Folk music is a music music genre that includes traditional family music and the contemporary genre that evolved from the erstwhile during the 20th-century folk revival. Some types of family music may be called worldly concern music. traditional tribe music has been defined in several ways : as music transmitted orally, music with unknown composers, music that is played on traditional instruments, music about cultural or home identity, music that changes between generations ( folk procedure ), music associated with a people ‘s folklore, or music performed by custom over a retentive period of fourth dimension. It has been contrasted with commercial and classical music styles. The term originated in the nineteenth century, but family music extends beyond that. Starting in the mid-20th hundred, a new shape of popular folk music music evolved [ citation needed ] from traditional folk music. This process and period is called the ( second ) family revival and reached a zenith in the 1960s. This form of music is sometimes called contemporary folk music or tribe revival music to distinguish it from earlier folk forms. [ 1 ] Smaller, similar revivals have occurred elsewhere in the worldly concern at early times, but the term folk music music has typically not been applied to the new music created during those revivals. This type of tribe music besides includes fusion genres such as family rock, folk music metallic element, and others. While contemporary tribe music is a music genre broadly distinct from traditional family music, in U.S. English it shares the same name, and it often shares the lapp performers and venues as traditional folk music.
Reading: Folk music – Wikipedia
traditional family music [edit ]
Definitions [edit ]
The terms folk music, folk song, and folk dance are relatively holocene expressions. They are extensions of the term folklore, which was coined in 1846 by the English antiquarian William Thoms to describe “ the traditions, customs, and superstitions of the artless classes ”. [ 2 ] The term further derives from the german saying volk, in the sense of “ the people as a whole ” as applied to popular and national music by Johann Gottfried Herder and the german Romantics over half a century earlier. [ 3 ] Though it is understand that family music is the music of the people, observers find a more accurate definition to be elusive. [ 4 ] [ 5 ] Some do not even agree that the term folk music should be used. [ 4 ] Folk music may tend to have sealed characteristics [ 2 ] but it can not clearly be differentiated in strictly melodious terms. One think of much given is that of “ old songs, with no know composers, ” [ 6 ] another is that of music that has been submitted to an evolutionary “ summons of oral transmission …. the devising and re-fashioning of the music by the community that give it its folk music character. ” [ 7 ] such definitions depend upon “ ( cultural ) processes rather than abstract musical types … ”, upon “ continuity and oral transmission … seen as characterizing one side of a cultural dichotomy, the other side of which is found not alone in the lower layers of feudal, capitalist and some oriental societies but besides in ‘primitive ‘ societies and in parts of ‘popular cultures ‘ ”. [ 8 ] One widely used definition is plainly “ Folk music is what the people sing. ” [ 9 ] For Scholes, [ 2 ] vitamin a well as for Cecil Sharp and Béla Bartók, [ 10 ] there was a sense of the music of the state as distinct from that of the town. Folk music was already, “ … seen as the authentic formulation of a way of life now past or about to disappear ( or in some cases, to be preserved or somehow revived ), ” [ 11 ] particularly in “ a community uninfluenced by art music ” [ 7 ] and by commercial and printed song. Lloyd rejected this in favor of a childlike distinction of economic class [ 10 ] even for him, true folk music was, in Charles Seeger ‘s words, “ associated with a lower class ” [ 12 ] in culturally and socially stratify societies. In these terms, folk music may be seen as separate of a “ outline comprising four musical types : ‘primitive ‘ or ‘tribal ‘ ; ‘elite ‘ or ‘art ‘ ; ‘folk ‘ ; and ‘popular ‘. ” [ 13 ] Music in this genre is besides often called traditional music. Although the term is normally merely descriptive, in some cases people use it as the name of a genre. For case, the Grammy Award previously used the terms “ traditional music ” and “ traditional family ” for family music that is not contemporary folk music. [ 14 ] Folk music may include most autochthonal music. [ 4 ]
Characteristics [edit ]
From a diachronic perspective, traditional tribe music had these characteristics : [ 12 ]
- It was transmitted through an oral tradition. Before the 20th century, ordinary people were usually illiterate; they acquired songs by memorizing them. Primarily, this was not mediated by books or recorded or transmitted media. Singers may extend their repertoire using broadsheets or song books, but these secondary enhancements are of the same character as the primary songs experienced in the flesh.
- The music was often related to national culture. It was culturally particular; from a particular region or culture. In the context of an immigrant group, folk music acquires an extra dimension for social cohesion. It is particularly conspicuous in immigrant societies, where Greek Australians, Somali Americans, Punjabi Canadians, and others strive to emphasize their differences from the mainstream. They learn songs and dances that originate in the countries their grandparents came from.
- They commemorate historical and personal events. On certain days of the year, including such holidays as Christmas, Easter, and May Day, particular songs celebrate the yearly cycle. Birthdays, weddings, and funerals may also be noted with songs, dances and special costumes. Religious festivals often have a folk music component. Choral music at these events brings children and non-professional singers to participate in a public arena, giving an emotional bonding that is unrelated to the aesthetic qualities of the music.
- The songs have been performed, by custom, over a long period of time, usually several generations.
As a side-effect, the follow characteristics are sometimes present :
- There is no copyright on the songs. Hundreds of folk songs from the 19th century have known authors but have continued in oral tradition to the point where they are considered traditional for purposes of music publishing. This has become much less frequent since the 1940s. Today, almost every folk song that is recorded is credited with an arranger.
- Fusion of cultures: Because cultures interact and change over time, traditional songs evolving over time may incorporate and reflect influences from disparate cultures. The relevant factors may include instrumentation, tunings, voicings, phrasing, subject matter, and even production methods.
tune [edit ]
In folk music, a tune is a short instrumental nibble, a tune, much with repeating sections, and normally played a count of times. [ 15 ] A collection of tunes with structural similarities is known as a tune-family. America’s Musical Landscape says “ the most common form for tunes in folk music music is AABB, besides known as binary form. ” [ 16 ] In some traditions, tunes may be strung together in medleys or “ sets. ” [ 17 ]
Origins [edit ]
Indians always distinguished between classical music and tribe music, though in the past even classical amerind music used to rely on the unwritten transmittance of repertory. Throughout most of human prehistory and history, listening to recorded music was not possible. [ 18 ] [ 19 ] Music was made by common people during both their ferment and leisure, a well as during religious activities. The influence of economic production was much manual and communal. [ 20 ] Manual labor often included spill the beans by the workers, which served several practical purposes. [ 21 ] It reduced the boredom of insistent tasks, it kept the rhythm during synchronize pushes and pulls, and it set the footstep of many activities such as plant, weeding, reaping, threshing, weaving, and milling. In leisure time, singing and playing melodious instruments were common forms of entertainment and history-telling—even more coarse than today when electrically enabled technologies and far-flung literacy make other forms of entertainment and information-sharing competitive. [ 22 ] Some believe that folk music music originated as art music that was changed and probably debased by oral transmittance while reflecting the character of the club that produced it. [ 2 ] In many societies, particularly preliterate ones, the cultural transmission of folk music requires learning by ear, although notation has evolved in some cultures. [ 23 ] Different cultures may have different notions concerning a division between “ folk music ” music on the one handwriting and of “ artwork ” and “ court ” music on the other. In the proliferation of popular music genres, some traditional tribe music became besides referred to as “ World music “ or “ ancestor music. ” [ 24 ] The english term “ folklore “, to describe traditional folk music music and dance, entered the vocabulary of many continental european nations, each of which had its folk-song collectors and revivalists. [ 2 ] The distinction between “ authentic ” tribe and national and popular sung in general has always been free, particularly in America and Germany [ 2 ] – for model, popular songwriters such as Stephen Foster could be termed “ folk music ” in America. [ 2 ] [ 25 ] The International Folk Music Council definition allows that the term can besides apply to music that, “ … has originated with an individual composer and has subsequently been absorbed into the ad-lib, living custom of a community. But the term does not cover a birdcall, dance, or tune that has been taken over cliched and remains unaltered. ” [ 26 ] The post– World War II folk music revival in America and in Britain started a fresh genre, Contemporary Folk Music, and brought an extra meaning to the term “ tribe music ” : newly composed songs, fixed in form and by know authors, which imitated some kind of traditional music. The popularity of “ contemporary tribe ” recordings caused the appearance of the category “ Folk ” in the Grammy Awards of 1959 [ 27 ] in 1970 the term was dropped in favor of “ Best Ethnic or Traditional Recording ( including Traditional Blues ) ”, [ 28 ] while 1987 brought a eminence between “ Best Traditional Folk Recording ” and “ Best Contemporary Folk Recording ”. [ 29 ] After that, they had a “ traditional music ” category that subsequently evolved into others. The terminus “ tribe ”, by the begin of the twenty-first century, could cover singer songwriters, such as Donovan [ 30 ] from Scotland and American Bob Dylan, [ 31 ] who emerged in the 1960s and much more. This completed a process to where “ folk music ” no longer meant only traditional tribe music. [ 6 ]
national matter [edit ]
zurna and Davul, the typically used instruments for their folk music and Assyrians playingand, the typically used instruments for their folk music and dance traditional folk music frequently includes sung words, although folk instrumental music occurs normally in dance music traditions. narrative poetry looms big in the traditional tribe music of many cultures. [ 32 ] [ 33 ] This encompasses such forms as traditional epic poetry, much of which was meant in the first place for oral operation, sometimes accompanied by instruments. [ 34 ] [ 35 ] Many epic poems of respective cultures were pieced together from shorter pieces of traditional narrative verse, which explains their episodic structure, insistent elements, and their frequent in medias res plot developments. early forms of traditional narrative verse relate the outcomes of battles or deplore tragedies or natural disasters. [ 36 ] sometimes, as in the exultant Song of Deborah [ 37 ] found in the Biblical Book of Judges, these songs celebrate victory. Laments for lost battles and wars, and the lives lost in them, are equally outstanding in many traditions ; these laments keep alive the lawsuit for which the battle was fought. [ 38 ] [ 39 ] The narratives of traditional songs frequently besides remember folk heroes such as John Henry [ 40 ] [ 41 ] or Robin Hood. [ 42 ] Some traditional song narratives recall supernatural events or cryptic deaths. [ 43 ] Hymns and other forms of religious music are much of traditional and unknown origin. [ 44 ] western musical notation was in the first place created to preserve the lines of gregorian tone, which before its invention was taught as an oral custom in cloistered communities. [ 45 ] [ 46 ] Traditional songs such as Green grow the rushes, O portray religious lore in a mnemonic form, as act Western Christmas carols and like traditional songs. [ 47 ] work songs frequently feature call and response structures and are designed to enable the laborers who sing them to coordinate their efforts in accordance with the rhythm of the songs. [ 48 ] They are frequently, but not constantly, composed. In the American armed forces, a lively oral custom preserves jody calls ( “ Duckworth chants ” ) which are sung while soldiers are on the march. [ 49 ] Professional sailors made similar use of a large body of sea shanties. [ 50 ] [ 51 ] Love poetry, much of a tragic or regretful nature, prominently figures in many family traditions. [ 52 ] Nursery rhymes and nonsense poetry used to amuse or quiet children besides are frequent subjects of traditional songs. [ 53 ]
tribe song transformations and variations [edit ]
korean traditional musicians Music transmitted by news of mouth through a community, in time, develops many variants, because this kind of transmission can not produce word-for-word and note-for-note accuracy. indeed, many traditional singers are quite creative and intentionally modify the substantial they learn. For model, the words of “ I ‘m a man You Do n’t Meet Every Day “ ( Roud 975 ) are known from a broadside in the Bodleian Library. [ 54 ] The date is about surely before 1900, and it seems to be irish. In 1958 the song was recorded in Canada ( My mention is Pat and I ‘m gallant of That ). scottish traveler Jeannie Robertson from Aberdeen, made the following record adaptation in 1961. She has changed it to make address to “ Jock Stewart ”, one of her relatives, and there are no irish references. In 1976 scots artist Archie Fisher intentionally altered the sung to remove the reference to a dog being shot. In 1985 The Pogues took it full circle by restoring all the irish references. [ original research? ] Because variants proliferate naturally, it is naïve to believe that there is such a matter as the single “ authentic ” version of a ballad such as “ Barbara Allen “. Field researchers in traditional song ( see below ) have encountered countless versions of this ballad throughout the english-speaking worldly concern, and these versions often differ greatly from each early. none can reliably claim to be the master, and it is possible that the “ original ” version ceased to be spill the beans centuries ago. many versions can lay an equal claim to authenticity. The influential folklorist Cecil Sharp felt that these competing variants of a traditional song would undergo a work of improvement akin to biological natural choice : only those new variants that were the most appeal to average singers would be picked up by others and transmitted ahead in time. thus, over fourth dimension we would expect each traditional song to become aesthetically always more appeal — it would be jointly composed to paragon, as it were, by the residential district. literary matter to in the popular ballad form dates back at least to Thomas Percy and William Wordsworth. English Elizabethan and Stuart composers had much evolved their music from family themes, the classical suite was based upon stylize folk-dances, and Joseph Haydn ‘s use of tribe melodies is noted. But the egress of the term “ family ” coincided with an “ outburst of home feeling all over Europe ” that was particularly strong at the edges of Europe, where national identity was most asserted. patriot composers emerged in Central Europe, Russia, Scandinavia, Spain and Britain : the music of Dvořák, Smetana, Grieg, Rimsky-Korsakov, Brahms, Liszt, de Falla, Wagner, Sibelius, Vaughan Williams, Bartók, and many others drew upon folk music melodies .
regional forms [edit ]
Naxi traditional musicians The Steinegger brothers, traditional fifers of Grundlsee Styria, 1880 While the loss of traditional folk music music in the confront of the rise of democratic music is a global phenomenon, [ 55 ] it is not one occurring at a undifferentiated rate throughout the world. [ 56 ] The serve is most advanced “ where industrialization and commercialization of culture are most advanced ” [ 57 ] but besides occurs more gradually even in settings of lower technological promotion. however, the loss of traditional music is slowed in nations or regions where traditional folk music music is a badge of cultural or home identity. [ citation needed ]
early folk music, fieldwork and scholarship [edit ]
a lot of what is known about family music anterior to the development of audio recording technology in the nineteenth hundred comes from fieldwork and writings of scholars, collectors and proponents. [ 58 ]
19th-century Europe [edit ]
Starting in the nineteenth hundred, academics and amateur scholars, taking note of the melodious traditions being lost, initiated assorted efforts to preserve the music of the people. [ 59 ] One such effort was the solicitation by Francis James Child in the late nineteenth hundred of the text of over three hundred ballads in the English and Scots traditions ( called the Child Ballads ), some of which predated the sixteenth century. [ 9 ] contemporaneously with Child, the Reverend Sabine Baring-Gould and belated Cecil Sharp worked to preserve a great soundbox of English rural traditional birdcall, music and dance, under the breastplate of what became and remains the english Folk Dance and Song Society ( EFDSS ). [ 60 ] Sharp campaigned with some success to have English traditional songs ( in his own heavily edited and expurgated versions ) to be taught to school children in hopes of reviving and prolonging the popularity of those songs. [ 61 ] [ 62 ] Throughout the 1960s and early on to mid-1970s, American scholar Bertrand Harris Bronson published an exhaustive four-volume collection of the then-known variations of both the text and tunes associated with what came to be known as the Child Canon. [ 63 ] He besides advanced some significant theories concerning the workings of oral-aural tradition. [ 64 ] similar action was besides under way in other countries. One of the most extensive was possibly the work done in Riga by Krisjanis Barons, who between the years 1894 and 1915 published six volumes that included the text of 217,996 latvian folk songs, the Latvju dainas. [ 65 ] In Norway the study of collectors such as Ludvig Mathias Lindeman was extensively used by Edvard Grieg in his Lyric Pieces for piano and in early works, which became vastly democratic. [ 66 ] Around this clock, composers of classical music developed a impregnable concern in collecting traditional songs, and a number of composers carried out their own field exploit on traditional music. These included Percy Grainger [ 67 ] and Ralph Vaughan Williams [ 68 ] in England and Béla Bartók [ 69 ] in Hungary. These composers, like many of their predecessors, both made arrangements of folk music songs and incorporated traditional fabric into master authoritative compositions. [ 70 ] [ 71 ]
North America [edit ]
Locations in Southern and Central Appalachia visited by the british folklorist Cecil Sharp in 1916 ( aristocratic ), 1917 ( green ), and 1918 ( crimson ). Sharp sought “ old world ” english and scottish ballads passed down to the region ‘s inhabitants from their british ancestors. He collected hundreds of such ballads, the most generative areas being the Blue Ridge Mountains of North Carolina and the Cumberland Mountains of Kentucky. The second coming of audio recording engineering provided folklorists with a rotatory tool to preserve vanishing musical forms. [ 72 ] The earliest american tribe music scholars were with the american Folklore Society ( AFS ), which emerged in the former 1800s. [ 73 ] Their studies expanded to include native american music, but still treated tribe music as a historical item preserved in isolate societies as good. [ 74 ] In North America, during the 1930s and 1940s, the Library of Congress worked through the offices of traditional music collectors Robert Winslow Gordon, [ 75 ] Alan Lomax [ 76 ] [ 77 ] [ 78 ] and others to capture as much north american english field fabric as possible. [ 79 ] John Lomax ( the founder of Alan Lomax ) was the first outstanding learner to study distinctly american tribe music such as that of cowboys and southerly blacks. His first major published work was in 1911, Cowboy Songs and Other Frontier Ballads. [ 80 ] and was arguably the most outstanding US tribe music scholar of his time, notably during the beginnings of the family music revival in the 1930s and early 1940s. Cecil Sharp besides worked in America, recording the traditional songs of the appalachian Mountains in 1916–1918 in collaboration with Maud Karpeles and Olive Dame Campbell and is considered the first major scholar covering american family music. [ 81 ] Campbell and Sharp are represented under other names by actors in the mod movie Songcatcher. [ 82 ] One potent subject amongst family scholars in the early decades of the twentieth hundred was regionalism, [ 83 ] the analysis of the diversity of folk music music ( and related cultures ) based on regions of the US rather than based on a given song ‘s historical roots. [ 84 ] [ 85 ] Later, a active of class and circumstances was added to this. [ 86 ] The most big regionalists were literary figures with a particular interest in folklore. [ 87 ] [ 88 ] Carl Sandburg much traveled the U.S. as a writer and a poet. [ 89 ] He besides collected songs in his travels and, in 1927, published them in the book The American Songbag. [ 90 ] Rachel Donaldson, a historian who worked for Vanderbilt, late stated this about The american Songbird in her analysis of the folk music revival. “ In his collections of family songs, Sandburg added a class active to popular understandings of american folk music. This was the final component of the foundation upon which the early family music revivalists constructed their own opinion of Americanism. Sandburg ‘s working classify Americans joined with the ethnically, racially, and regionally divers citizens that early scholars, public intellectuals, and folklorists celebrated their own definitions of the American folk music, definitions that the folk music revivalists used in constructing their own understanding of american family music, and an overarch american english identity ”. [ 91 ] anterior to the 1930s, the survey of folk music was chiefly the state of scholars and collectors. The 1930s saw the beginnings of larger scale themes, commonalities, themes, and linkages in folk music music developing in the populace and practitioners a well, much related to the Great Depression. [ 92 ] Regionalism and cultural pluralism grew as influences and themes. During this time folk music began to become enmesh with political and social activism themes and movements. [ 92 ] Two related developments were the U.S. Communist Party ‘s interest in family music as a way to reach and influence Americans, [ 93 ] and politically active big family musicians and scholars seeing communism as a possible good system, through the lens of the Great Depression. [ 94 ] Woody Guthrie exemplifies songwriters and artists with such an mentality. [ 95 ] Folk music festivals proliferated during the 1930s. [ 96 ] President Franklin Roosevelt was a fan of tribe music, hosted family concerts at the White House, and much patronized family festivals. [ 97 ] One big festival was Sarah Gertrude Knott ‘s National Folk Festival, established in St. Louis, Missouri in 1934. [ 98 ] Under the sponsorship of the Washington Post, the festival was held in Washington, DC at Constitution Hall from 1937 to 1942. [ 99 ] The family music movement, festivals, and the wartime feat were seen as forces for social goods such as democracy, cultural pluralism, and the removal of culture and race-based barriers. [ 100 ]
The american folk music revivalists of the 1930s approached folk music music in unlike ways. [ 101 ] Three elementary schools of think emerged : “ Traditionalists ” ( e.g. Sarah Gertrude Knott and John Lomax ) emphasized the conservation of songs as artifacts of asleep cultures. “ running ” folklorists ( e.g. Botkin and Alan Lomax ) maintained that songs lone retain relevance when used by those cultures which retain the traditions which birthed those songs. “ leftist ” folk revivalists ( e.g. Charles Seeger and Lawrence Gellert ) emphasized music ‘s character “ in ‘people ‘s ‘ struggles for social and political rights ”. [ 101 ] By the end of the 1930s these and others had turned american folk music into a social motion. [ 101 ] sometimes folk musicians became scholars and advocates themselves. For model, Jean Ritchie ( 1922–2015 ) was the youngest child of a big class from Viper, Kentucky that had preserved many of the honest-to-god appalachian traditional songs. [ 102 ] Ritchie, living in a clock time when the Appalachians had opened up to outside influence, was university educated and ultimately moved to New York City, where she made a total of classical recordings of the family repertory and published an significant compilation of these songs. [ 103 ] In January 2012, the american Folklife Center at the Library of Congress, with the Association for Cultural Equity, announced that they would release Lomax ‘s huge archive of 1946 and late recording in digital phase. Lomax spent the last 20 years of his life working on an interactional Multimedia educational computer project he called the Global Jukebox, which included 5,000 hours of sound recordings, 400,000 feet of film, 3,000 videotapes, and 5,000 photograph. [ 104 ] As of March 2012, this has been accomplished. approximately 17,400 of Lomax ‘s recordings from 1946 and late have been made available free on-line. [ 105 ] [ 106 ] This material from Alan Lomax ‘s independent archive, begun in 1946, which has been digitized and offered by the Association for Cultural Equity, is “ discrete from the thousands of earlier recordings on acetate and aluminum magnetic disk he made from 1933 to 1942 under the auspices of the Library of Congress. This earlier collection—which includes the celebrated Jelly Roll Morton, Woody Guthrie, Lead Belly, and Muddy Waters sessions, deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as Lomax ‘s portentous collections made in Haiti and Eastern Kentucky ( 1937 ) — is the birthplace of the american Folklife Center ” [ 105 ] at the library of Congress .
National and regional forms [edit ]
Africa [edit ]
Africa is a huge continent [ 107 ] and its regions and nations have distinct melodious traditions. [ 108 ] [ 109 ] The music of North Africa for the most character has a different history from sub-saharan african music traditions. [ 110 ] The music and dance forms of the African diaspora, including african american music and many Caribbean genres like soca, calypso and Zouk ; and romance american music genres like the samba, Cuban rhumba, salsa ; and other clave ( rhythm ) -based genres, were founded to varying degrees on the music of african slaves, which has in turn charm African democratic music. [ 111 ] [ 112 ]
asia [edit ]
many asian civilizations distinguish between art /court/classical styles and “ folk music ” music. [ 113 ] [ 114 ] For exercise, the late Alam Lohar is an exemplar of a South asian singer who was classified as a tribe singer. [ 115 ] Khunung Eshei/Khuland Eshei is an ancient folk music birdcall from India, a area of Asia, of Meiteis of Manipur, that is an case of asian folk music music, and how they put it into its own writing style. [ 116 ]
Folk music of China [edit ]
archaeological discoveries date taiwanese family music back 7000 years ; [ 117 ] it is largely based on the pentatonic scale. [ 118 ] Han traditional weddings and funerals normally include a shape of oboe called a suona, [ 119 ] and apercussive ensembles called a chuigushou. [ 120 ] Ensembles consist of mouth organs ( sheng ), shawms ( suona ), flutes ( dizi ) and percussion section instruments ( specially yunluo gongs ) are popular in northern villages ; [ 121 ] their music is descended from the imperial synagogue music of Beijing, Xi’an, Wutai tai long and Tianjin. Xi’an drum music, consisting of hoist and percussive instruments, [ 122 ] is popular around Xi’an, and has received some commercial popularity outside of China. [ 123 ] Another significant musical instrument is the sheng, a type of Chinese pipe, an ancient musical instrument that is ancestor of all Western release reed instruments, such as the accordion. [ 124 ] Parades led by Western-type administration bands are common, frequently competing in volume with a shawm/chuigushou band. In southerly Fujian and Taiwan, Nanyin or Nanguan is a music genre of traditional ballads. [ 125 ] They are sung by a womanhood accompanied by a xiao and a pipa, deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as other traditional instruments. [ 126 ] The music is by and large sorrowful and typically deals with love-stricken people. [ 127 ] [ 128 ] Further south, in Shantou, Hakka and Chaozhou, zheng ensembles are popular. [ 129 ] Sizhu ensembles use flutes and bowed or plucked string instruments to make harmonious and tuneful music that has become democratic in the West among some listeners. [ 130 ] These are democratic in Nanjing and Hangzhou, deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as elsewhere along the southern Yangtze area. [ 131 ] Jiangnan Sizhu ( silk and bamboo music from Jiangnan ) is a style of implemental music, much played by amateurish musicians in tea houses in Shanghai. [ 132 ] Guangdong Music or yue Music is implemental music from Guangzhou and surrounding areas. [ 133 ] The music from this area influenced Yueju ( Cantonese Opera ) music, [ 134 ] which would late grow popular during the self-described “ golden Age ” of China under the PRC. [ 135 ]
traditional family music of Sri Lanka [edit ]
The art, music and dances of Sri Lanka deduce from the elements of nature, and have been enjoyed and developed in the Buddhist environment. [ 136 ] The music is of several types and uses alone a few types of instruments. [ 137 ] The folk music songs and poems were used in social gatherings to work together. The indian influence authoritative music has grown to be singular. [ 138 ] [ 139 ] [ 140 ] [ 141 ] The traditional drama, music and songs of Sinhala Light Music are typically Sri Lankan. [ 142 ] The temple paintings and carvings used birds, elephants, raving mad animals, flowers and trees, and the Traditional 18 Dances display the dance of birds and animals. [ 143 ] For exercise :
- Mayura Wannama – The dance of the peacock
- Hanuma Wannama – The dance of the monkey
- Gajaga Wannama – The dance of the elephant
musical types include :
- Local drama music includes Kolam and Nadagam types. Kolam music is based on low country tunes primarily to accompany mask dance in exorcism rituals. It is considered less developed/evolved, true to the folk tradition and a preserving of a more ancient artform. It is limited to approximately 3–4 notes and is used by the ordinary people for pleasure and entertainment.
- Nadagam music is a more developed form of drama influenced from South Indian street drama which was introduced by some south Indian Artists. Phillippu Singho from Negombo in 1824 Performed “Harishchandra Nadagama” in Hnguranketha which was originally written in Telingu language. Later “Maname”, “Sanda kinduru” and few others were introduced. Don Bastian of Dehiwala introduced Noorthy firstly by looking at Indian dramas and then John de Silva developed it as did Ramayanaya in 1886.
- Sinhala light music is currently the most popular type of music in Sri Lanka and enriched with the influence of folk music, kolam music, nadagam music, noorthy music, film music, classical music, western music, and others. Some artists visited India to learn music and later started introducing light music. Ananda Samarakone was the pioneer of this and also composed the national anthem.
The classical Sinhalese orchestra consists of five categories of instruments, but among the percussion instruments, the drum is all-important for dance. [ 160 ] The vibrant beat of the rhythm of the drums form the basic of the dance. [ 161 ] The dancers ‘ feet bounce off the floor and they leap and swirl in patterns that reflect the building complex rhythm of the cram beat. This drum pulsate may seem simple on the first hearing but it takes a long time to master the intricate cycle and variations, which the drummer sometimes can bring to a crescendo of saturation. There are six park types of drums falling within 3 styles ( one-faced, janus-faced, and flat-faced ) : [ 162 ] [ 163 ]
- The typical Sinhala Dance is identified as the Kandyan dance and the Gatabera drum is indispensable to this dance.
- Yak-bera is the demon drum or the, drum used in low country dance in which the dancers wear masks and perform devil dancing, which has become a highly developed form of art.
- The Daula is a barrel-shaped drum, and it was used as a companion drum with a Thammattama in the past, to keep strict time with the beat.
- The Thammattama is a flat, two-faced drum. The drummer strikes the drum on the two surfaces on top with sticks, unlike the others where you drum on the sides. This is a companion drum to the aforementioned Dawula.
- A small double-headed hand drum, used to accompany songs. It is mostly heard in the poetry dances like vannam.[ clarification needed]
- The Rabana is a flat-faced circular drum and comes in several sizes. The large Rabana – called the Banku Rabana – has to be placed on the floor like a circular short-legged table and several people (especially the womenfolk) can sit around it and beat on it with both hands. This is used in festivals such as the Sinhalese New Year and ceremonies such as weddings. The resounding beat of the Rabana symbolizes the joyous moods of the occasion. The small Rabana is a form of mobile drum beat since the player carries it wherever the person goes.
other instruments include :
- The Thalampata – 2 small cymbals joined by a string.
- The wind section, is dominated by an instrument akin to the clarinet.[ clearing needed
Read more: The 100 Greatest Songs of All Time
] This is not normally used for dances. This is important to note because the Sinhalese dance is not set to music as the western world knows it; rhythm is king.
- The flutes of metal such as silver & brass produce shrill music to accompany Kandyan Dances, while the plaintive strains of music of the reed flute may pierce the air in devil-dancing. The conch-shell (Hakgediya) is another form of a natural instrument, and the player blows it to announce the opening of ceremonies of grandeur.
- The Ravanahatha (ravanhatta, rawanhattha, ravanastron or ravana hasta veena) is a bowed fiddle that was once popular in Western India. It is believed to have originated among the Hela civilisation of Sri Lanka in the time of King Ravana. The bowl is made of cut coconut shell, the mouth of which is covered with goat hide. A dandi, made of bamboo, is attached to this shell. The principal strings are two: one of steel and the other of a set of horsehair. The long bow has jingle bells
Australia [edit ]
tribe song traditions were taken to Australia by early settlers from England, Scotland and Ireland and gained particular beachhead in the rural outback. [ 179 ] [ 180 ] The rhyme songs, poems and tales written in the form of pubic hair ballads frequently relate to the itinerant and rebellious spirit of Australia in The Bush, and the authors and performers are frequently referred to as scrub bards. [ 181 ] The nineteenth hundred was the golden senesce of bush ballads. [ 182 ] several collectors have catalogued the songs including John Meredith whose commemorate in the 1950s became the footing of the collection in the National Library of Australia. [ 181 ] The songs tell personal stories of life in the wide open country of Australia. [ 183 ] [ 184 ] distinctive subjects include mine, raising and droving cattle, sheep shear, wanderings, war stories, the 1891 australian shearers ‘ strickle, class conflicts between the landless working class and the squatters ( landowners ), and outlaws such as Ned Kelly, american samoa well as love interests and more mod fare such as truck. [ 185 ] The most celebrated bush ballad is “ Waltzing Matilda “, which has been called “ the unofficial national anthem of Australia ”. [ 186 ] autochthonal australian music includes the music of Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders, who are jointly called autochthonal Australians ; [ 187 ] it incorporates a assortment of distinctive traditional music styles practiced by Indigenous Australian peoples, ampere well as a range of contemporary musical styles of and fusion with european traditions as interpret and performed by autochthonal australian artists. [ 188 ] Music has formed an integral share of the social, cultural and ceremony observances of these peoples, down through the millennium of their individual and corporate histories to the present sidereal day. [ 189 ] [ 190 ] The traditional forms include many aspects of performance and musical instruments singular to particular regions or autochthonal australian groups. [ 191 ] equal elements of musical custom are common through much of the australian continent, and even beyond. [ 192 ] The acculturation of the Torres Strait Islanders is related to that of adjacent parts of New Guinea and then their music is besides related. Music is a critical part of autochthonal Australians ‘ cultural alimony. [ 193 ]
Europe [edit ]
celtic traditional music [edit ]
celtic music is a term used by artists, criminal record companies, music stores and music magazines to describe a broad group of musical genres that evolved out of the family musical traditions of the Celtic peoples. [ 194 ] These traditions include Irish, Scottish, Manx, Cornish, Welsh, and Breton traditions. [ 195 ] Asturian and Galician music is frequently included, though there is no significant research showing that this has any close musical relationship. [ 196 ] [ 197 ] Brittany ‘s Folk revival began in the 1950s with the “ bagadoù ” and the “ kan-ha-diskan ” before growing to world fame through Alan Stivell ‘s function since the mid-1960s. [ 198 ] In Ireland, The Clancy Brothers and Tommy Makem ( although its members were all Irish-born, the group became celebrated while based in New York ‘s Greenwich Village [ 199 ] ), The Dubliners, [ 200 ] Clannad, [ 201 ] Planxty, [ 202 ] The Chieftains, [ 203 ] [ 204 ] The Pogues, [ 205 ] The Corrs, [ 206 ] The irish Rovers, [ 207 ] and a assortment of early family bands have done much over the past few decades to revitalise and re-popularise irish traditional music. [ 208 ] These bands were rooted, to a greater or lesser extent, in a custom of irish music and benefited from the efforts of artists such as Seamus Ennis and Peter Kennedy. [ 198 ] In Scotland, The Corries, [ 209 ] Silly Wizard, [ 210 ] [ 211 ] Capercaillie, [ 212 ] Runrig, [ 213 ] Jackie Leven, [ 214 ] Julie Fowlis, [ 215 ] Karine Polwart, [ 216 ] Alasdair Roberts, [ 217 ] [ 218 ] Dick Gaughan, [ 219 ] Wolfstone, [ 220 ] Boys of the Lough, [ 221 ] and The Silencers [ 222 ] have kept scots folk vibrant and fresh by mixing traditional scots and Gaelic folk songs with more contemporary genres. [ 223 ] These artists have besides been commercially successful in continental Europe and North America. [ 224 ] There is an emerging wealth of endowment in the scottish traditional music scene, with bands such as Mànran, [ 225 ] Skipinnish, [ 226 ] Barluath [ 227 ] and Breabach [ 228 ] and alone artists such as Patsy Reid, [ 229 ] Robyn Stapleton [ 230 ] and Mischa MacPherson [ 231 ] gaining a set of success in late years. [ 232 ]
Central and Eastern Europe [edit ]
During the Communist earned run average national family dancing in the easterly Bloc was actively promoted by the submit. [ 233 ] Dance troupes from Russia and Poland toured non-communist Europe from about 1937 to 1990. [ 234 ] The Red Army Choir recorded many albums, becoming the most popular military band. [ 235 ] Eastern Europe is besides the origin of the jewish Klezmer tradition. [ 236 ]
Ľubomír Párička play bagpipes, Slovakia The polka is a central european dance and besides a genre of dance music familiar throughout Europe and the Americas. It originated in the middle of the nineteenth century in Bohemia. [ 237 ] Polka is still a democratic music genre of folk music in many european countries and is performed by folk artists in Poland, Latvia, Lithuania, Czech Republic, Netherlands, Croatia, Slovenia, Germany, Hungary, Austria, Switzerland, Italy, Ukraine, Belarus, Russia and Slovakia. [ 238 ] Local varieties of this dance are besides found in the Nordic countries, United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland, Latin America ( specially Mexico ), and in the United States. german Volkslieder perpetuated by Liederhandschriften manuscripts like Carmina Burana [ 239 ] date back to chivalric Minnesang and Meistersinger traditions. [ 240 ] Those tribe songs revived in the late eighteenth hundred menstruation of german Romanticism, [ 241 ] first promoted by Johann Gottfried Herder [ 242 ] [ 243 ] and other advocates of the Enlightenment, [ 244 ] later compiled by Achim von Arnim [ 245 ] and Clemens Brentano ( Des Knaben Wunderhorn ) [ 246 ] american samoa well as by Ludwig Uhland. [ 247 ] The Volksmusik and folk dances genre, particularly in the Alpine regions of Bavaria, Austria, Switzerland ( Kuhreihen ) and South Tyrol, improving to today has lingered in countrified communities against the backdrop of industrialization [ 248 ] —Low german shanties or the Wienerlied [ 249 ] ( Schrammelmusik ) being luminary exceptions. Slovene family music in Upper Carniola and Styria besides originated from the Alpine traditions, like the prolific Lojze Slak Ensemble. [ 250 ] Traditional Volksmusik is not to be confused with commercial Volkstümliche Musik, which is a derivation of that. [ 251 ] The Hungarian group Muzsikás played numerous american tours [ 252 ] and participated in the Hollywood movie The English Patient [ 253 ] while the singer Márta Sebestyén worked with the band Deep Forest. [ 254 ] The hungarian táncház drift, started in the 1970s, involves strong cooperation between musicology experts and enthusiastic amateurs. [ 255 ] however, traditional hungarian folk music music and folk acculturation scantily survived in some rural areas of Hungary, and it has besides begun to disappear among the heathen Hungarians in Transylvania. The táncház campaign revived broader folk music traditions of music, dance, and costume together and created a new kind of music club. [ 256 ] The bowel movement spread to cultural hungarian communities elsewhere in the world. [ 256 ]
Balkan music [edit ]
Balkan folk music was influenced by the mix of Balkan cultural groups in the period of Ottoman Empire. [ 257 ] It comprises the music of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Montenegro, Serbia, Romania, Republic of Macedonia, Albania, some of the historic states of Yugoslavia or the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro and geographic regions such as Thrace. [ 258 ] Some music is characterised by complex rhythm. [ 259 ] A celebrated act is The mystery of the bulgarian Voices, which won a Grammy Award in 1989. [ 260 ] [ 261 ] An important part of the hale Balkan family music is the music of the local anesthetic Romani ethnic minority, which is called Tallava and Brass band music. [ 262 ] [ 263 ]
scandinavian tribe music [edit ]
latvian men ‘s folk music ensemble Vilki, performing at the festival of Baltic crafts and war Apuolė 854 in Apuolė, August 2009 scandinavian family music includes a numeral of traditions in Northern European, particularly scandinavian, countries. The nordic countries are broadly taken to include Iceland, Norway, Finland, Sweden, Denmark and Greenland. [ 264 ] Sometimes it is taken to include the baltic countries of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. [ 265 ]
The many regions of the Nordic countries contribution certain traditions, many of which have diverged importantly, like Psalmodicon of Denmark, Sweden, and Norway. [ 266 ] It is possible to group together the Baltic states ( or, sometimes, merely Estonia ) and parts of northwest Russia as sharing cultural similarities, [ 267 ] although the kinship has gone cold in late years. [ 268 ] Contrast with Norway, Sweden, Denmark and the Atlantic islands of, Iceland and the Faroe Islands, which share about no similarities of that kind. Greenland ‘s Inuit culture has its own alone musical traditions. [ 269 ] Finland shares many cultural similarities with both the Baltic nations and the scandinavian nations. The Sami of Sweden, Norway, Finland and Russia have their own unique acculturation, with ties to the adjacent cultures. [ 270 ] swedish folk music music is a genre of music based largely on folkloric collection employment that began in the early nineteenth hundred in Sweden. [ 271 ] The basal instrument of swedish folk music is the fiddle. [ 272 ] Another common legal document, unique to swedish traditions, is the nyckelharpa. [ 273 ] Most Swedish instrumental family music is dance music ; the touch music and dance form within swedish folk music music is the poland. [ 274 ] Vocal and instrumental traditions in Sweden have tended to partake tunes historically, though they have been performed individually. [ 275 ] Beginning with the folk music revival of the 1970s, vocalists and instrumentalists have besides begun to perform together in folk music music ensembles .
Latin and South America [edit ]
The family music of the Americas consists of the find and union of three independent musical types : european traditional music, traditional music of the american natives, and tribal African music that arrived with slaves from that continent. The particular event of Latin and South American music points to Andean music [ 276 ] among other native musical styles ( such as Caribbean [ 277 ] and pampean ), iberian music of Spain and Portugal, and by and large speak african tribal music, the three of which fused in concert evolving in speciate melodious forms in Central and South America. andean music comes from the region of the Quechuas, Aymaras, and other peoples that inhabit the general sphere of the Inca Empire anterior to European touch. [ 278 ] It includes folklore music of parts of Bolivia, Ecuador, [ 279 ] Chile, Colombia, Peru and Venezuela. Andean music is democratic to different degrees across Latin America, having its core public in rural areas and among autochthonal populations. The Nueva Canción movement of the 1970s revived the genre across Latin America and brought it to places where it was unknown or forgotten. Nueva canción ( spanish for ‘new birdcall ‘ ) is a motion and genre within romance american and iberian family music, folk-inspired music, and socially entrust music. In some respects its growth and function is similar to the moment folk music revival in North America. This includes development of this new writing style from traditional folk music music, basically contemporary folk music except that that English music genre term is not normally applied to it. Nueva cancion is recognized as having played a mighty function in the social upheavals in Portugal, Spain and Latin America during the 1970s and 1980s. Nueva cancion first surfaced during the 1960s as “ The Chilean New Song ” in Chile. The musical manner emerged concisely afterwards in Spain and areas of Latin America where it came to be known under like names. Nueva canción renewed traditional latin american family music, and with its political lyrics it was soon associated with rotatory movements, the latin american New Left, Liberation Theology, hippie and human rights movements. It would gain big popularity throughout Latin America, and it is regarded as a precursor to Rock en español. Cueca is a family of musical styles and consort dances from Chile, Bolivia and Peru. Trova and Son are styles of traditional Cuban music originating in the province of Oriente that includes influences from spanish song and dancing, such as Bolero and contradanza vitamin a well as Afro-Cuban rhythm method of birth control and percussion elements. Moda de viola is the appoint designated to brazilian tribe music. It is much performed with a 6-string nylon acoustic guitar, but the most traditional instrument is the viola caipira. The songs basically detailed the difficulties of life of those who work in the nation. The themes are normally associated with the bring, animals, folklore, impossible love and separation. Although there are some upbeat songs, most of them are nostalgic and melancholy .
North America [edit ]
Canada [edit ]
French-Canadian lumberjacks playing the fiddle, with sticks for percussion, in a lumber camp in 1943. Canada ‘s traditional folk music music is particularly diverse. [ 280 ] even anterior to liberalizing its immigration laws in the 1960s, Canada was ethnically diverse with dozens of different Indigenous and european groups present. In terms of music, academics do not speak of a canadian custom, but rather ethnic traditions ( acadian music, Irish-Canadian music, Blackfoot music, Innu music, Inuit music, Métis tinker, etc. ) and later in Eastern Canada regional traditions ( Newfoundland music, Cape Breton tinker, Quebecois music, etc. )
traditional tribe music of european lineage has been stage in Canada since the arrival of the foremost french and british settlers in the 16th and 17th centuries … .They fished the coastal waters and farmed the shores of what became Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, and the St Lawrence River valley of Quebec. The fur barter and its voyageurs brought this far north and west into Canada ; later lumbering operations and lumberjacks continued this march. agrarian village in eastern and southerly Ontario and western Quebec in the early nineteenth century established a favorable milieu for the survival of many Anglo-Canadian folksongs and broadside ballads from Great Britain and the US. Despite massive industrialization, folk music music traditions have persisted in many areas until nowadays. In the union of Ontario, a large Franco-Ontarian population kept folk music of french origin alert. populous acadian communities in the Atlantic provinces contributed their song variants to the huge principal of tribe music of french origin centred in the province of Quebec. A full-bodied source of Anglo-Canadian tribe music can be found in the Atlantic region, particularly Newfoundland. Completing this mosaic of musical folklore is the celtic music of scots settlements, particularly in Cape Breton, and the hundreds of irish songs whose presence in eastern Canada dates from the Irish dearth of the 1840s, which forced the large migrations of Irish to North America. [ 280 ]
“ Knowledge of the history of Canada “, wrote Isabelle Mills in 1974, “ is necessity in understanding the mosaic of canadian folk song. contribution of this mosaic is supplied by the folk songs of Canada bring by european and old english settlers to the raw kingdom. ” [ 12 ] She describes how the french colony at Québec brought french immigrants, followed before long by waves of immigrants from Great Britain, Germany, and other european countries, all bringing music from their homelands, some of which survives into the present day. Ethnographer and folklorist Marius Barbeau estimated that well over ten-spot thousand French folk music songs and their variants had been collected in Canada. Many of the older ones had by then died out in France. Music as professionalized pay entertainment grew relatively slowly in Canada, particularly outside rural areas, through the 19th and early twentieth centuries. While in urban music clubs of the dance hall / vaudeville variety show became popular, followed by jazz, rural Canada remained by and large a land of traditional music. Yet when american radio receiver networks began broadcasting into Canada in the 1920s and 1930s, the audience for canadian traditional music increasingly declined in favor of american Nashville-style state music and urban styles like jazz. The Americanization of Canadian music led the canadian Radio League to lobby for a national public broadcaster in the 1930s, finally leading to the creation of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation ( CBC ) in 1936. The CBC promoted canadian music, including traditional music, on its radio and later television services, but the mid-century craze for all things “ advanced ” led to the descent of family music relative to rock and pop. Canada was however influenced by the tribe music revival of the 1960s, when local venues such as the Montreal Folk Workshop, and other folk music clubs and coffee bean houses across the state, became crucibles for emerging songwriters and performers american samoa well as for substitute with artists visiting from abroad .
United States [edit ]
American traditional music is besides called roots music. Roots music is a broad category of music including bluegrass, state music, gospel, erstwhile time music, imprison bands, appalachian folk music, blues, Cajun and native american music. The music is considered american either because it is native to the United States or because it developed there, out of foreign origins, to such a academic degree that it struck musicologists as something distinctly new. It is considered “ root music ” because it served as the basis of music former developed in the United States, including rock and roll, contemporary tribe music, cycle and blues, and sleep together. Some of these genres are considered to be traditional folk music music .
Folk music revivals [edit ]
“ It ‘s self-perpetuating, regenerative. It ‘s what you ‘d call a perennial american birdcall. I do n’t think it needs a revival, resuscitation. It lives and flourishes. It actually precisely inevitably people who are 18 years erstwhile to get exposed to it. But it will go on with or without them. The folk sung is more powerful than anything on the radio, than anything that ‘s released … It ‘s that distillate of the voices that goes on for a long, long time, and that ‘s what makes them hard. ” [ 284 ]
“ Folk music revival ” refers to either a time period of renewed interest in traditional tribe music, or to an event or period which transforms it ; the latter normally includes a social activism part. A big exercise of the former is the british family revival of approximately 1890–1920. The most outstanding and influential exemplar of the latter ( to the extent that it is normally called “ the folk music revival ” ) is the tribe revival of the mid twentieth hundred, centered in the English-speaking worldly concern which gave parturition to contemporaneous folk music music. See the “ contemporaneous folk music music “ article for a description of this revival. One earlier revival influenced western classical music music. such composers as Percy Grainger, Ralph Vaughan Williams and Béla Bartók, made plain recordings or transcriptions of tribe singers and musicians. In Spain, Isaac Albéniz ( 1860–1909 ) produced piano works reflect his spanish inheritance, including the Suite Iberia ( 1906–1909 ). Enrique Granados ( 1867–1918 ) composed zarzuela, spanish alight opera, and Danzas Españolas – spanish Dances. Manuel de Falla ( 1876–1946 ) became concerned in the cante jondo of andalusian flamenco, the influence of which can be strongly felt in many of his works, which include Nights in the Gardens of Spain and Siete canciones populares españolas ( “ Seven spanish Folksongs ”, for voice and piano ). Composers such as Fernando Sor and Francisco Tarrega established the guitar as Spain ‘s national instrument. mod spanish tribe artists abound ( Mil one Maria, Russian Red, et alabama. ) modernizing while respecting the traditions of their forebears. Flamenco grew in popularity through the twentieth century, as did northerly styles such as the Celtic music of Galicia. french classical music composers, from Bizet to Ravel, besides drew upon spanish themes, and classifiable spanish genres became universally recognized. Folk music revivals or roots revivals besides encompass a rate of phenomenon around the worldly concern where there is a renewed interest in traditional music. This is much by the youthful, often in the traditional music of their own state, and much included new incorporation of social awareness, causes, and evolutions of modern music in the same dash. Nueva canción, a alike evolution of a new shape of socially committed music occurred in several spanish-speaking countries .
contemporaneous tribe music [edit ]
Festivals [edit ]
United States [edit ]
It is sometimes claimed that the earliest United States folk music festival was the Mountain Dance and Folk Festival, [ 286 ] [ 287 ] 1928, in Asheville, North Carolina, founded by Bascom Lamar Lunsford. [ 288 ] The National Folk Festival ( USA ) is an itinerant folk festival in the United States. [ 289 ] Since 1934, it has been run by the National Council for the Traditional Arts ( NCTA ) and has been presented in 26 communities around the state. [ 290 ] After leaving some of these communities, the National Folk Festival has spun off several locally run family festivals in its wake including the Lowell Folk Festival, [ 291 ] the Richmond Folk Festival, [ 292 ] the American Folk Festival [ 293 ] and, most recently, the Montana Folk Festival. [ 294 ] The Newport Folk Festival is an annual family festival held near Newport, Rhode Island. [ 295 ] It ran most years from 1959 to 1970 and from 1985 to the show, with an attendance of approximately 10,000 people each year. [ 296 ] The four-day Philadelphia Folk Festival began in 1962. [ 297 ] It is sponsored by the non-profit Philadelphia Folksong Society. [ 298 ] The event hosts contemporary and traditional artists in genres including World/Fusion, Celtic, Singer-Songwriter, Folk Rock, Country, Klezmer, and Dance. [ 299 ] [ 300 ] It is held per annum on the third weekend in August. [ 301 ] The event now hosts approximately 12,000 visitors, presenting bands on 6 stages. [ 302 ] The Feast of the Hunters ‘ Moon in Indiana draws approximately 60,000 visitors per year. [ 303 ]
United Kingdom [edit ]
Sidmouth Festival began in 1954, [ 304 ] and Cambridge Folk Festival began in 1965. [ 305 ] The Cambridge Folk Festival in Cambridge, England is noted for having a very wide definition of who can be invited as tribe musicians. [ 306 ] The “ club tents ” allow attendees to discover large numbers of unknown artists, who, for ten or 15 minutes each, present their work to the festival audience. [ 307 ]
Australia [edit ]
The National Folk Festival is Australia ‘s premier tribe festival event and is attended by over 50,000 people. [ 308 ] [ 309 ] The Woodford Folk Festival and Port Fairy Folk Festival are similarly amongst Australia ‘s largest major annual events, attracting top external folk performers ampere well as many local artists. [ 310 ] [ 311 ]
Canada [edit ]
Stan Rogers is a survive regular of the Canadian family festival Summerfolk, held annually in Owen Sound, Ontario, where the main phase and amphitheater are dedicated as the “ Stan Rogers Memorial Canopy ”. [ 312 ] The festival is hard fixed in custom, with Rogers ‘ song “ The Mary Ellen Carter “ being sung by all involved, including the hearing and a medley of acts at the festival. [ 313 ] [ 314 ] The Canmore Folk Music Festival is Alberta ‘s longest running folk music festival. [ 315 ]
early [edit ]
Urkult Näsåker, Ångermanland held August each class is purportedly Sweden ‘s largest world-music festival. [ 316 ]
See besides [edit ]
References [edit ]
Citations [edit ]
Sources [edit ]
- These sources are cited above with multiple abbreviated cites with varying locations.
far reading [edit ]
( does not include those used as references )