participation in his career far-reaching, leaving director Ken Pitt with circumscribed charm which he found frustrating. Having established himself as a alone artist with “ Space Oddity ”, Bowie began to sense a deficient : “ a full-time band for gigs and recording—people he could relate to personally ”. The defect was underlined by his aesthetic competition with Marc Bolan, who was at the time acting as his seance guitarist. The ring Bowie assembled comprised John Cambridge, a drummer Bowie met at the Arts Lab, Tony Visconti on bass and Mick Ronson on electric guitar. Known as Hype, the bandmates created characters for themselves and wore elaborate costumes that prefigured the glam stylus of the Spiders from Mars. After a black open gig at the London Roundhouse, they reverted to a configuration presenting Bowie as a solo artist. Their initial studio apartment work was marred by a heated disagreement between Bowie and Cambridge over the latter ‘s cram style. Matters came to a promontory when an angered Bowie accused the drummer of the disturbance, exclaiming “ You ‘re fucking up my album. ” Cambridge left and was replaced by Mick Woodmansey. not farseeing after, Bowie fired his director and replaced him with Tony Defries. This resulted in years of litigation that concluded with Bowie having to pay Pitt compensation. The studio sessions continued and resulted in Bowie ‘s third gear album, The Man Who Sold the World ( 1970 ), which contained references to schizophrenia, paranoia, and delusion. [ 39 ] It represented a passing from the acoustic guitar and folk-rock stylus established by Space Oddity, to a more hard rock sound. [ 41 ] To promote it in the US, Mercury Records financed a coast-to-coast publicity tour across America in which Bowie, between January and February 1971, was interviewed by radio stations and the media. Exploiting his androgynous appearance, the original report of the UK translation unveiled two months subsequently depicted Bowie wearing a dress. He took the trim with him and wore it during interviews, to the blessing of critics – including Rolling Stone ‘s John Mendelsohn, who described him as “ rape, about disconcertingly evocative of Lauren Bacall “ – and in the street, to desegregate reaction including laugh and, in the case of one male pedestrian, producing a artillery and telling Bowie to “ kiss my arsenic ”. During the tour, Bowie ‘s observation of two seminal american proto-punk artists led him to develop a concept that finally found shape in the Ziggy Stardust character : a melt of the character of Iggy Pop with the music of Lou Reed, producing “ the ultimate crop up idol ”. A girlfriend recalled his “ scrawling notes on a cocktail diaper about a crazy rock ‘n’ roll star named Iggy or Ziggy ”, and on his return to England he declared his intention to create a fictional character “ who looks like he ‘s landed from Mars ”. The “ Stardust ” surname was a tribute to the “ legendary Stardust Cowboy “, whose read he was given during the tour. Bowie would later cover “ I Took a Trip on a Gemini Space Ship ” on 2002 ‘s Heathen. Hunky Dory ( 1971 ) found Visconti, Bowie ‘s producer and bassist, supplanted in both roles by Ken Scott and Trevor Bolder, respectively. It again featured a stylistic switch towards art dad and melodious crop up rock. [ 46 ] It featured lighter menu tracks such as “ Kooks “, a song written for his son, Duncan Zowie Haywood Jones, born on 30 May. ( His parents chose “ his balmy appoint ” —he was known as Zowie for the future 12 years—after the greek word zoe, life. ) elsewhere, the album explored more unplayful subjects, and found Bowie paying unusually lineal court to his influences with “ Song for Bob Dylan “, “ Andy Warhol “, and “ Queen Bitch “, the latter a Velvet Underground medley. His first base release through RCA Records, it was a commercial failure, partially due miss of promotion from the label .

1972–1974 : Ziggy Stardust

Dressed in a strike costume, his haircloth dyed red-brown, Bowie launched his Ziggy Stardust stage show with the Spiders from Mars —Ronson, Bolder, and Woodmansey—at the Toby Jug public house in Tolworth in Kingston upon Thames on 10 February 1972. The show was enormously popular, catapulting him to stardom as he toured the UK over the next six months and creating, as described by Buckley, a “ cult of Bowie ” that was “ unique—its influence lasted longer and has been more creative than possibly about any other force within dad fandom. ” The Rise and Fall of Ziggy Stardust and the Spiders from Mars ( 1972 ), combining the hard rock candy elements of The Man Who Sold the World with the lighter experimental rock and pop of Hunky Dory, was released in June and was considered one of the defining albums of glam rock. “ Starman “, issued as an April unmarried ahead of the album, was to cement Bowie ‘s UK discovery : both individual and album charted quickly following his July Top of the Pops operation of the birdcall. The album, which remained in the chart for two years, was soon joined there by the 6-month-old Hunky Dory. At the lapp time, the non-album single “ John, I ‘m only Dancing “, and “ All the Young Dudes “, a song he wrote and produced for Mott the Hoople, [ 54 ] were successful in the UK. The Ziggy Stardust Tour continued to the United States. Bowie contributed backing vocals, keyboards, and guitar to Reed ‘s 1972 solo discovery Transformer, co-producing the album with Mick Ronson. The following class, Bowie co-produced and assorted the Stooges ‘ album Raw Power aboard Iggy Pop. [ 57 ] His own Aladdin Sane ( 1973 ) topped the UK chart, his beginning number-one album. Described by Bowie as “ Ziggy goes to America ”, it contained songs he wrote while travelling to and across the US during the earlier share of the Ziggy tour, which immediately continued to Japan to promote the fresh album. Aladdin Sane spawned the UK top five singles “ The Jean Genie “ and “ Drive-In Saturday “. Bowie ‘s sexual love of acting led to his full submergence in the characters he created for his music. “ offstage I ‘m a automaton. onstage I achieve emotion. It ‘s probably why I prefer dressing up ampere Ziggy to being David. ” With satisfaction came dangerous personal difficulties : acting the same function over an extend period, it became impossible for him to separate Ziggy Stardust—and late, the Thin White Duke—from his own character offstage. Ziggy, Bowie said, “ would n’t leave me alone for years. That was when it all started to go sour … My hale personality was affected. It became very dangerous. I truly did have doubts about my sanity. ” His former Ziggy shows, which included songs from both Ziggy Stardust and Aladdin Sane, were ultra-theatrical affairs filled with shocking degree moments, such as Bowie stripping down to a sumo wrestling loincloth or simulating oral sex with Ronson ‘s guitar. Bowie toured and gave press conferences as Ziggy before a dramatic and abrupt on-stage “ retirement ” at London ‘s Hammersmith Odeon on 3 July 1973. footage from the final examination read was released the lapp year for the movie Ziggy Stardust and the Spiders from Mars .
After breaking up the Spiders from Mars, Bowie attempted to move on from his Ziggy character. His back catalogue was immediately highly sought after : The Man Who Sold the World had been re-released in 1972 along with Space Oddity. “ Life on Mars ? “, from Hunky Dory, was released in June 1973 and peaked at number three on the UK Singles Chart. Entering the like chart in September, Bowie ‘s novelty read from 1967, “ The Laughing Gnome ”, reached number six. Pin Ups, a collection of covers of his 1960s favourites, followed in October, producing a UK count three murder in his adaptation of the McCoys ‘s “ Sorrow “ and itself peaking at issue one, making David Bowie the best-selling act of 1973 in the UK. It brought the sum total of Bowie albums concurrently on the UK chart to six .

1974–1976 : “ plastic soul ” and the Thin White Duke

Bowie filming a video for “ Rebel Rebel “ in 1974 Bowie moved to the US in 1974, initially staying in New York City before settling in Los Angeles. Diamond Dogs ( 1974 ), parts of which found him heading towards soul and flinch, was the product of two distinct ideas : a musical based on a wild future in a post- apocalyptic city, and setting George Orwell ‘s 1984 to music. The album went to number one in the UK, spawning the hits “ Rebel Rebel ” and “ Diamond Dogs “, and numeral five in the US. To promote it, Bowie launched the Diamond Dogs Tour, visiting cities in North America between June and December 1974. Choreographed by Toni Basil, and lavishly produced with theatrical special effects, the high-budget stage production was filmed by Alan Yentob. The leave documentary, Cracked Actor, featured a pasty and emaciated Bowie : the tour coincided with his slide from heavy cocaine manipulation into addiction, producing severe physical debilitation, paranoia, and emotional problems. He late commented that the accompanying live album, David Live, ought to have been titled “ David Bowie Is Alive and Well and Living only in Theory ”. [ 68 ] David Live however solidified Bowie ‘s condition as a ace, charting at total two in the UK and number eight in the US. It besides spawned a UK number ten hit in Bowie ‘s cover of Eddie Floyd ‘s “ Knock on Wood “. After a break in Philadelphia, where Bowie recorded new material, the go resumed with a newfangled emphasis on soul .
The fruit of the Philadelphia commemorate sessions was Young Americans ( 1975 ). Biographer Christopher Sandford writes, “ Over the years, most british rockers had tried, one means or another, to become black-by-extension. Few had succeeded as Bowie did now. ” The album ‘s sound, which Bowie identified as “ plastic soul “, constituted a radical switch in style that initially alienated many of his UK devotees. Young Americans yielded Bowie ‘s foremost US number one, “ Fame “, co-written with John Lennon, who contributed backing vocals, and Carlos Alomar. Lennon called Bowie ‘s employment “ bang-up, but it ‘s just rock’n’roll with lipstick on ”. [ 72 ] Earning the differentiation of being one of the first whiten artists to appear on the US variety show read Soul Train, Bowie mimed “ Fame ”, angstrom well as “ Golden Years “, his November single, which was primitively offered to Elvis Presley, who declined it. Young Americans was a commercial success in both the US and the UK, and a re-issue of the 1969 single “ Space Oddity ” became Bowie ‘s first number-one hit in the UK a few months after “ Fame ” achieved the same in the US. Despite his by immediately well-established superstardom, Bowie, in the words of Sandford, “ for all his record sales ( over a million copies of Ziggy Stardust alone ), existed basically on loosen change. ” In 1975, in a be active echoing Ken Pitt ‘s acrimonious dismissal five years earlier, Bowie fired his director. At the climax of the ensuing months-long legal dispute, he watched, as described by Sandford, “ millions of dollars of his future earnings being surrendered ” in what were “ uniquely generous terms for Defries ”, then “ shut himself up in West twentieth Street, where for a workweek his howl could be heard through the locked attic door. ” Michael Lippman, Bowie ‘s lawyer during the negotiations, became his newfangled director ; Lippman, in turn, was awarded solid compensation when Bowie fired him the surveil year .
[77] performs with Cher, 1975 Bowie, making his u television receiver debut, performs with Cher on the variety usher, 1975 Station to Station ( 1976 ), produced by Bowie and Harry Maslin, [ 78 ] introduced a modern Bowie character, “ The Thin White Duke “ of its title-track. visually, the character was an extension of Thomas Jerome Newton, the extraterrestrial being he portrayed in the film The Man Who Fell to Earth the same class. Developing the funk and soul of Young Americans, Station to Station’ s synthesizer-heavy arrangements prefigured the krautrock -influenced music of his future releases. The extent to which drug addiction was nowadays affecting Bowie was made public when Russell Harty interviewed him for his London Weekend Television talk usher in prediction of the album ‘s supporting go. curtly before the satellite-linked interview was scheduled to commence, the death of the spanish dictator Francisco Franco was announced. Bowie was asked to relinquish the satellite engagement, to allow the spanish Government to put out a live newsfeed. This he refused to do, and his interview went ahead. In the ensuing drawn-out conversation with Harty, Bowie was incoherent and looked “ disconnected ”. His sanity—by his own former admission—had become flex from cocaine ; he overdosed respective times during the year and was withering physically to an alarming degree. Station to Station ‘s January 1976 release was followed in February by a 31/2-month-long concert go of Europe and North America. Featuring a starkly lighted set, the Isolar – 1976 Tour with its color newspaper Isolar concert broadcast, highlighted songs from the album, including the dramatic and drawn-out entitle track, the ballads “ Wild Is the Wind “ and “ Word on a Wing “, and the funkier “ TVC 15 “ and “ Stay “. The core band that coalesced to record this album and tour—rhythm guitarist Carlos Alomar, bassist George Murray, and drummer Dennis Davis —continued as a stable unit for the remainder of the 1970s. The tour was highly successful but grind to a halt in political controversy. Bowie was quoted in Stockholm as saying that “ Britain could benefit from a fascist drawing card ”, and was detained by customs on the Russian/Polish border for possessing Nazi gear .
Matters came to a promontory in London in May in what became known as the “ Victoria Station incident ”. Arriving in an open-top Mercedes convertible, Bowie waved to the herd in a gesture that some alleged was a Nazi salute, which was captured on television camera and published in NME. Bowie said the photographer caught him in mid-wave. [ 83 ] He later blamed his pro-fascism comments and his behavior during the period on his addictions and the character of the Thin White Duke. “ I was out of my judgment, wholly crazed. The chief thing I was functioning on was mythology … that solid thing about Hitler and Rightism … I ‘d discovered King Arthur “. According to dramatist Alan Franks, writing later in The Times, “ he was indeed ‘deranged ‘. He had some very bad experiences with hard drugs. ” Bowie ‘s cocaine addiction, which had motivated these controversies, had much to do with his time exist in Los Angeles, a city which alienated him. Discussing his flirtations with fascism in a 1980 interview with NME, Bowie explained that Los Angeles was “ where it had all happened. The sleep together identify should be wiped off the face of the Earth. To be anything to do with rock and paradiddle and go and live in Los Angeles is, I think, equitable heading for disaster. It truly is. ” [ 86 ] After recovering from addiction, Bowie apologised for these statements, and throughout the 1980s and ’90s criticised racism in european politics and the american music diligence. [ 87 ] Nevertheless, Bowie ‘s comments on fascism, vitamin a well as Eric Clapton ‘s alcohol-fuelled denunciations of Pakistani immigrants in 1976, led to the establishment of Rock Against Racism. [ 88 ]

1976–1979 : Berlin era

apartment build up at Hauptstraße 155, Schöneberg, Berlin, where Bowie lived from 1976 to 1978 Before the end of 1976, Bowie ‘s interest in the burgeon german music scenery, vitamin a well as his drug addiction, prompted him to move to West Berlin to clean up and revitalise his career. There he was much seen riding a bicycle between his apartment on Hauptstraße in Schöneberg and Hansa Tonstudio, the record studio he used, located on Köthener Straße in Kreuzberg, near the Berlin Wall. [ 89 ] While working with Brian Eno and sharing an apartment with Iggy Pop, he began to focus on minimalist, ambient music for the first of three albums, co-produced with Tony Visconti, that became known as the Berlin Trilogy. During the same period, Iggy Pop, with Bowie as a co-writer and musician, completed his solo album debut The Idiot and its follow-up Lust for Life, touring the UK, Europe, and the US in March and April 1977. [ 91 ]
Bowie performing in Oslo, Norway, 1978 The album Low ( 1977 ), partially influenced by the Krautrock heavy of Kraftwerk and Neu !, evinced a move away from narration in Bowie ‘s songwriting to a more abstract musical shape in which lyrics were sporadic and optional. Although he completed the album in November 1976, it took his changeable record ship’s company another three months to release it. It received considerable veto criticism upon its release—a spill which RCA, anxious to maintain the established commercial momentum, did not welcome, [ 93 ] and which Bowie ‘s erstwhile director, Tony Defries, who maintained a significant fiscal concern in Bowie ‘s affairs, tried to prevent. Despite these forebodings, Low yielded the UK total three single “ Sound and Vision “, and its own performance surpassed that of Station to Station in the UK chart, where it reached count two. contemporary composer Philip Glass described Low as “ a workplace of brilliance ” in 1992, when he used it as the basis for his Symphony No. 1 “Low” ; subsequently, Glass used Bowie ‘s adjacent album as the basis for his 1996 Symphony No. 4 “Heroes”. Glass has praised Bowie ‘s give for creating “ fairly complex pieces of music, masquerading as simple pieces ”. besides in 1977, London released Starting Point, a ten-song LP hold releases from Bowie ‘s Deram period ( 1966–67 ). [ 99 ]
Echoing Low ‘s minimalist, implemental approach, the second of the trilogy, “Heroes” ( 1977 ), incorporated pop and rock to a greater extent, seeing Bowie joined by guitarist Robert Fripp. Like Low, “Heroes” evinced the zeitgeist of the Cold War, symbolised by the divided city of Berlin. Incorporating ambient sounds from a assortment of sources including white noise generators, synthesisers and koto, the album was another hit, reaching total three in the UK. Its title-track, though only reaching phone number 24 in the UK singles graph, gained survive popularity, and within months had been released in both german and french. Towards the end of the year, Bowie performed the song for Marc Bolan ‘s television show Marc, and again two days late for Bing Crosby ‘s final examination CBS television receiver Christmas particular, when he joined Crosby in “ Peace on Earth/Little Drummer Boy “, a translation of “ The Little Drummer Boy “ with a new, contrapuntal verse. Five years late, the duet proved a global seasonal hit, charting in the UK at total three on Christmas Day, 1982. [ 102 ] After completing Low and “Heroes”, Bowie spent a lot of 1978 on the Isolar II earth tour, bringing the music of the foremost two Berlin Trilogy albums to about a million people during 70 concerts in 12 countries. By now he had broken his drug addiction ; biographer David Buckley writes that Isolar II was “ Bowie ‘s first enlistment for five years in which he had probably not anaesthetised himself with ample quantities of cocaine before taking the stage. … Without the oblivion that drugs had brought, he was now in a healthy enough mental condition to want to make friends. ” Recordings from the tour made up the live album Stage, released the lapp year. Bowie besides recorded narrative for an adaptation of Sergei Prokofiev ‘s authoritative composition Peter and the Wolf, which was released as an album in May 1978. [ 105 ] The final piece in what Bowie called his “ triptych “, Lodger ( 1979 ), eschewed the minimalist, ambient nature of the other two, making a overtone return to the drum- and guitar-based rock and popular of his pre-Berlin era. The result was a complex concoction of new beckon and earth music, in places incorporating Hijaz non-Western scales. Some tracks were composed using Eno and Peter Schmidt ‘s Oblique Strategies cards : “ Boys Keep Swinging ” entailed band members swapping instruments, “ move On ” used the chords from Bowie ‘s early constitution “ All the Young Dudes ” played backwards, and “ crimson money ” took backing tracks from “ Sister Midnight ”, a man previously composed with Iggy Pop. The album was recorded in Switzerland. Ahead of its release, RCA ‘s Mel Ilberman stated, “ It would be fair to call it Bowie ‘s Sergeant Pepper … a concept album that portrays the Lodger as a homeless spider, shunned and victimized by liveliness ‘s pressures and engineering. ” As described by biographer Christopher Sandford, “ The record dashed such high hopes with dubious choices, and production that spelt the end—for fifteen years—of Bowie ‘s partnership with Eno. ” Lodger reached act four in the UK and count 20 in the US, and yielded the UK hit singles “ Boys Keep Swinging “ and “ DJ “. Towards the end of the class, Bowie and Angie initiated divorce proceedings, and after months of court battles the marriage was ended in early on 1980 .

1980–1988 : New Romantic and pop era

Scary Monsters (and Super Creeps) ( 1980 ) produced the number-one hit “ Ashes to Ashes “, featuring the textural knead of guitar-synthesist Chuck Hammer and revisiting the character of major Tom from “ Space Oddity ”. The birdcall gave external photograph to the metro New Romantic movement when Bowie visited the London club “ Blitz ” —the main New Romantic hangout—to recruit several of the regulars ( including Steve Strange of the band Visage ) to act in the accompanying video, renowned as one of the most advanced of all clock time. While Scary Monsters used principles established by the Berlin albums, it was considered by critics to be far more direct musically and lyrically. The album ‘s arduous rock edge included conspicuous guitar contributions from Robert Fripp, Chuck Hammer, and Pete Townshend. As “ Ashes to Ashes ” hit count one on the UK charts, Bowie opened a five-month run on Broadway on 29 July, starring as John Merrick in The Elephant Man. Bowie paired with Queen in 1981 for a one-off individual spill, “ Under coerce “. The pas de deux was a strike, becoming Bowie ‘s third UK number-one individual. [ 115 ] Bowie was given the lead function in the BBC ‘s 1982 telecast adaptation of Bertolt Brecht ‘s play Baal. Coinciding with its transmission, a five-track EP of songs from the play, recorded earlier in Berlin, was released as David Bowie in Bertolt Brecht’s Baal. In March 1982, the calendar month before Paul Schrader ‘s film Cat People came out, Bowie ‘s entitle song, “ big cat People ( Putting Out Fire ) “, was released as a single, becoming a child US hit and entering the UK Top 30. Bowie reached his peak of popularity and commercial success in 1983 with Let’s Dance. [ 117 ] Co-produced by Chic ‘s Nile Rodgers, the album went platinum in both the UK and the US. Its three singles became top 20 hits in both countries, where its title track reached phone number one. “ Modern Love “ and “ China Girl “ each made number two in the UK, accompanied by a pair of “ absorbing ” promotional videos that biographer David Buckley said “ activated key archetypes in the dad world. ‘Let ‘s Dance ‘, with its short narrative surrounding the youthful Aborigine couple, targeted ‘youth ‘, and ‘China Girl ‘, with its bare-bummed ( and late partially censored ) beach lovemaking scene ( a court to the film From Here to Eternity ), was sufficiently sexually provocative to guarantee heavy rotation on MTV ”. Stevie Ray Vaughan was a guest guitarist playing solo on “ Let ‘s Dance ”, although the television depicts Bowie miming this contribution. [ 119 ] By 1983, Bowie had emerged as one of the most significant video artists of the day. Let’s Dance was followed by the Serious Moonlight Tour, during which Bowie was accompanied by guitarist Earl Slick and back vocalists Frank and George Simms. The populace go lasted six months and was extremely democratic. At the 1984 MTV Video Music Awards Bowie received two awards including the inauguration Video Vanguard Award. [ 121 ]
Tonight ( 1984 ), another dance-oriented album, found Bowie collaborating with Tina Turner and, once again, Iggy Pop. It included a numeral of cover songs, among them the 1966 Beach Boys hit “ God entirely Knows “. The album bore the transatlantic Top 10 hit “ Blue Jean “, itself the inspiration for a short film that won Bowie a Grammy Award for Best Short Form Music Video, Jazzin’ for Blue Jean. Bowie performed at Wembley Stadium in 1985 for Live Aid, a multi-venue benefit concert for ethiopian dearth relief. [ 122 ] During the event, the video for a fund-raise single was premiered, Bowie ‘s duet with Mick Jagger. “ Dancing in the Street “ cursorily went to number one on passing. The same year, Bowie worked with the Pat Metheny Group to record “ This Is not America “ for the soundtrack of The Falcon and the Snowman. Released as a one, the sung became a top 40 hit in the UK and US. Bowie was given a role in the 1986 film Absolute Beginners. It was ailing received by critics, but Bowie ‘s subject sung, besides named “ Absolute Beginners “, rose to number two in the UK charts. He besides appeared as Jareth, the Goblin King, in the 1986 Jim Henson film Labyrinth, for which he worked with composer Trevor Jones and wrote five original songs. [ 124 ] His final solo album of the ten was 1987 ‘s Never Let Me Down, where he ditched the light sound of his former two albums, rather offering harder rock candy with an industrial / techno dance edge. Peaking at number six in the UK, the album yielded the hits “ Day-In, Day-Out “, “ Time Will Crawl “, and “ Never Let Me Down “. Bowie late described it as his “ nadir ”, calling it “ an awful album ”. [ 125 ] Supporting Never Let Me Down, and preceded by nine promotional press shows, the 86-concert Glass Spider Tour commenced on 30 May. Bowie ‘s support band included Peter Frampton on lead guitar. contemporary critics maligned the go as overproduce, saying it pandered to the current stadium rock trends in its special effects and dance, [ 126 ] although in late years critics acknowledged the tour ‘s strengths and influence on concert tours by early artists, such as Britney Spears, Madonna, and U2. [ 127 ] [ 128 ] [ 129 ] [ 130 ]

1989–1991 : Tin machine

Bowie shelved his solo career in 1989, retreating to the proportional anonymity of band membership for the foremost time since the early 1970s. A hard-rocking quartet, Tin Machine came into being after Bowie began to work experimentally with guitarist Reeves Gabrels. The line-up was completed by Tony and Hunt Sales, whom Bowie had known since the deep 1970s for their contribution, on bass and drums respectively, to Iggy Pop ‘s 1977 album Lust for Life .
Although he intended Tin Machine to operate as a majority rule, Bowie dominated, both in songwriting and in decision-making. The band ‘s album debut, Tin Machine ( 1989 ), was initially popular, though its politicize lyrics did not find universal blessing : Bowie described one birdcall as “ a simplistic, uninstructed, revolutionary, laying-it-down about the emergence of Neo-Nazis “ ; in the scene of biographer Christopher Sandford, “ It took boldness to denounce drugs, fascism and television … in terms that reached the literary degree of a comedian book. ” EMI complained of “ lyrics that preach ” a well as “ insistent tunes ” and “ minimalist or no production ”. The album however reached number three and went amber in the UK. Tin Machine ‘s first worldly concern tour was a commercial achiever, but there was growing reluctance—among fans and critics alike—to accept Bowie ‘s presentation as merely a band extremity. A serial of Tin Machine singles failed to chart, and Bowie, after a disagreement with EMI, left the label. Like his consultation and his critics, Bowie himself became increasingly disaffected with his character as just one penis of a band. Tin Machine began work on a second base album, but Bowie put the speculation on hold and made a rejoinder to solo study. [ 138 ] Performing his early hits during the seven-month Sound+Vision Tour, he found commercial success and applaud once again. In October 1990, a decade after his divorce from Angie, Bowie and Somali -born supermodel Iman were introduced by a common friend. Bowie recalled, “ I was naming the children the night we met … it was absolutely immediate. ” They married in 1992. Tin Machine resumed work the like month, but their consultation and critics, ultimately left disappointed by the foremost album, showed little matter to in a irregular. Tin Machine II ‘s arrival was marked by a widely publicised and ill-timed dispute over the binding art : after product had begun, the new phonograph record label, Victory, deemed the delineation of four ancient nude Kouroi statues, judged by Bowie to be “ in dainty sample ”, to be “ a read of wrong, lewd images ”, requiring air-brushing and piece to render the figures sexless. Tin Machine toured again, but after the alive album Tin Machine Live: Oy Vey, Baby failed commercially, the band drifted apart, and Bowie, though he continued to collaborate with Gabrels, resumed his solo career .

1992–1998 : electronic period

On 20 April 1992, Bowie appeared at The Freddie Mercury Tribute Concert, following the Queen singer ‘s death the former year. As well as performing “ ‘Heroes ‘ ” and “ All the Young Dudes ”, he was joined on “ Under pressure ” by Annie Lennox, who took Mercury ‘s vocal separate ; during his appearance, Bowie knelt and recited the Lord ‘s Prayer at Wembley Stadium. [ 144 ] Four days later, Bowie and Iman were married in Switzerland. Intending to move to Los Angeles, they flew in to search for a desirable property, but found themselves confined to their hotel, under curfew : the 1992 Los Angeles riots began the sidereal day they arrived. They settled in New York alternatively .
Bowie performing in Turku, Finland, 1997 In 1993, Bowie released his first alone offer since his Tin Machine departure, the soul, jazz, and hip-hop determine Black Tie White Noise. Making big function of electronic instruments, the album, which reunited Bowie with Let’s Dance producer Nile Rodgers, confirmed Bowie ‘s render to popularity, hitting the number-one smudge on the UK charts and spawning three top 40 hits, including the top 10 single “ Jump They Say “. Bowie explored new directions on The Buddha of Suburbia ( 1993 ), apparently a soundtrack album of his music composed for the BBC television adaptation of Hanif Kureishi ‘s novel. alone the style track had been used in the television adaptation, although some of his themes for it were besides award on the album. [ 147 ] It contained some of the new elements introduced in Black Tie White Noise, and besides signalled a act towards alternate rock ‘n’ roll. The album was a critical success but received a low-key liberation and only made numeral 87 in the UK charts. Reuniting Bowie with Eno, the quasi-industrial Outside ( 1995 ) was originally conceived as the first bulk in a non-linear narrative of artwork and murder. Featuring characters from a short-circuit story written by Bowie, the album achieved UK and US chart success and yielded three Top 40 UK singles. In a motivate that provoked blend reactions from both fans and critics, Bowie chose Nine Inch Nails as his go spouse for the Outside Tour. Visiting cities in Europe and North America between September 1995 and February 1996, the tour saw the come back of Gabrels as Bowie ‘s guitarist. On 7 January 1997, Bowie celebrated his one-half hundred with a fiftieth birthday concert at Madison Square Garden, New York, at which he was joined in playing his songs and those of his guests, Lou Reed, Dave Grohl and the Foo Fighters, Robert Smith of the Cure, Billy Corgan of the Smashing Pumpkins, Black Francis of the Pixies, and Sonic Youth. [ 151 ] Bowie was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame on 17 January 1996. [ 152 ] Incorporating experiments in british hobo camp and drum ‘n ‘ bass, Earthling ( 1997 ) was a critical and commercial success in the UK and the US, and two singles from the album – “ Little Wonder “ and “ dead Man Walking “ – became UK Top 40 hits. Bowie ‘s birdcall “ I ‘m afraid of Americans “ from the Paul Verhoeven film Showgirls was re-recorded for the album, and remixed by Trent Reznor for a unmarried secrete. The heavy rotation of the accompanying video, besides featuring Trent Reznor, contributed to the song ‘s 16-week stay in the US Billboard Hot 100. Reznor besides administrator produced the Lost Highway soundtrack ( 1997 ) which begins and ends with unlike mixes of Bowie ‘s Outside song “ I ‘m unbalance “. [ 153 ] Bowie received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame on 12 February 1997. [ 154 ] The Earthling Tour took place in Europe and North America between June and November 1997. In November 1997, Bowie performed on the BBC ‘s Children in Need charity unmarried “ Perfect Day “, which reached number one in the UK. [ 156 ] Bowie reunited with Visconti in 1998 to record “ ( safe in This ) Sky Life ” for The Rugrats Movie. Although the track was edited out of the final examination cut, it was later re-recorded and released as “ safe ” on the B-side of Bowie ‘s 2002 single “ Everyone Says ‘Hi ‘ “. The reunion led to other collaborations including a limited-edition individual unblock version of Placebo ‘s track “ Without You I ‘m Nothing “, co-produced by Visconti, with Bowie ‘s harmonize vocal added to the master recording .

1999–2012 : neoclassicist era

Bowie, with Gabrels, created the soundtrack for Omikron: The Nomad Soul, a 1999 computer game in which he and Iman besides voiced characters based on their likenesses. Released the like year and containing re-recorded tracks from Omikron, his album Hours featured a sung with lyrics by the winner of his “ Cyber Song Contest ” Internet contest, Alex Grant. Making across-the-board consumption of live instruments, the album was Bowie ‘s exit from clayey electronica. Hours and a performance on VH1 Storytellers in mid-1999 represented the end of Gabrels ‘ association with Bowie as a performer and songwriter. [ 161 ] Sessions for the planned album Toy, intended to feature new versions of some of Bowie ‘s earliest pieces deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as three new songs, commenced in 2000, but the album was never released. Bowie and Visconti continued their collaboration, producing a new album of completely original songs alternatively : the resultant role of the sessions was the 2002 album Heathen. On 25 June 2000, Bowie made his second appearance at the Glastonbury Festival in England, playing 30 years after his beginning. [ 163 ] The performance was released as a posthumous live album in November 2018. [ 164 ] On 27 June, Bowie performed a concert at BBC Radio Theatre in London, which was released in the compilation album Bowie at the Beeb, which besides featured BBC recording sessions from 1968 to 1972. Bowie and Iman ‘s daughter was born on 15 August. His interest in Buddhism led him to support the Tibetan cause by performing at the February 2001 and February 2003 concerts to support Tibet House US at Carnegie Hall in New York. [ 167 ] [ 168 ] [ 169 ]
Bowie performing in Dublin, Ireland in November 2003 during the A Reality Tour —his final tour before his 2006 retirement from touring. In October 2001, Bowie opened the Concert for New York City, a charity event to benefit the victims of the September 11 attacks, with a minimalist operation of Simon & Garfunkel ‘s “ America “, followed by a full ring performance of “ ‘Heroes ‘ ”. 2002 saw the unblock of Heathen, and, during the second half of the year, the Heathen Tour. Taking place in Europe and North America, the enlistment opened at London ‘s annual Meltdown festival, for which Bowie was that year appointed artistic conductor. Among the acts he selected for the festival were Philip Glass, Television, and the Dandy Warhols. angstrom well as songs from the new album, the tour featured material from Bowie ‘s Low earned run average. Reality ( 2003 ) followed, and its attach to earth enlistment, the A Reality Tour, with an calculate attendance of 722,000, grossed more than any other in 2004. On 13 June, Bowie headlined the last night of the Isle of Wight Festival 2004, his final be show in the UK. [ 172 ] On 25 June, he suffered chest pain while performing at the Hurricane Festival in Scheeßel, Germany. primitively thought to be a pinch steel in his shoulder, the annoyance was late diagnosed as an acutely barricade coronary thrombosis artery, requiring an hand brake angioplasty in Hamburg. The remaining 14 dates of the tour were cancelled. In the years following his convalescence from the heart fire, Bowie reduced his musical output signal, making lone one-off appearances on stage and in the studio apartment. He sang in a duet of his 1971 birdcall “ Changes “ with Butterfly Boucher for the 2004 animated film Shrek 2. During a relatively quiet 2005, he recorded the vocals for the song “ ( She Can ) Do That ”, co-written with Brian Transeau, for the film Stealth. He returned to the stage on 8 September 2005, appearing with Arcade Fire for the US nationally televised event fashion Rocks, and performed with the canadian band for the second clock a workweek later during the CMJ Music Marathon. He contributed backing vocals on television on the Radio ‘s sung “ province ” for their album Return to Cookie Mountain, [ 177 ] and joined with Lou Reed on Danish alt-rockers Kashmir ‘s 2005 album No Balance Palace. [ 178 ]
Moon, 2009 bowie with his son Duncan Jones at the premiere of Jones ‘s directorial debut, 2009 Bowie was awarded the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award on 8 February 2006. In April, he announced, “ I ‘m taking a year off—no tour, no albums. ” [ 180 ] He made a storm guest appearance at David Gilmour ‘s 29 May concert at the Royal Albert Hall in London. The consequence was recorded, and a selection of songs on which he had contributed joint vocals were subsequently released. [ 181 ] He performed again in November, aboard Alicia Keys, at the Black Ball, a benefit event for Keep a Child Alive at the Hammerstein Ballroom in New York. [ 182 ] [ 183 ] The performance marked the last time Bowie performed his music on stage. [ 184 ] Bowie was chosen to curate the 2007 High Line Festival, selecting musicians and artists for the Manhattan consequence, including electronic dad couple AIR, surrealist photographer Claude Cahun, and English comedian Ricky Gervais. [ 186 ] Bowie performed on Scarlett Johansson ‘s 2008 album of Tom Waits covers, Anywhere I Lay My Head. [ 187 ] In June 2008 a live album was released of a Ziggy Stardust-era concert from 1972. [ 188 ] On the fortieth anniversary of the July 1969 moonlight landing —and Bowie ‘s accompanying commercial discovery with “ Space Oddity ” —EMI released the person tracks from the original eight-track studio apartment recording of the song, in a 2009 contest inviting members of the public to create a remix. [ 189 ] A Reality Tour, a double album of live material from the 2003 concert tour, was released in January 2010. [ 190 ] In late March 2011, Toy, Bowie ‘s previously unreleased album from 2001, was leaked onto the internet, containing material used for Heathen and most of its single B-sides, deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as unheard newfangled versions of his early back catalogue. [ 191 ] [ 192 ]

2013–2016 : Final years

On 8 January 2013, his 66th birthday, his web site announced a modern album, to be titled The Next Day and scheduled for free in March. [ 193 ] Bowie ‘s first studio album in a ten, The Next Day contains 14 songs plus 3 bonus tracks. [ 194 ] [ 195 ] His web site acknowledged the length of his suspension. [ 196 ] Producer and longtime collaborator Tony Visconti said 29 tracks were recorded for the album, some of which could appear on Bowie ‘s next record, which he might start solve on later in 2013. The announcement was accompanied by the immediate release of a single, “ Where Are We nowadays ? “, written and recorded by Bowie in New York and produced by Visconti. [ 196 ] A music video for “ Where Are We now ? ” was released onto Vimeo the lapp day, directed by New York artist Tony Oursler. [ 196 ] The unmarried topped the UK iTunes Chart within hours of its free, [ 197 ] and debuted in the UK Singles Chart at number six, [ 198 ] his first individual to enter the top 10 for two decades ( since “ Jump They Say ” in 1993 ). A second video, “ The Stars ( Are Out Tonight ) ”, was released 25 February. Directed by Floria Sigismondi, it stars Bowie and Tilda Swinton as a marry couple. [ 199 ] On 1 March, the album was made available to stream for free through iTunes. [ 200 ] The Next Day debuted at number one on the UK Albums Chart, was his first album to achieve that position since Black Tie White Noise ( 1993 ), and was the fastest-selling album of 2013 at the clock time. [ 201 ] The music video for the song “ The next Day “ created some controversy, initially being removed from YouTube for terms-of-service misdemeanor, then restored with a warning recommending viewing entirely by those 18 or over. [ 202 ] According to The Times, Bowie ruled out ever giving an interview again. [ 203 ] late in 2013, Bowie was featured in a cameo song in the Arcade Fire sung “ Reflektor ”. [ 204 ] A poll carried out by BBC History Magazine, in October 2013, named Bowie as the best-dressed Briton in history. [ 205 ] In mid-2014, Bowie was diagnosed with liver cancer, a diagnosis he kept private. [ 206 ] New information was released in September 2014 regarding his future compilation album, Nothing Has Changed, which was released in November. The album featured rare tracks and old fabric from his catalog in addition to a fresh sung titled “ Sue ( Or in a Season of Crime ) “. [ 207 ] In May 2015, “ Let ‘s Dance ” was announced to be reissued as a scandalmongering vinyl individual on 16 July 2015 in conjunction with the David Bowie Is exhibition at the Australian Centre for the Moving Image in Melbourne, Australia. [ 208 ] In August 2015, it was announced that Bowie was writing songs for a Broadway musical based on the SpongeBob SquarePants cartoon series. [ 209 ] Bowie wrote and recorded the opening title song to the television serial The Last Panthers, which aired in November 2015. [ 210 ] The root that was used for The Last Panthers was besides the title cut for his January 2016 release Blackstar which is said to take cues from his earlier krautrock-influenced work. [ 211 ] According to The Times : “ Blackstar may be the oddest work yet from Bowie ”. [ 212 ] On 7 December 2015, Bowie ‘s musical Lazarus debuted in New York. His final public appearance was at opening night of the production. [ 213 ] Blackstar was released on 8 January 2016, Bowie ‘s 69th birthday, and was met with critical applaud. [ 214 ] Following his end on 10 January, Visconti revealed that Bowie had planned the album to be his swan song, and a “ separate give ” for his fans before his death. [ 215 ] several reporters and critics subsequently noted that most of the lyrics on the album seem to revolve around his impending death, [ 216 ] with CNN noting that the album “ reveals a man who appears to be grappling with his own deathrate ”. [ 217 ] Visconti by and by said that Bowie had been planning a post- Blackstar album, and had written and recorded demonstration versions of five songs in his final examination weeks, suggesting that Bowie believed he had a few months left. [ 218 ] The day following his death, online screening of Bowie ‘s music skyrocketed, breaking the record for Vevo ‘s most view artist in a single sidereal day. [ 219 ] On 15 January, Blackstar debuted at phone number one on the UK Albums Chart ; nineteen of his albums were in the UK Top 100 Albums Chart, and thirteen singles were in the UK Top 100 Singles Chart. [ 220 ] [ 221 ] Blackstar besides debuted at number one on album charts around the worldly concern, including Australia, France, Germany, Italy, New Zealand, and the US Billboard 200. [ 222 ] [ 223 ]

2016–present : posthumous releases

In September 2016 a corner set was released covering Bowie ‘s mid-70s soul period, including The Gouster, a previously unreleased 1974 album. [ 224 ] An EP, No Plan, was released on 8 January 2017, which would have been Bowie ‘s seventieth birthday. [ 225 ] Apart from “ Lazarus ”, the EP includes three songs that Bowie recorded during the Blackstar sessions, but were left off the album and appeared on the soundtrack album for the Lazarus musical in October 2016. [ 226 ] A music video recording for the deed track was besides released. [ 226 ] 2017 and 2018 besides saw the acquittance of a series of posthumous survive albums, covering the Diamond Dogs enlistment of 1974, the Isolar tour of 1976 and the Isolar II tour of 1978. [ 227 ] [ 228 ] [ 229 ] In the two years following his death, Bowie sold 5 million records in the UK alone. [ 230 ] In their top 10 tilt for the Global Recording Artist of the class, the International Federation of the Phonographic Industry named Bowie the second-bestselling artist cosmopolitan in 2016, behind Drake. [ 231 ] At the 59th Annual Grammy Awards on 12 February 2017, Bowie won all five nominated awards : Best Rock Performance ; Best Alternative Music Album ; Best Engineered Album, Non-Classical ; Best Recording Package ; and Best Rock Song. They were Bowie ‘s first Grammy wins in musical categories. [ 232 ] On 8 January 2020, on what would have been Bowie ‘s 73rd birthday, a previously unreleased version of “ The man Who Sold the World ” was released and two releases were announced : a streaming-only EP, Is It Any Wonder?, and an album, CHANGESNOWBOWIE, released in November 2020 for Record Store Day. [ 233 ] In August 2020, another series of be shows were released, including sets from Dallas in 1995 and Paris in 1999. [ 234 ] These and early shows, contribution of a series of survive concerts spanning his go from 1995 to 1999, was released in late 2020 and early 2021 as part of the box set Brilliant Live Adventures. [ 235 ] In September 2021, Bowie ‘s estate signed a distribution deal with Warner Music Group, beginning in 2023, covering Bowie ‘s recordings from 2000 through 2016. [ 236 ] Bowie ‘s album Toy recorded in 2001, is set to release on what would have been Bowie ‘s seventy-fifth birthday in early 2022. [ 237 ]

Acting career

While constantly primarily a musician, Bowie took acting roles throughout his career, appearing in over 30 films, television shows and theatrical productions. Bowie ‘s acting career was “ productively selective, ” largely eschewing starring roles for cameo and supporting parts. [ 238 ] [ 239 ] many critics have observed that, had Bowie not chosen to pursue music, he could have found capital success as an actor. [ 240 ] [ 241 ] other critics have noted that, while his screen presence was singular, his best contributions to film were the habit of his songs in films such as Lost Highway, A Knight’s Tale, The Life Aquatic with Steve Zissou and Inglourious Basterds. [ 242 ] [ 243 ]

1960s and 1970s

The beginnings of Bowie ‘s acting career predate his commercial breakthrough as a musician. Studying avant-garde theater and mimic under Lindsay Kemp, he was given the function of Cloud in Kemp ‘s 1967 theatrical production Pierrot in Turquoise ( former made into the 1970 television film The Looking Glass Murders ). Bowie filmed a walk-on role for the BBC play series Theater 625 that aired in May 1968. In the black-and-white short The Image ( 1969 ), he played a apparitional boy who emerges from a trouble artist ‘s paint to haunt him. The same year, the film of Leslie Thomas ‘s 1966 amusing fresh The Virgin Soldiers saw Bowie make a brief appearance as an extra. In 1976, Bowie earned acclaim for his first major film function, portraying Thomas Jerome Newton, an stranger from a dying satellite, in The Man Who Fell to Earth, directed by Nicolas Roeg. [ 247 ] He late admitted that his dangerous cocaine use during the film ‘s production left him in such a delicate state of judgment that he barely understood the film. [ 248 ] Just a Gigolo ( 1979 ), an Anglo-German co-production directed by David Hemmings, saw Bowie in the lead role as prussian officer Paul von Przygodski, who, returning from World War I, is discovered by a Baroness ( Marlene Dietrich ) and put into her gigolo stable. The film was a critical and commercial bombard, and Bowie late expressed embarrassment at his function in it. [ 250 ]


Bowie played Joseph Merrick in the Broadway dramaturgy production The Elephant Man, which he undertook wearing no stage constitution, and which earned high praise for his expressive performance. He played the partially 157 times between 1980 and 1981. Christiane F. – We Children from Bahnhof Zoo, a 1981 biographic film focusing on a young female child ‘s drug addiction in West Berlin, featured Bowie in a cameo appearance as himself at a concert in Germany. Its soundtrack album, Christiane F. ( 1981 ), featured much material from his Berlin Trilogy albums. In 1982, he starred in the titular role in a BBC adaptation of the Bertolt Brecht play Baal. [ 252 ] Bowie portrayed a vampire in Tony Scott ‘s erotic horror film The Hunger ( 1983 ), with Catherine Deneuve and Susan Sarandon. [ 253 ] In Nagisa Oshima ‘s film the lapp year, Merry Christmas, Mr. Lawrence, based on Laurens van five hundred Post ‘s novel The Seed and the Sower, Bowie played Major Jack Celliers, a prisoner of war in a japanese internment camp. [ 254 ] Bowie had a cameo in Yellowbeard, a 1983 commandeer comedy created by Monty Python members and directed by Mel Damski. [ 255 ] To promote the unmarried “ Blue Jean “, Bowie filmed the 21 minute short film Jazzin’ for Blue Jean ( 1984 ) with film director Julien Temple, and played the double roles of romantic supporter Vic and arrogant rock leading Screaming Lord Byron. [ 256 ] The short gain Bowie his alone non-posthumous Grammy award. [ 257 ] Bowie had a load-bearing function as gunman Colin in the 1985 John Landis film Into the Night. [ 258 ] He declined to play the villain Max Zorin in the James Bond film A View to a Kill ( 1985 ). Bowie reteamed with Temple for Absolute Beginners ( 1986 ), a rock ‘n’ roll musical film adapted from Colin MacInnes ‘s ledger of the like name about life in late 1950s London, in a defend function as ad man Vendice Partners. [ 260 ] The like year, Jim Henson ‘s dark musical fantasy Labyrinth cast him as Jareth, the nefarious Goblin King. Despite initial poor box office, the film grew in popularity and became a cult film. [ 262 ] Two years subsequently, he played Pontius Pilate in Martin Scorsese ‘s critically acclaim biblical epic poem The Last Temptation of Christ ( 1988 ). [ 263 ]


In 1991, Bowie reteamed with film director John Landis for an episode of the HBO situation comedy Dream On [ 264 ] and played a disgruntle restaurant employee opposite Rosanna Arquette in The Linguini Incident. [ 265 ] Bowie portrayed the cryptic FBI agent Phillip Jeffries in David Lynch ‘s Twin Peaks: Fire Walk with Me ( 1992 ). The prequel to the television series was ill received at the clock time of its liberation, but has since been critically reevaluated. [ 266 ] He took a small but pivotal character as his supporter Andy Warhol in Basquiat, artist/director Julian Schnabel ‘s 1996 biopic of Jean-Michel Basquiat, another artist he considered a friend and colleague. [ 267 ] Bowie co-star in Giovanni Veronesi ‘s Spaghetti Western Il Mio West ( 1998, released as Gunslinger’s Revenge in the US in 2005 ) as the most fear gunfighter in the region. He played the aging gangster Bernie in Andrew Goth ‘s Everybody Loves Sunshine ( 1999, released in the US as B.U.S.T.E.D. ), [ 269 ] and appeared as the host in the irregular season of the television repugnance anthology series The Hunger. Despite having respective episodes which focus on vampires and Bowie ‘s participation, the show had no plot connection to the 1983 film of the lapp name. [ 270 ] In 1999, Bowie voiced two characters in the Sega Dreamcast bet on Omikron: The Nomad Soul, his only appearance in a video recording crippled. [ 271 ]

2000s and posthumous notes

In Mr. Rice’s Secret ( 2000 ), Bowie played the title function as the neighbor of a terminally ill 12-year-old. [ 272 ] Bowie appeared as himself in the 2001 Ben Stiller comedy Zoolander, judging a “ walk-off ” between equal male models, [ 273 ] and in Eric Idle ‘s 2002 mockumentary The Rutles 2: Can’t Buy Me Lunch. [ 274 ] In 2005, he filmed a commercial with Snoop Dogg for XM Satellite Radio. [ 275 ] Bowie portrayed a fictionalize adaptation of physicist and inventor Nikola Tesla in Christopher Nolan ‘s movie The Prestige ( 2006 ), which was about the bitter competition between two magicians in the late nineteenth hundred. Nolan belated claimed that Bowie was his merely predilection to play Tesla, and that he personally appealed to Bowie to take the function after he initially passed. [ 276 ] In the same class, he voice-acted in Luc Besson ‘s enliven film Arthur and the Invisibles as the herculean villain Maltazard, [ 277 ] and appeared as himself in an sequence of the Ricky Gervais television receiver series Extras. [ 278 ] In 2007, he lent his voice to the character Lord Royal Highness in the SpongeBob’s Atlantis SquarePantis television film. [ 279 ] In the 2008 film August, directed by Austin Chick, he played a patronize role as Ogilvie, a “ pitiless venture capitalistic. ” [ 280 ] Bowie ‘s concluding film appearance was a cameo as himself in the 2009 adolescent comedy Bandslam. [ 281 ] In a 2017 consultation with Consequence of Sound, director Denis Villeneuve revealed his purpose to cast Bowie in Blade Runner 2049 as the moderate villain, Niander Wallace, but when news broke of Bowie ‘s death in January of the same year, Villeneuve was forced to look for endowment with similar “ rock star ” qualities. He finally cast actor and lead singer of Thirty Seconds to Mars, Jared Leto. Talking about the casting procedure, Villeneuve said : “ Our first gear thought [ for the character ] had been David Bowie, who had influenced Blade Runner in many ways. When we learned the deplorable news, we looked around for person like that. He [ Bowie ] embodied the Blade Runner spirit. “. [ 282 ] David Lynch besides hoped to have Bowie reprise his Fire Walk With Me character for Twin Peaks: The Return but Bowie ‘s illness prevented this. His character was portrayed via archival footage. At Bowie ‘s request, Lynch overdubbed Bowie ‘s original dialogue with a different actor ‘s part, as Bowie was dysphoric with his Cajun dialect in the original film. [ 283 ]

early works

painter and art collector

Bowie was besides a painter and artist. He moved to Switzerland in 1976, purchasing a chalet in the hills to the north of Lake Geneva. In the new environment, his cocaine use decreased and he found time for early pursuits outside his musical career. [ 284 ] He devoted more clock to his painting, and produced a number of post-modernist pieces. When on enlistment, he took to sketching in a notebook, and photographing scenes for later citation. Visiting galleries in Geneva and the Brücke Museum in Berlin, Bowie became, in the words of biographer Christopher Sandford, “ a prolific manufacturer and collector of contemporary art. … not only did he become a long-familiar patron of expressionist art : locked in Clos des Mésanges he began an intensifier self-improvement run in classical music and literature, and started work on an autobiography. ” One of Bowie ‘s paintings sold at auction in belated 1990 for $ 500, [ 286 ] and the brood for his 1995 album Outside is a close-up of a self-portrait ( from a serial of five ) he painted that like year. [ 287 ]

His beginning solo picture was at The Gallery, Cork Street in 1995, entitled New Afro/Pagan and Work: 1975–1995. [ 288 ] [ 289 ] He was invited to join the editorial board of the journal Modern Painters in 1998, [ 290 ] and participated in the Nat Tate art fraud later that year. [ 291 ] In 1998, during an interview with Michael Kimmelman for The New York Times, he said “ Art was, seriously, the lone matter I ‘d ever wanted to own. ” [ 292 ] Subsequently, in a 1999 interview for the BBC, he said “ The entirely thing I buy compulsively and addictively is art ”. [ 293 ] His art collection, which included works by Damien Hirst, Derek Boshier, Frank Auerbach, Henry Moore, and Jean-Michel Basquiat among others, was valued at over £10m in mid-2016. [ 290 ] [ 294 ] After his death, his family decided to sell most of the collection because they “ did n’t have the quad ” to store it. [ 290 ] On 10 and 11 November, three auctions were held at Sotheby ‘s in London, first gear with 47 lots and second base with 208 paintings, drawings, and sculptures, one-third with 100 design lots. [ 295 ] The items on sale represented about 65 percentage of the solicitation. [ 296 ] exhibition of the works in the auction attracted 51,470 visitors, the auction itself was attended by 1,750 bidders, with over 1,000 more bid on-line. The auctions has overall sale total £32.9 million ( app. $ 41.5 million ), while the highest-selling item, Basquiat ‘s graffiti-inspired painting Air Power, sold for £7.09 million. [ 295 ] [ 297 ]

Bowie Bonds

“ bowie Bonds ”, the inaugural modern case of fame bonds, were asset-backed securities of current and future revenues of the 25 albums ( 287 songs ) that Bowie recorded before 1990. [ 298 ] Issued in 1997, the bonds were bought for US $ 55 million by the Prudential Insurance Company of America. [ 299 ] [ 300 ] Royalties from the 25 albums generated the cash flow that secured the bonds ‘ interest payments. [ 301 ] By forfeiting 10 years worth of royalties, Bowie received a payment of US $ 55 million up battlefront. Bowie used this income to buy songs owned by his erstwhile director, Tony Defries. [ 302 ] The bonds liquidated in 2007 and the rights to the income from the songs reverted to Bowie. [ 303 ]


In September 1998, Bowie launched an Internet service provider, BowieNet, developed in concurrence with Robert Goodale and Ron Roy. [ 304 ] [ 305 ] Subscribers to the dial-up serve were offered exclusive content a well as a BowieNet electronic mail address and Internet access. The service was closed by 2006. [ 304 ]

bequest and charm

Bowie ‘s songs and stagecraft brought a new dimension to democratic music in the early 1970s, strongly influencing both its immediate forms and its subsequent development. Bowie was a pioneer of glam rock, according to music historians Schinder and Schwartz, who credited Bowie and Marc Bolan with creating the music genre. At the lapp time, he inspired the innovators of the punk rocker rock music drift. [ 307 ] When kindling musicians were “ noisily reclaiming the three-minute start song in a picture of public defiance ”, biographer David Buckley wrote that “ Bowie about completely abandoned traditional rock candy instrumentation. ” Bowie ‘s read company promoted his singular condition in popular music with the motto, “ There ‘s old curl, there ‘s raw curl, and there ‘s David Bowie ”. Musicologist James Perone credited Bowie with having “ lend sophistication to rock music ”, and critical reviews frequently acknowledged the intellectual astuteness of his influence and determine. The Human League collapse Martyn Ware remarked that Bowie lived his life “ as though he were an art facility. ” [ 313 ] The BBC ‘s arts editor Will Gompertz likened Bowie to Pablo Picasso, writing that he was “ an innovative, airy, restless artist who synthesised complex avant garde concepts into beautifully coherent works that touched the hearts and minds of millions ”. [ 314 ] U2 spark advance singer Bono commented, “ I like Bowie when he ’ s evenly pulled in the commission of being a dad star and Picasso, where he ‘s right down the center. That ’ s normally my front-runner, when the songwriting is disciplined but the recording is not. I love when he ‘s pulled equally in the directions of artwork and populism. ” [ 315 ] Broadcaster John Peel contrasted Bowie with his liberal rock contemporaries, arguing that Bowie was “ an interesting kind of fringe figure … on the outskirts of things ”. Peel said he “ liked the mind of him reinventing himself … the one spot have about early-70s liberal rock was that it did n’t progress. Before Bowie came along, people did n’t want excessively much switch ”. Buckley called the era “ bloat, arrogant, leather-clad, complacent ” ; then Bowie “ subverted the whole notion of what it was to be a rock star ” .

After Bowie there has been no other pop icon of his stature, because the pop world that produces these rock gods does n’t exist any more. … The fierce partiality of the fad of Bowie was besides unique—its influence lasted longer and has been more creative than possibly about any other wedge within pop fandom .

Buckley called Bowie “ both star and icon. The huge body of bring he has produced … has created possibly the biggest fad in popular culture. … His charm has been singular in popular culture—he has permeated and altered more lives than any comparable figure. ” Through continual reinvention, his influence broadened and extended. [ 317 ] Biographer Thomas Forget added, “ Because he has succeeded in so many different styles of music, it is about impossible to find a popular artist nowadays that has not been influenced by David Bowie. ” [ 318 ] In 2000, Bowie was voted by early music stars as the “ most influential artist of all time ” in a poll by NME. [ 319 ] Alexis Petridis of The Guardian wrote that Bowie was confirmed by 1980 to be “ the most significant and influential artist since the Beatles ”. [ 320 ] Neil McCormick of The Daily Telegraph stated that Bowie had “ one of the sovereign careers in popular music, art and culture of the twentieth hundred ” and “ he was excessively imaginative, besides erratic, excessively strange for all but his most devoted fans to keep up with ”. [ 321 ] The BBC ‘s Mark Easton argued that Bowie provided fuel for “ the creative power station that Britain has become ” by challenging future generations “ to aim high, to be ambitious and provocative, to take risks ”. Easton concluded that Bowie had “ changed the way the world sees Britain. And the direction Britain sees itself ”. [ 322 ] In 2006, Bowie was voted the fourth greatest living british icon in a pate held by the BBC ‘s Culture Show. [ 323 ] Annie Zaleski of Alternative Press wrote, “ Every band or solo artist who ‘s decided to rip up their playbook and start again owes a debt to Bowie ”. [ 324 ] In 2016, he was dubbed “ The Greatest Rock Star Ever ” by Rolling Stone. [ 325 ] numerous figures from the music diligence whose careers Bowie had influenced paid tribute to him following his death ; panegyrics on Twitter ( tweets about him peaked at 20,000 a minute an hour after the announcement of his death ) [ 313 ] besides came from outside the entertainment industry and pop culture, such as those from the Vatican, namely Cardinal Gianfranco Ravasi, who quoted “ Space Oddity ”, and the Federal Foreign Office, which thanked Bowie for his depart in the fall of the Berlin Wall and referenced “ Heroes ”. [ 326 ] [ 327 ] belgian amateurish astronomers at the MIRA Public Observatory in conjunction with Studio Brussel created a “ Bowie asterism “ in court to Bowie in January 2016 ; it depicts the lightning bolt of Aladdin Sane using the stars Sigma Librae, Spica, Zeta Centauri, SAO 204132, Sigma Octantis, [ a ] SAO 241641 and Beta Trianguli Australis which were near Mars at the fourth dimension of Bowie ‘s death. [ 328 ] [ 329 ] [ 330 ] On 7 January 2017, the BBC broadcast the 90-minute documentary David Bowie: The Last Five Years, taking a detail look at Bowie ‘s end albums, The Next Day and Blackstar, and his shimmer Lazarus. [ 331 ] On 8 January 2017, which would have been Bowie ‘s seventieth birthday, a charity concert in his birthplace of Brixton was hosted by actor Gary Oldman, a close supporter. [ 332 ] A David Bowie walking tour through Brixton was besides launched, and early events marking his birthday weekend included concerts in New York, Los Angeles, Sydney, and Tokyo. [ 333 ] On 6 February 2018, the maiden over flight of the SpaceX Falcon Heavy rocket carried Elon Musk ‘s personal Tesla Roadster and a mannequin dearly named Starman into space. “ Space Oddity ” and “ Life on Mars ? ” were looping on the car ‘s audio system during the launch. [ 334 ]

David Bowie Is

An exhibition of Bowie artefacts, called David Bowie Is, was organised by the Victoria and Albert Museum in London, and shown there in 2013. [ 335 ] The London display was visited by over 300,000 people, making it one of the most successful exhibitions ever staged at the museum. [ 336 ] Later that class the exhibition began a world enlistment which started in Toronto and included stops in Chicago, Paris, Melbourne, Groningen and Brooklyn, New York where the parade ended in 2018 at the Brooklyn Museum. [ 337 ] The exhibition hosted around 2,000,000 visitors over the entire course of its run. [ 338 ]

Stardust biopic

A biopic, Stardust, was announced on 31 January 2019, with musician and actor Johnny Flynn as Bowie, Jena Malone as his wife Angie, and Marc Maron as his publicist. The film follows Bowie on his first travel to the United States in 1971. The movie was written by Christopher Bell and directed by Gabriel Range. [ 339 ] Bowie ‘s son Duncan Jones spoke out against the movie, saying he was not consulted and that the movie would not have permission to use Bowie ‘s music. [ 340 ] The film was set to premiere at the 2020 Tribeca Film Festival, but the festival was postponed due to the COVID-19 pandemic. [ 341 ]


From the time of his earliest recordings in the 1960s, Bowie employed a wide variety of musical styles. His early compositions and performances were strongly influenced by rock and wind singers like Little Richard and Elvis Presley, and besides the wide-eyed populace of show business. He particularly strove to emulate the british musical theater singer-songwriter and actor Anthony Newley, whose vocal dash he frequently adopted, and made outstanding use of for his 1967 debut release, David Bowie ( to the disgust of Newley himself, who destroyed the copy he received from Bowie ‘s publisher ). Bowie ‘s captivation with music anteroom continued to surface sporadically aboard such divers styles as unvoiced rock and heavy alloy, soul, psychedelic folk music, and toss off. Musicologist James Perone observes Bowie ‘s use of octave switches for different repetitions of the same tune, exemplified in his commercial breakthrough single, “ Space Oddity ”, and subsequently in the song “ ‘Heroes ‘ ” to dramatic effect ; Perone notes that “ in the lowest part of his vocal music register … his part has an about crooner-like affluence. ” Voice teacher Jo Thompson describes Bowie ‘s song vibrato technique as “ particularly consider and classifiable ”. [ 345 ] Schinder and Schwartz call him “ a singer of extraordinary technical ability, able to pitch his singing to particular effect. ” here, besides, as in his stagecraft and songwriting, Bowie ‘s roleplaying is discernible : historian Michael Campbell says that Bowie ‘s lyrics “ arrest our ear, without question. But Bowie continually shifts from person to person as he delivers them … His voice changes dramatically from section to section. ” In a 2014 analysis of 77 “ exceed ” singers ‘ vocal ranges, Bowie was 8th, equitable behind Christina Aguilera and equitable ahead of Paul McCartney. [ 348 ] In accession to the guitar, Bowie besides played a assortment of keyboards, including piano, Mellotron, Chamberlin, and synthesisers ; harmonica ; alto and baritone saxophones ; stylophone ; viola ; cello ; koto ( in the “Heroes” track “ Moss Garden ” ) ; thumb piano ; drums ( on the Heathen track “ Cactus ” ), and diverse percussion instruments. [ 350 ]

personal life

early relationships

Bowie met dancer Lindsay Kemp in 1967 and enrolled in his dance classify at the London Dance Centre. [ 353 ] He commented in 1972 that meeting Kemp was when his interest in double “ actually blossomed ”. [ 353 ] “ He lived on his emotions, he was a fantastic influence. His daily life was the most theatrical thing I had ever seen, always. It was everything I thought Bohemia probably was. I joined the circus. ” In January 1968, Kemp choreographed a dance scenery for a BBC free rein, The Pistol Shot, in the Theatre 625 series, and used Bowie with a dancer, Hermione Farthingale ; the copulate began dating, and moved into a London flat together. Bowie and Farthingale broke up in early 1969 when she went to Norway to take region in a film, Song of Norway ; [ 357 ] this affected him, and respective songs, such as “ Letter to Hermione “ and “ Life on Mars ? “ reference her, [ 359 ] and for the video recording accompanying “ Where Are We now ? “, he wore a jersey with the words “ m/s Song of Norway ”. [ 360 ] They were survive together in January 1969 for the film of Love You till Tuesday, a 30-minute film that was not released until 1984 : intended as a promotional vehicle, it featured performances from Bowie ‘s repertory, including “ Space Oddity ”, which had not been released when the film was made .


Bowie and wife Iman, 2009 Bowie married his beginning wife, Mary Angela Barnett, on 19 March 1970 at Bromley Register Office in Bromley, London. They had an afford marriage. Angela described their coupling as a marriage of convenience. “ We got married so that I could [ get a permit to ] knead. I did n’t think it would final and David said, before we got married, ‘I ‘m not very in sleep together with you ‘ and I thought that ‘s probably a good thing, ” she said. Bowie said about Angela that “ living with her is like living with a boast common mullein. ” [ 361 ] Their son Duncan, born on 30 May 1971, was at first gear known as Zowie. Bowie and Angela divorced on 8 February 1980 in Switzerland. Bowie received custody of their son. After the gag order that was part of their divorce agreement ended, Angela wrote, Backstage Passes: Life on the Wild Side with David Bowie, a memoir of their churning marriage. [ 364 ] On 24 April 1992, Bowie married Somali-American model Iman in a private ceremony in Lausanne. The marriage was subsequently solemnised on 6 June in Florence. The couple ‘s marriage influenced the content of Bowie ‘s 1993 album Black Tie White Noise, particularly on tracks such as “ The Wedding ” / ” The marriage birdcall ” and “ Miracle Goodnight ”. They had one daughter, Alexandria “ Lexi ” Zahra Jones, born in August 2000. [ 367 ] [ 368 ] The couple resided chiefly in New York City and London, equally well as owning an apartment in Sydney ‘s Elizabeth Bay [ 369 ] [ 370 ] and Britannia Bay House on the island of Mustique. [ 371 ]


Bowie declared himself homosexual in an interview with Michael Watts for a 1972 issue of Melody Maker, [ 372 ] coinciding with his campaign for stardom as Ziggy Stardust. According to Buckley, “ If Ziggy confused both his godhead and his audience, a big share of that confusion centred on the topic of sex. ” In a September 1976 interview with Playboy, Bowie said, “ It ‘s true—I am a bisexual. But I ca n’t deny that I ‘ve used that fact very well. I suppose it ‘s the best thing that ever happened to me. ” [ 374 ] His first base wife, Angie, supports his claim of androgyny and alleges that Bowie had a relationship with Mick Jagger. [ 375 ] [ 376 ] In a 1983 consultation with Rolling Stone, Bowie said his public declaration of androgyny was “ the biggest err I ever made ” and “ I was constantly a cupboard heterosexual. ” [ 377 ] On early occasions, he said his interest in homosexual and bisexual acculturation had been more a product of the times and the situation in which he found himself than of his own feelings. [ bel ] Blender asked Bowie in 2002 whether he still believed his public declaration was his biggest mistake. After a retentive hesitate, he said, “ I do n’t think it was a mistake in Europe, but it was a bunch tough in America. I had no problem with people knowing I was bisexual. But I had no inclination to hold any banners nor be a representative of any group of people. ” Bowie said he wanted to be a songwriter and performer rather than a headline for his bisexuality, and in “ blue “ America, “ I think it stood in the means of so much I wanted to do. ” [ 380 ] Buckley wrote that Bowie “ mined sexual intrigue for its ability to daze ”, and was credibly “ never gay, nor even systematically actively bisexual ”, rather experimenting “ out of a sense of curiosity and a genuine allegiance with the ‘transgressional ‘. ” Biographer Christopher Sandford said, according to Mary Finnigan—with whom Bowie had an affair in 1969—Bowie and his first wife Angie “ created their bisexual fantasy ”. Sandford wrote that Bowie “ made a incontrovertible juju of repeating the wisecrack that he and his wife had met while ‘fucking the same bloke’ … Gay sex was always an anecdotal and laugh matter. That Bowie ‘s actual tastes swung the other manner is clear from even a partial derivative tally of his affairs with women. ” The BBC ‘s Mark Easton wrote in 2016 that Britain was “ far more tolerant of dispute ”, and that gay rights ( such as same-sex marriage ) and sex equality would not have “ enjoyed the broad support they do today without Bowie ‘s androgynous challenge all those years ago ”. [ 322 ]

spirituality and religion

Over the years, Bowie made numerous references to religions and to his evolving spiritualty. Beginning in 1967 from the influence of his brother, he became matter to in Buddhism and considered becoming a Buddhist monk. [ 384 ] After a few months ‘ learn at Tibet House in London, he was told by a Lama, “ You do n’t want to be Buddhist. … You should follow music. ” [ 385 ] By 1975, Bowie admitted, “ I felt wholly, absolutely alone. And I probably was entirely because I pretty a lot had abandoned God. ” [ 379 ] In his will, Bowie stipulated that he be cremated and his ashes scattered in Bali “ in accordance with the Buddhist rituals ”. [ 167 ] After Bowie married Iman in a private ceremony in 1992, he said they knew that their “ real marriage, sanctified by God, had to happen in a church in Florence ”. [ 386 ] Earlier that year, he knelt on stage at The Freddie Mercury Tribute Concert and recited the Lord ‘s Prayer before a television receiver consultation. [ 144 ] [ c ] In 1993, Bowie said he had an “ deathless ” belief in the “ authentic ” universe of God. [ 379 ] In a separate 1993 consultation, while describing the genesis of the music for his album Black Tie White Noise, he said “ … it was important for me to find something [ musically ] that besides had no sort of representation of commit and organized religion, of which I ‘m not a believer, I must make that clear. ” [ 387 ] Interviewed in 2005, Bowie said whether God exists “ is not a question that can be answered. … I ‘m not quite an atheist and it worries me. There ‘s that little piece that holds on : ‘Well, I ‘m almost an atheist. Give me a couple of months. … I ‘ve closely got it correct. ‘ ” [ 388 ] He had a tattoo of the Serenity Prayer in japanese on his exit calf. [ 389 ] “ Questioning [ his ] religious life [ was ] constantly … germane ” to Bowie ‘s songwriting. [ 388 ] The sung “ Station to Station ” is “ very much concerned with the Stations of the Cross “ ; the song besides specifically references Kabbalah. Bowie called the album “ highly dark … the nearest album to a magick treatise that I ‘ve written ”. [ 390 ] [ five hundred ] Earthling showed “ the abiding necessitate in me to vacillate between atheism or a kind of gnosticism … What I need is to find a symmetry, spiritually, with the room I live and my demise. ” [ 392 ] Released shortly before his death, “ Lazarus “ —from his final album, Blackstar —began with the words, “ Look up here, I ‘m in Heaven ” while the rest of the album deals with other matters of mysticism and mortality. [ 393 ]


As a seventeen-year-old still known as Davy Jones, he was a cofounder and spokesman for the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Long-Haired Men in reaction to members of The Manish Boys being asked to cut their haircloth prior to a television appearance on the british Broadcasting Corporation ( BBC ). [ 394 ] He and his bandmates were interviewed on the network ‘s 12 November 1964 episode of Tonight to champion their cause. [ 395 ] He stated on the plan, “ I think we all like long hair and we do n’t see why other people should persecute us because of it. ” [ 396 ] In 1976, speaking as The Thin White Duke, Bowie ‘s persona at the time, and “ at least partially banteringly ”, he made statements that expressed support for fascism and sensed admiration for Adolf Hitler in interviews with Playboy, NME, and a swedish publication. Bowie was quoted as saying : “ Britain is ready for a fascist leader … I think Britain could benefit from a fascist drawing card. After all, fascism is actually patriotism … I believe very strongly in fascism, people have always responded with greater efficiency under a regimental leadership. ” He was besides quoted as saying : “ Adolf Hitler was one of the first rock stars ” and “ You ‘ve got to have an extreme point right front come up and sweep everything off its feet and tidy everything up. ” [ 397 ] [ 398 ] Bowie late retracted these comments in an interview with Melody Maker in October 1977, blaming them on mental instability caused by his drug problems at the time, saying : “ I was out of my mind, wholly, completely crazed. ” [ 399 ] In the same interview, Bowie described himself as “ apolitical ”, stating “ The more I travel and the less certain I am about precisely which political philosophies are applaudable. The more politics systems I see, the less enticed I am to give my allegiance to any set of people, so it would be black for me to adopt a authoritative orient of opinion, or to adopt a party of people and say ‘these are my people ‘. ” [ 400 ] In the 1980s and 1990s, Bowie ‘s populace statements shifted sharply towards anti-racism and anti-fascism. In an interview with MTV anchor Mark Goodman in 1983, Bowie criticised the distribution channel for not providing enough coverage of Black musicians, becoming visibly uncomfortable when Goodman suggested that the network ‘s fear of backfire from the american Midwest was one reason for such a lack of coverage. [ 401 ] [ 402 ] The music video recording for “ China Girl ” and “ Let ‘s Dance ” were described by Bowie as a “ identical simple, very target ” affirmation against racism. [ 403 ] The album Tin Machine took a more steer stance against fascism and neo-Nazism, and was criticised for being excessively preachy. At the 2014 Brit Awards on 19 February, Bowie became the oldest recipient role of a Brit Award in the ceremony ‘s history when he won the award for british Male Solo Artist, which was collected on his behalf by Kate Moss. His address read : “ I ‘m wholly delighted to have a Brit for being the best male – but I am, are n’t I Kate ? Yes. I think it ‘s a bang-up way to end the day. Thank you identical, very much and Scotland last out with us. ” [ 404 ] Bowie ‘s mention to the forthcoming September 2014 Scottish independence referendum garnered a significant reaction throughout the UK on social media. [ 405 ] [ 406 ] In 2016, film maker and militant Michael Moore said he had wanted to use “ Panic in Detroit “ for his 1998 documentary The Big One. Denied at first, Moore was given the rights after calling Bowie personally, recalling : “ I ‘ve read stuff since his end saying that he was n’t that political and he stayed away from politics. But that was n’t the conversation that I had with him. ” [ 407 ]


A woman places flowers outside Bowie ‘s apartment in New York on Lafayette Street the sidereal day after his death was announced. On 10 January 2016, Bowie died of liver cancer in his New York City apartment. [ 408 ] He had been diagnosed 18 months early but had not made his condition populace. [ 206 ] The belgian field director Ivo vanguard Hove, who had worked with Bowie on his off-broadway musical Lazarus, explained that he was ineffective to attend rehearsals due to the progress of the disease. He noted that Bowie had kept working during the illness. [ 409 ] Visconti wrote :

He always did what he wanted to do. And he wanted to do it his way and he wanted to do it the best way. His death was no unlike from his life – a study of art. He made Blackstar for us, his parting gift. I knew for a year this was the room it would be. I was n’t, however, prepared for it. He was an extraordinary man, full of love and animation. He will always be with us. For now, it is appropriate to cry. [ 410 ] [ 411 ]

Following Bowie ‘s death, fans gathered at ad lib street shrines. [ 412 ] At the mural of Bowie in his birthplace of Brixton, south London, which shows him in his Aladdin Sane character, fans laid flowers and sang his songs. [ 413 ] other memorial sites included Berlin, Los Angeles, and outside his apartment in New York. [ 414 ] After news of his death, sales of his albums and singles soared. [ 415 ] Bowie had insisted that he did not want a funeral, and according to his death certificate he was cremated in New Jersey on 12 January. [ 416 ] As he wished in his will, his ashes were scattered in a Buddhist ceremony in Bali, Indonesia. [ 417 ]

Awards and achievements

assortment of Bowie ‘s outfits on display at the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame Bowie ‘s 1969 commercial breakthrough, the song “ Space Oddity ”, won him an Ivor Novello Special Award For Originality. [ 418 ] For his operation in the 1976 skill fiction film The Man Who Fell to Earth, he won a Saturn Award for Best Actor. In the ensuing decades he was honoured with numerous awards for his music and its accompanying videos, receiving, among others, six Grammy Awards [ 419 ] [ 420 ] [ 232 ] and four Brit Awards—winning Best british Male Artist twice ; the award for Outstanding Contribution to Music in 1996 ; and the Brits Icon prize for his “ durable affect on british culture ”, given posthumously in 2016. [ 421 ] [ 422 ] [ 423 ] In 1999, Bowie was made a Commander of the Ordre des Arts et des Lettres by the french government. [ 424 ] He received an honorary doctor’s degree from Berklee College of Music the same class. [ 425 ] He declined the royal respect of Commander of the Order of the british Empire ( CBE ) in 2000, and turned down a knighthood in 2003. [ 426 ] Bowie late stated “ I would never have any purpose of accepting anything like that. I badly do n’t know what it ‘s for. It ‘s not what I spent my animation working for. ” [ 427 ]
Bowie has sold over 100 million records global, making him one of the best-selling music artists. [ 428 ] [ vitamin e ] In the United Kingdom, he was awarded 9 platinum, 11 aureate, and 8 silver albums, and in the United States, 5 platinum and 9 gold. [ 430 ] Rolling Stone ‘s 500 Greatest Albums of All Time tilt includes The Rise and Fall of Ziggy Stardust and the Spiders from Mars at number 40, [ 431 ] Station to Station at number 52, [ 432 ] Hunky Dory at phone number 88, [ 433 ] Low at count 206, [ 434 ] and Scary Monsters (and Super Creeps) at number 443. [ 435 ] And, on their 500 Greatest Songs of All Time number, Rolling Stone includes “ ‘Heroes ‘ ” at issue 23, [ 436 ] “ Life on Mars ? ” at number 105, [ 437 ] “ Space Oddity ” at number 189, [ 438 ] “ Changes ” at act 200, [ 439 ] “ Young Americans ” at number 204, [ 440 ] “ Station to Station ” at act 400, [ 441 ] and “ Under blackmail ” at number 429. [ 442 ] Four of his songs are included in The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame ‘s 500 Songs that Shaped Rock and Roll. [ 443 ] According to Acclaimed Music, he is the fourthly most celebrate artist in popular music history. [ 444 ] In the BBC ‘s 2002 poll of the 100 Greatest Britons, he was ranked 29. [ 445 ] In 2004, Rolling Stone magazine ranked him 39th on their list of the 100 Greatest Artists of All Time. [ 446 ] Bowie was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1996. [ 152 ] He was inducted into the Science Fiction and Fantasy Hall of Fame in 2013. [ 447 ] [ 448 ] In 2016, Rolling Stone proclaimed Bowie “ the greatest rock star ever ”. [ 449 ] In 2008, the spider Heteropoda davidbowie was named in Bowie ‘s award. [ 450 ] On 5 January 2015, a main-belt asteroid was named 342843 Davidbowie. [ 451 ] On 13 January 2016, belgian amateur astronomers at MIRA Public Observatory created a “ Bowie asterism ” of seven stars which had been in the vicinity of Mars at the time of Bowie ‘s death ; the “ constellation ” forms the lightning bolt on Bowie ‘s grimace from the cover of his Aladdin Sane album. [ 452 ] On 25 March 2018, a statue of Bowie was unveiled in Aylesbury, Buckinghamshire, the town where he debuted Ziggy Stardust. [ 453 ] The statue features a compare of Bowie in 2002 accompanied with assorted characters and looks from over his career, with Ziggy stardust at the front. [ 454 ]



See besides


  1. ^ Internet images of the “ Bowie asterism ” actually indicate Delta Octantis
  2. ^City of Night in the 1960s, and it connected with his loneliness. “And that led me a merry dance in the early Seventies, when [379] In 1993, Bowie recalled having readin the 1960s, and it connected with his loneliness. “ And that led me a alert dance in the early Seventies, when cheery clubs in truth became my life style and all my friends were gay ” .
  3. ^[379] Asked why he knelt and prayed, Bowie said he had a friend who was dying of AIDS. “ He was precisely dropping into a coma that day. And just before I went on stage something barely told me to say the Lord ‘s Prayer. The big irony is that he died two days after the show ” .
  4. ^The Man Who Fell To Earth, marking “the first time I’d really seriously thought about Christ and God … I very nearly got suckered into that narrow [view of] finding the Cross as the salvation of mankind”.[391] He late said he was influenced by his cocaine addiction and the “ psychological terror ” from making, marking “ the first time I ‘d in truth seriously thought about Christ and God … I very about got suckered into that minute [ scene of ] finding the Cross as the salvation of world ” .
  5. ^[429] extra sources place this digit somewhere between 100 million and 150 million .
  6. ^David Bowie (1969) was the original name for the album in the UK, while in the US it was released a few months later with the subtitle Man of Words / Man of Music (1969), colloquially used as an unofficial retitle to differentiate the release. Following the success of Ziggy Stardust the album was rereleased worldwide as Space Oddity, after Bowie’s well known song of the same name that opened the album. The David Bowie title was reinstated for a 2009 worldwide reissue and Space Oddity title.[456] ( 1969 ) was the original appoint for the album in the UK, while in the US it was released a few months late with the subtitle ( 1969 ), colloquially used as an unofficial retitle to differentiate the release. Following the success ofthe album was rereleased worldwide as, after Bowie ‘s well known song of the same name that opened the album. Thetitle was reinstated for a 2009 cosmopolitan reissue and Parlophone ‘s 2015 remaster, before the album ‘s 2019 mix reverted back to thetitle .



far reading

  • Auliac, Philippe (2004). Passenger – David Bowie Photobook. Venezia: Sound & Vision. p. 200.
  • Cann, David (2011). Any Day Now: David Bowie the London Years 1947–1974. Kenneth Pitt in Books.
  • Cole, Shaun (2000). ‘Don We Now Our Gay Apparel’: Gay Men’s Dress in the Twentieth Century. London: Berg. ISBN 978-1-85973-415-5.
  • Ditmore, Melissa Hope (2006). Encyclopedia of Prostitution and Sex Work. 2. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-313-32970-8.
  • Duffy, Chris; Cann, Kevin (2014). Duffy/Bowie Five Sessions (1st UK ed.). ACC Editions. p. 170. ISBN 978-1-85149-765-2.
  • Egan, Sean (2015). Bowie on Bowie. Chicago Review Press. ISBN 978-1-56976-977-5.
  • Greco, Nicholas P. (2015). David Bowie in Darkness: A Study of 1. Outside and the Late Career. McFarland & Co. ISBN 978-0-7864-9410-1.
  • Hendrikse, Wim (2004). Never Get Old. Man of Ch-Ch-Changes Part 1 and Part 2. Gopher Publishers.
  • Hendrikse, Wim (2013). David Bowie: The Man Who Changed the World. Authors Online.
  • Jacke, Andreas (2011). David Bowie – Station To Station. Psychosozial- Verlag.
  • Sheffield, Rob (2016). On Bowie. Dey Street Books. ISBN 9780062562708.
  • Tremlett, George (1997). David Bowie: Living on the BrinkISBN 9780786704651.
  • Waldrep, Shelton, “Phenomenology of Performance”, The Aesthetics of Self-Invention: Oscar Wilde to David Bowie, University of Minnesota Press, 2004.
  • Welch, Chris (1999). David Bowie: We Could Be Heroes: The Stories Behind Every David Bowie Song. Da Capo Press.
  • Wilcken, Hugo (2005). 33⅓: David Bowie’s Low. Continuum.

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