Toronto – Wikipedia

Capital city of Ontario, Canada
This article is about the city in Ontario. For other uses, see Toronto ( disambiguation ) “ City of Toronto ” redirects here. For the city ‘s government, see municipal government of Toronto

City in Ontario, Canada
Toronto (, ) [ 13 ] [ 14 ] [ 15 ] is the capital city of the canadian state of Ontario. With a record population of 2,731,571 in 2016, [ 16 ] it is the most populous city in Canada and the fourthly most populous city in North America. The city is the anchor of the Golden Horseshoe, an urban agglomeration of 9,245,438 people ( as of 2016 ) surrounding the western end of Lake Ontario, [ 17 ] while the Greater Toronto Area proper had a 2016 population of 6,417,516. Toronto is an international concentrate of business, finance, arts, and acculturation, and is recognized as one of the most multicultural and cosmopolitan cities in the worldly concern. [ 18 ] [ 19 ] [ 20 ] autochthonal peoples have travelled through and inhabited the Toronto sphere, located on a broad slope tableland interspersed with rivers, deep ravines, and urban forest, for more than 10,000 years. [ 21 ] After the broadly disputed Toronto Purchase, when the Mississauga surrendered the sphere to the british Crown, the british established the township of York in 1793 and subsequently designated it as the das kapital of Upper Canada. [ 23 ] During the War of 1812, the town was the site of the Battle of York and suffered heavy damage by american troops. [ 24 ] York was renamed and incorporated in 1834 as the city of Toronto. It was designated as the capital of the province of Ontario in 1867 during canadian Confederation. [ 25 ] The city proper has since expanded past its original limits through both annexation and amalgamation to its current area of 630.2 km2 ( 243.3 sq myocardial infarction ). The divers population of Toronto reflects its current and historic function as an important finish for immigrants to Canada. [ 26 ] [ 27 ] More than 50 percentage of residents belong to a visible minority population group, [ 28 ] and over 200 distinct heathen origins are represented among its inhabitants. [ 29 ] While the majority of Torontonians speak English as their primary terminology, over 160 languages are spoken in the city. [ 30 ] The mayor of Toronto is elected by direct popular right to vote to serve as the foreman administrator of the city. The Toronto City Council is a unicameral legislative body, comprising 25 councillors since the 2018 municipal election, representing geographic wards throughout the city. [ 31 ] Toronto is a outstanding center for music, [ 32 ] field, [ 33 ] motion picture production, [ 34 ] and television production, [ 35 ] and is home to the headquarters of Canada ‘s major national broadcast networks and media outlets. [ 36 ] Its deviate cultural institutions, [ 37 ] which include numerous museums and galleries, festivals and populace events, entertainment districts, national historic sites, and sports activities, [ 38 ] attract over 43 million tourists each class. [ 39 ] [ 40 ] Toronto is known for its many skyscrapers and high-rise buildings, [ 41 ] in especial the tallest free-standing structure in the Western Hemisphere, the CN Tower. [ 42 ] The city is home to the Toronto Stock Exchange, the headquarters of Canada ‘s five largest banks, and the headquarters of many boastfully canadian and multinational corporations. Its economy is highly diversified with strengths in engineering, design, fiscal services, life sciences, education, arts, fashion, aerospace, environmental initiation, food services, and tourism. [ 45 ] [ 46 ] [ 47 ]

etymology

The word Toronto was recorded with assorted spellings in French and English, including Tarento, Tarontha, Taronto, Toranto, Torento, Toronto, and Toronton. Taronto referred to “ The Narrows ”, a transmit of urine through which Lake Simcoe discharges into Lake Couchiching where the Huron had planted corner saplings to corral fish. This narrows was called tkaronto by the Mohawk, meaning “ where there are trees standing in the water, ” [ 50 ] [ 51 ] and was recorded vitamin a early on as 1615 by Samuel de Champlain. The password “ Toronto ”, meaning “ plenty ” besides appears in a 1632 french dictionary of the Huron terminology, which is besides an iroquoian speech. It besides appears on french maps referring to versatile locations, including georgian Bay, Lake Simcoe, and several rivers. A portage path from Lake Ontario to Lake Huron running through this point, known as the Toronto Carrying-Place Trail, led to widespread function of the mention .

history

The web site of Toronto laic at the entrance to one of the oldest routes to the northwest, a road known and used by the Huron, Iroquois, and Ojibwe, and was of strategic importance from the beginning of Ontario ‘s recorded history. [ 55 ] In the 1660s, the Iroquois established two villages within what is nowadays Toronto, Ganatsekwyagon on the banks of the Rouge River and Teiaiagon on the banks of the Humber River. By 1701, the Mississauga had displaced the Iroquois, who abandoned the Toronto area at the end of the Beaver Wars, with most returning to their fatherland in contemporary New York .
In the seventeenth century, the area was a all-important link for travel, with the Humber and Rouge rivers providing a shortcut to the upper Great Lakes. These routes together were known as the Toronto Passage french traders founded Fort Rouillé in 1750 ( the current Exhibition grounds were subsequently developed here ), but abandoned it in 1759 during the Seven Years ‘ War. [ 57 ] The british defeated the french and their autochthonal allies in the war, and the area became part of the british colony of Quebec in 1763. During the American Revolutionary War, an inflow of british settlers came here as United Empire Loyalists fled for the British-controlled lands north of Lake Ontario. The Crown granted them land to compensate for their losses in the Thirteen Colonies. The new state of Upper Canada was being created and needed a capital. In 1787, the british Lord Dorchester arranged for the Toronto Purchase with the Mississauga of the New Credit First Nation, thereby securing more than a quarter of a million acres ( 1000 km2 ) of land in the Toronto area. [ 58 ] Dorchester intended the localization to be named Toronto. The first 25 years after the Toronto purchase was quieten, although “ there were occasional autonomous fur traders ” deliver in the area, with the common complaints of orgy and drunkenness. [ 55 ] In 1793, Governor John Graves Simcoe established the town of York on the Toronto Purchase lands, naming it after Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany. Simcoe decided to move the Upper Canada capital from Newark ( Niagara-on-the-Lake ) to York, [ 59 ] believing the newly web site would be less vulnerable to attack by the United States. [ 60 ] The York garrison was built at the entrance of the township ‘s natural harbor, sheltered by a long sand-bar peninsula. The township ‘s colony formed at the harbor ‘s eastern end behind the peninsula, near the contemporary overlap of Parliament Street and Front Street ( in the “ Old Town “ area ) .

nineteenth century

In 1813, as separate of the War of 1812, the Battle of York ended in the town ‘s capture and loot by United States forces. [ 61 ] John Strachan negotiated the town ‘s surrender. american soldiers destroyed much of the garrison and set fire to the parliament buildings during their five-day occupation. Because of the displace of York, british troops retaliated later in the war with the cut of Washington, D.C .
York was incorporated as the City of Toronto on March 6, 1834, adopting an autochthonal appoint. Reformist politician William Lyon Mackenzie became the first mayor of Toronto and led the unsuccessful Upper Canada Rebellion of 1837 against the british colonial government. Toronto ‘s population of 9,000 included african-american slaves, some of whom were brought by the Loyalists, including Mohawk drawing card Joseph Brant, and fewer Black Loyalists, whom the Crown had freed ( most of the latter were resettled in Nova Scotia ). By 1834, refugee slaves from America ‘s South were besides immigrating to Toronto, settling in Canada to gain freedom. [ 62 ] Slavery was banned outright in Upper Canada ( and throughout the british Empire ) in 1834. [ 63 ] Torontonians integrated people of semblance into their club. In the 1840s, an eat house at Frederick and King Streets, a place of mercantile prosperity in the early city, was operated by a black man named Bloxom. As a major finish for immigrants to Canada, the city grew quickly through the remainder of the nineteenth century. The first significant roll of immigrants were irish, fleeing the Great Irish Famine ; most of them were Catholic. By 1851, the Irish-born population had become the largest unmarried ethnic group in the city. The scottish and english population welcomed smaller numbers of Protestant Irish immigrants, some from what is now Northern Ireland, which gave the Orange Order significant and durable determine over Toronto society .
opinion of Toronto in 1854. Toronto became a major finish for immigrants to Canada in the second base one-half of the nineteenth century. For brief periods, Toronto was doubly the capital of the unite province of Canada : first from 1849 to 1852, following unrest in Montreal, and late 1856–1858. After this date, Quebec was designated as the capital until 1866 ( one year before canadian Confederation ). Since then, the capital of Canada has remained Ottawa, Ontario. [ 65 ] Toronto became the capital of the state of Ontario after its official initiation in 1867. The seat of government of the Ontario Legislature is at Queen ‘s Park. Because of its provincial capital status, the city was besides the location of Government House, the residence of the viceregal representative of the Crown in right of Ontario. retentive before the Royal Military College of Canada was established in 1876, supporters of the concept proposed military colleges in Canada. Staffed by british Regulars, pornographic male students underwent a three-month-long military course at the School of Military Instruction in Toronto. Established by Militia General Order in 1864, the school enabled officers of militia or candidates for commission or promotion in the Militia to learn military duties, drill and discipline, to command a party at Battalion Drill, to drill a caller at Company Drill, the inner economy of a ship’s company, and the duties of a company ‘s policeman. [ 66 ] The school was retained at Confederation, in 1867. In 1868, Schools of cavalry and artillery instruction were formed in Toronto. [ 67 ]
The Gooderham and Worts buildings c. nineteenth century. The distillery became the world ‘s largest whiskey factory by the 1860s. In the nineteenth century, the city built an across-the-board sewage system to improve sanitation, and streets were illuminated with gas ignite as a regular service. Long-distance railway lines were constructed, including a road completed in 1854 linking Toronto with the Upper Great Lakes. The Grand Trunk Railway and the Northern Railway of Canada joined in the build up of the inaugural Union Station in downtown. The second coming of the railway dramatically increased the numbers of immigrants arriving, commerce and industry, as had the Lake Ontario steamers and schooners entering interface before. These enabled Toronto to become a major gateway linking the earth to the home of the north american continent. Toronto became the largest alcohol distillate ( in particular, spirits ) centre in North America. By the 1860s, the Gooderham and Worts Distillery operations became the world ‘s largest whiskey factory. A save department of this once dominant local diligence remains in the Distillery District. The harbor allowed for certain access to grain and sugar imports used in process. Expanding port and vilify facilities brought in northerly lumber for export and imported Pennsylvania coal. Industry dominated the waterfront for the next 100 years .
horse-drawn streetcars in 1890. The city ‘s streetcar system transitioned to electric-powered streetcars in 1892. horse-drawn streetcars gave way to electric streetcars in 1891, when the city granted the operation of the transit franchise to the Toronto Railway Company. The public transit system passed into populace ownership in 1921 as the Toronto Transportation Commission, late renamed the Toronto Transit Commission. The system now has the third-highest ridership of any city populace transportation system system in North America. [ 68 ]

twentieth century

The Great Toronto Fire of 1904 destroyed a large section of downtown Toronto. The fire destroyed more than 100 buildings. [ 69 ] The ardor claimed one victim, John Croft, who was an explosive adept clearing the ruins from the fire. [ 70 ] It caused CA $ 10,387,000 in wrong ( approximately CA $ 277,600,000 in 2020 terms ). [ 71 ] The city received new european immigrant groups beginning in the late nineteenth century into the early twentieth hundred, particularly Germans, french, Italians, and Jews. They were soon followed by Russians, Poles, and early easterly european nations, in addition to chinese entering from the West. As the Irish before them, many of these migrants lived in overcrowd shanty-type slums, such as “ the Ward “ which was centred on Bay Street, now the heart of the country ‘s Financial District .
As fresh migrants began to prosper, they moved to better house in other areas, in what is now understand to be succession waves of liquidation. Despite its fast-paced growth, by the 1920s, Toronto ‘s population and economic importance in Canada remained second gear to the much longer established Montreal, Quebec. however, by 1934, the Toronto Stock Exchange had become the largest in the state. In 1954, the City of Toronto and 12 surrounding municipalities were federated into a regional government known as Metropolitan Toronto. [ 72 ] The postwar boom had resulted in rapid suburban growth and it was believed a organize land-use strategy and shared services would provide greater efficiency for the area. The metropolitan government began to manage services that crossed municipal boundaries, including highways, patrol services, urine and public transit. In that class, a half-century after the Great Fire of 1904, disaster struck the city again when Hurricane Hazel brought acute winds and flash flood. In the Toronto sphere, 81 people were killed, closely 1,900 families were left homeless, and the hurricane caused more than CA $ 25 million in damage. [ 73 ] In 1967, the seven smallest municipalities of Metropolitan Toronto were merged with larger neighbours, resulting in a six-municipality shape that included the former city of Toronto and the surrounding municipalities of East York, Etobicoke, North York, Scarborough, and York. [ 74 ]
In the decades after World War II, refugees from war-torn Europe and taiwanese job-seekers arrived, deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as structure labourers, particularly from Italy and Portugal. Toronto ‘s population grew to more than one million in 1951 when large-scale suburbanization began and doubled to two million by 1971. Following the elimination of racially based immigration policies by the late 1960s, Toronto became a destination for immigrants from all parts of the world. By the 1980s, Toronto had surpassed Montreal as Canada ‘s most populous city and chief economic hub. During this time, in part owing to the political doubt raised by the revival of the Quebec sovereignty movement, many national and multinational corporations moved their heading offices from Montreal to Toronto and Western Canadian cities. [ 75 ] On January 1, 1998, Toronto was greatly enlarged, not through traditional annexations, but as an amalgamation of the Municipality of Metropolitan Toronto and its six lower-tier component municipalities : East York, Etobicoke, North York, Scarborough, York, and the original city itself. They were dissolved by an act of the Government of Ontario, and formed into a single-tier City of Toronto ( colloquially dubbed the “ megacity “ ) replacing all six governments. The fusion was proposed as a cost-saving standard by the Progressive Conservative peasant politics under Mike Harris. The announcement touched off blatant public objections. In March 1997, a referendum in all six municipalities produced a vote of more than 3∶1 against amalgamation. [ 76 ] however, municipal governments in Canada are creatures of the provincial governments, and referendums have fiddling to no legal effect. The Harris government could therefore legally ignore the results of the referendum, and did so in April when it tabled the City of Toronto Act. Both opposition parties held a filibuster in the provincial legislature, proposing more than 12,000 amendments that allowed residents on streets of the proposed megacity take part in public hearings on the amalgamation and adding historical designations to the streets. [ 77 ] This only delayed the bill ‘s inevitable passage, given the PCO ‘s majority. North York mayor Mel Lastman became the first gear “ megacity ” mayor, and the 62nd mayor of Toronto, with his electoral victory. [ 78 ] Lastman gained national attention after multiple snowstorms, including the January Blizzard of 1999, dumped 118 curium of snow and efficaciously immobilized the city. [ 79 ] [ 80 ] He called in the canadian Army to aid snow removal by use of their equipment to augment police and hand brake services. The move was ridiculed by some in other parts of the area, fuelled in function by what was perceived as a frivolous habit of resources. [ 81 ] [ 82 ]

twenty-first hundred

The city attracted international attention in 2003 when it became the center of a major Severe acute respiratory syndrome ( SARS ) outbreak. Public health attempts to prevent the disease from spreading elsewhere temporarily dampened the local economy. [ 83 ] From August 14–17, 2003, the city was hit by a massive blackout which affected millions of Torontonians ( it besides affected most of Southern Ontario and parts of the United States ), stranding some hundreds of people in tall buildings, knocking out traffic lights and suspending metro and streetcar service across the city during those aforesaid days. [ 84 ] On March 6, 2009, the city celebrated the hundred-and-seventy-fifth anniversary of its origin as the City of Toronto in 1834. Toronto hosted the 4th G20 acme during June 26–27, 2010. This included the largest security operation in canadian history. Following large-scale protests and carouse, law enforcement conducted the largest mass collar ( more than a thousand people ) in canadian history. [ 85 ] On July 8, 2013, severe flash flood hit Toronto after an afternoon of slow-moving, intense thunderstorms. Toronto Hydro estimated 450,000 people were without might after the storm and Toronto Pearson International Airport reported 126 millimeter ( 5 in ) of rain had fallen over five hours, more than during Hurricane Hazel. [ 86 ] Within six months, from December 20 to 22, 2013, Toronto was brought to a near crippled by the worst ice storm in the city ‘s history, rivalling the badness of the 1998 Ice Storm ( which by and large affected southeast Ontario, and Quebec ). At the altitude of the storm, over 300,000 Toronto Hydro customers had no electricity or heating. [ 87 ] Toronto hosted WorldPride in June 2014, [ 88 ] and the Pan American Games in 2015. [ 89 ] The city continues to grow and attract immigrants. A study by Ryerson University showed that Toronto was the fastest-growing city in North America. The city added 77,435 people between July 2017 and July 2018. The Toronto metropolitan sphere was the second-fastest-growing metropolitan area in North America, adding 125,298 persons, compared with 131,767 in the Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington metroplex in Texas. The large emergence in the Toronto metropolitan area is attributed to international migration to Toronto. [ 90 ] The COVID-19 pandemic in Canada first occurred in Toronto and is among the hotspots in the country. [ 91 ] [ 92 ]

geography

Toronto covers an area of 630 square kilometres ( 243 sq mi ), [ 93 ] with a maximal north–south distance of 21 kilometres ( 13 security service ). It has a maximum east–west distance of 43 km ( 27 security service ) and it has a 46-kilometre ( 29 mi ) retentive waterfront shoreline, on the northwestern land of Lake Ontario. The Toronto Islands and Port Lands extend out into the lake, allowing for a reasonably sheltered Toronto Harbour south of the downtown effect. [ 94 ] An Outer Harbour was constructed southeast of downtown during the 1950s and 1960s and it is now used for refreshment. The city ‘s borders are formed by Lake Ontario to the south, the western boundary of Marie Curtis Park, Etobicoke Creek, Eglinton Avenue and Highway 427 to the west, Steeles Avenue to the north and the Rouge River and the Scarborough–Pickering town argumentation to the east .

topography

Satellite image of Toronto and surrounding area. Urban areas of the city are interrupted by the Toronto ravine system The city is by and large flat or gentle hills and the land lightly slopes up away from the lake. The bland land is interrupted by the Toronto ravine system, which is cut by numerous creeks and rivers of the Toronto waterway organization, most notably the Humber River in the west end, the Don River east of downtown ( these two rivers flanking and defining the Toronto Harbour ), and the Rouge River at the city ‘s easterly limits. Most of the ravines and valley lands in Toronto nowadays are parklands, and amateur trails are laid out along the ravines and valleys. The original township was laid out in a grid plan on the flat plain union of the harbor, and this plan was drawn-out outwards as the city grew. The width and depth of several of the ravines and valleys are such that respective grid streets, such as Finch Avenue, Leslie Street, Lawrence Avenue, and St. Clair Avenue, displace on one side of a ravine or valley and continue on the other side. Toronto has many bridges spanning the ravines. big bridges such as the Prince Edward Viaduct were built to span wide river valleys. Despite its deep ravines, Toronto is not signally cragged, but its elevation does increase steadily away from the lake. elevation differences range from 76.5 metres ( 251 foot ) above ocean charge at the Lake Ontario shore to 209 meter ( 686 foot ) above ocean flush near the York University grounds in the city ‘s north end at the overlap of Keele Street and Steeles Avenue. [ 95 ] There are episodic cragged areas ; in particular, midtown Toronto has a number of aggressively sloping hills. Lake Ontario remains occasionally visible from the peaks of these ridges as army for the liberation of rwanda north as Eglinton Avenue, 7 to 8 kilometres ( 4.3 to 5.0 mile ) inland .
The early major geographic have of Toronto is its escarpments. During the death internal-combustion engine age, the lower region of Toronto was beneath Glacial Lake Iroquois. today, a series of escarpments mark the lake ‘s early boundary, known as the “ Iroquois Shoreline ”. The escarpments are most outstanding from Victoria Park Avenue to the mouth of Highland Creek where they form the Scarborough Bluffs. other discernible sections include the area near St. Clair Avenue West between Bathurst Street and the Don River, and union of Davenport Road from Caledonia to Spadina Road ; the Casa Loma grounds seat above this escarpment. [ 96 ] The geography of the lakeside is greatly changed since the first colony of Toronto. Much of the country on the north prop up of the seaport is landfill, filled in during the late nineteenth century. Until then, the lakefront docks ( then known as wharves ) were set back farther inland than today. much of the adjacent Port Lands on the east side of the harbor was a wetland filled in early on in the twentieth century. [ 97 ] The shoreline from the harbor west to the Humber River has been extended into the lake. farther west, landfill has been used to create extensions of land such as Humber Bay Park. The Toronto Islands were a natural peninsula until a storm in 1858 severed their connection to the mainland, [ 98 ] creating a channel to the harbor. The peninsula was formed by longshore drift taking the sediments deposited along the Scarborough Bluffs shore and transporting them to the Islands area .
The early reference of sediment for the Port Lands wetland and the peninsula was the deposition of the Don River, which carved a wide valley through the sedimentary down of Toronto and deposited it in the shallow seaport. The harbor and the channel of the Don River have been dredged numerous times for ship. The lower part of the Don River was straightened and channelled in the nineteenth century. The former mouth drained into a wetland ; today, the Don River drains into the harbor through a concrete watercourse, the Keating Channel. To mitigate flood in the area, a well as to create park, a second more natural mouth is being built to the south during the early 2020s, thereby creating Villiers Island .

climate

Toronto
Climate chart (explanation)
joule f thousand A thousand j joule A sulfur oxygen newton five hundred

62

−1

−7

55

0

−6

54

5

−2

68

12

4

82

18

10

71

24

15

64

27

18

81

26

17

85

21

13

64

14

7

84

8

2

62

2

−3

Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: Environment Canada[99]

The city of Toronto has a hot summer humid continental climate ( Köppen : Dfa ), [ 100 ] though was on the doorsill of a warm summer humid continental climate ( Dfb ) until the twentieth century but inactive found in the metropolitan region, [ 101 ] with warm, humid summers and cold winters. According to the classification applied by Natural Resources Canada, the city of Toronto is in plant boldness zone 7a, with some suburbs & nearby towns having lower zone ratings. [ 102 ] [ 103 ] The city experiences four distinct seasons, with considerable division in length. [ 104 ] As a resultant role of the rapid passage of upwind systems ( such as high- and low-pressure systems ), the weather is variable from day to day in all seasons. [ 104 ] Owing to urbanization and its proximity to water, Toronto has a fairly humble diurnal temperature stove. The dense urbanscape makes for warmer nights year round ; the average night temperature is about 3.0 °C ( 5.40 °F ) warm in the city than in rural areas in all months. [ 105 ] however, it can be perceptibly cool on many spring and early on summer afternoons under the influence of a lake cinch, since Lake Ontario is cool relative to the tune during these seasons. [ 105 ] These lake breezes by and large occur in summer, bringing relief on hot days. [ 105 ] other low-scale nautical effects on the climate include lake-effect bamboozle, daze, and delaying of spring- and fall-like conditions, known as seasonal lag. [ 105 ]
Winters in Toronto are typically cold with frequent snow. Winters are cold with frequent bamboozle. [ 106 ] During the winter months, temperatures are normally below 0 °C ( 32 °F ). [ 106 ] Toronto winters sometimes feature cold snaps when maximum temperatures remain below −10 °C ( 14 °F ), frequently made to feel cold by wind cool. occasionally, they can drop below −25 °C ( −13 °F ). [ 106 ] Snowstorms, sometimes interracial with ice and rain, can disrupt solve and change of location schedules, while accumulating snow can fall anytime from November until mid-April. however, balmy stretches besides occur in most winters, melting accumulated snow. The summer months are characterized by very strong temperatures. [ 106 ] Daytime temperatures are normally above 20 °C ( 68 °F ), and often rise above 30 °C ( 86 °F ). [ 106 ] however, they can occasionally surpass 35 °C ( 95 °F ) accompanied by high humidity. give and fall are transitional seasons with by and large balmy or cool temperatures with alternating dry and wet periods. [ 105 ] Daytime temperatures average approximately 10 to 12 °C ( 50 to 54 °F ) during these seasons. [ 106 ] precipitation is reasonably evenly distributed throughout the class, but summer is normally the wettest season, the bulk falling during thunderstorms. The average annual precipitation is about 831 mm ( 32.7 in ), with an average annual snow of about 1,220 mm ( 48 in ). [ 107 ] Toronto experiences an average of 2,066 cheerfulness hours or 45 % of daylight hours, varying between a low of 28 % in December to 60 % in July. [ 107 ]

cityscape

Toronto horizon at twilight, from Toronto Harbour looking north, in 2018

architecture

Toronto ‘s buildings vary in design and old age with many structures dating back to the early nineteenth hundred, while other outstanding buildings were just newly built in the first decade of the twenty-first hundred. [ 115 ] Lawrence Richards, a penis of the Faculty of Architecture at the University of Toronto, has said, “ Toronto is a new, brash, rag-tag place—a large mix of periods and styles. ” [ 116 ] Bay-and-gable houses, chiefly found in Old Toronto, are a distinct architectural sport of the city. Defining the Toronto skyline is the CN Tower, a telecommunication and tourism hub. Completed in 1976 at a height of 553.33 metres ( 1,815 foot 5 in ), it was the global ‘s tallest [ 117 ] freestanding structure until 2007 when it was surpassed by Burj Khalifa in Dubai. [ 118 ] Toronto is a city of high-rises, and had 1,875 buildings over 30 metres ( 98 foot ) as of 2011. [ 119 ] Through the 1960s and 1970s, significant pieces of Toronto ‘s architectural heritage were demolished to make way for renovation or park. In contrast, since 2000, amid the Canadian property bubble, Toronto has experienced a period of condominium structure boom and architectural revival, with several buildings by world-renowned architects having opened. Daniel Libeskind ‘s Royal Ontario Museum addition, Frank Gehry ‘s remake of the Art Gallery of Ontario, and Will Alsop ‘s classifiable OCAD University expansion are among the city ‘s fresh showpieces. [ 120 ] The mid-1800s Distillery District, on the eastern edge of business district, has been redeveloped into a pedestrian-oriented arts, culture and entertainment vicinity. [ 121 ] This structure smash has some observers call the phenomenon the Manhattanization of Toronto .

Neighbourhoods

Map of Toronto with major traffic routes. besides shown are the boundaries of six early municipalities, which form the current City of Toronto. Toronto encompasses an area once administered by several separate municipalities that were amalgamated over the years. Each developed a distinct history and identity over the years, and their names remain in common function among Torontonians. Former municipalities include East York, Etobicoke, Forest Hill, Mimico, North York, Parkdale, Scarborough, Swansea, Weston and York. Throughout the city there exists hundreds of little neighbourhoods and some larger neighbourhoods covering a few squarely kilometres. [ citation needed ] The many residential communities of Toronto express a character clear-cut from the skyscrapers in the commercial core. victorian and Edwardian-era residential buildings can be found in enclaves such as Rosedale, Cabbagetown, The Annex, and Yorkville. [ 122 ] The Wychwood Park neighborhood, historically meaning for the computer architecture of its homes, and for being one of Toronto ‘s earliest planned communities, was designated as an Ontario Heritage Conservation zone in 1985. [ 123 ] The Casa Loma vicinity is named after “ Casa Loma ”, a castle built in 1911 by Sir Henry Pellat, complete with gardens, turrets, stables, an elevator, secret passages, and a bowling bowling alley. [ 124 ] Spadina House is a 19th-century manor that is now a museum. [ 125 ]

Old Toronto

The pre-amalgamation City of Toronto covers the business district core and besides older neighbourhoods to the east, west, and north of it. It is the most densely populated part of the city. The Financial District contains the First canadian Place, Toronto-Dominion Centre, Scotia Plaza, Royal Bank Plaza, Commerce Court and Brookfield Place. This area includes, among others, the neighbourhoods of St. James Town, Garden District, St. Lawrence, Corktown, and Church and Wellesley. From that point, the Toronto skyline extends northbound along Yonge Street. [ citation needed ] Old Toronto is besides home to many historically affluent residential enclaves, such as Yorkville, Rosedale, The Annex, Forest Hill, Lawrence Park, Lytton Park, Deer Park, Moore Park, and Casa Loma, most stretching away from downtown to the north. [ citation needed ] East and west of business district, neighbourhoods such as Kensington Market, Chinatown, Leslieville, Cabbagetown and Riverdale are home to bustling commercial and cultural areas arsenic well as communities of artists with studio apartment lofts, with many middle- and upper-class professionals. [ citation needed ] other neighbourhoods in the central city retain an cultural identity, including two smaller Chinatowns, the Greektown area, Little Italy, Portugal Village, and Little India, among others. [ citation needed ]

Suburbs

In an undertake to curb suburban conurbation, many suburban neighbourhoods in Toronto encouraged high-density populations by mixing housing lots with apartment buildings far from the downtown core. The inner suburbs are contained within the former municipalities of York and East York. [ 126 ] These are mature and traditionally wage-earning areas, consisting primarily of post–World War I small, single-family homes and small apartment blocks. [ 126 ] Neighbourhoods such as Crescent Town, Thorncliffe Park, Weston, and Oakwood Village consist chiefly of high-rise apartments, which are home plate to many fresh immigrant families. During the 2000s, many neighbourhoods have become ethnically divers and have undergo gentrification as a leave of increasing population, and a house boom during the belated 1990s and the early twenty-first hundred. The beginning neighbourhoods affected were Leaside and North Toronto, gradually progressing into the western neighbourhoods in York. [ citation needed ] The out suburb comprising the erstwhile municipalities of Etobicoke ( west ), Scarborough ( east ) and North York ( north ) largely retain the grid plan laid before post-war development. [ 127 ] Sections were long established and cursorily growing towns before the suburban housing boom began and the emergence of metropolitan government, existing towns or villages such as Mimico, Islington and New Toronto in Etobicoke ; Willowdale, Newtonbrook and Downsview in North York ; Agincourt, Wexford and West Hill in Scarborough where suburban development boomed around or between these and other towns beginning in the late 1940s. upscale neighbourhoods were built such as the Bridle Path in North York, the area surrounding the Scarborough Bluffs in Guildwood, and most of central Etobicoke, such as Humber Valley Village, and The Kingsway. One of largest and earliest “ design communities ” was Don Mills, parts of which were first built in the 1950s. [ 128 ] Phased development, mixing single-detached housing with higher-density apartment blocks, became more popular as a suburban model of development. Over the deep twentieth hundred and early twenty-first century, North York City Centre, Etobicoke City Centre and Scarborough City Centre have emerged as secondary business districts outside Downtown Toronto. High-rise development in these areas has given the former municipalities distinguishable skylines of their own, with high-density transit corridors serving them. [ citation needed ]

Industrial

The Distillery District holds the largest collection of keep priggish industrial architecture in North America. In the 1800s, a boom industrial area developed around Toronto Harbour and lower Don River mouth, linked by rail and body of water to Canada and the United States. Examples included the Gooderham and Worts Distillery, canadian Malting Company, the Toronto Rolling Mills, the Union Stockyards and the Davies pork march facility ( the inspiration for the “ Hogtown ” nickname ). [ 129 ] [ 130 ] This industrial area expanded west along the harbor and train lines and was supplemented by the infilling of the marshlands on the east side of the harbor to create the Port Lands. A dress diligence developed along lower Spadina Avenue, the “ Fashion District “. Beginning in the deep nineteenth century, industrial areas were set up on the outskirts, such as West Toronto/The Junction, where the Stockyards relocated in 1903. [ 131 ] The Great Fire of 1904 destroyed a big amount of diligence in the downtown. Some of the companies moved west along King Street, some as far west as Dufferin Street ; where the large Massey-Harris farm equipment fabrication complex was located. [ 132 ] Over clock, pockets of industrial land largely followed railing lines and former highway corridors as the city grew outwards. This course continues to this day, the largest factories and distribution warehouses are in the suburban environs of Peel and York Regions ; but besides within the current city : Etobicoke ( concentrated around Pearson Airport ), North York, and Scarborough. [ citation needed ]
many of Toronto ‘s early industrial sites conclusion to ( or in ) business district have been redeveloped including parts of the Toronto waterfront, the track yards west of business district, and Liberty Village, the Massey-Harris district and large-scale development is afoot in the West Don Lands. [ citation needed ] The Gooderham & Worts Distillery produced spirits until 1990, and is preserved today as the “ Distillery District ”, the largest and best-preserved solicitation of victorian industrial architecture in North America. Some diligence remains in the area, including the Redpath Sugar Refinery. Similar areas that retain their industrial character, but are now largely residential are the Fashion District, Corktown, and parts of South Riverdale and Leslieville. Toronto still has some active older industrial areas, such as Brockton Village, Mimico and New Toronto. In the west end of Old Toronto and York, the Weston/ Mount Dennis and The Junction areas still contain factories, meat-packing facilities and rail yards close to medium-density residential, although the Junction ‘s Union Stockyards moved out of Toronto in 1994. [ 131 ] The brownfield industrial sphere of the Port Lands, on the east english of the harbor, is one sphere planned for renovation. [ 134 ] once a marsh that was filled in to create industrial space, it was never intensely develop — its land undesirable for large-scale development — because of flood and fluid land. [ 135 ] It still contains numerous industrial uses, such as the Portlands Energy Centre power plant, some port facilities, some movie and television receiver output studios, a concrete process facility and diverse low-density industrial facilities. The Waterfront Toronto agency has developed plans for a naturalized mouth to the Don River and to create a deluge barrier around the Don, making more of the land on the seaport desirable for higher-value residential and commercial development. [ 136 ] A former chemicals plant site along the Don River is slated to become a boastfully commercial building complex and transportation system hub. [ 137 ]

Public spaces

Toronto has a diverse array of populace spaces, from city squares to public parks overlooking ravines. Nathan Phillips Square is the city ‘s independent squarely in downtown, contains the 3D Toronto augury, [ 138 ] and forms the entrance to City Hall. Yonge–Dundas Square, near City Hall, has besides gained attention in late years as one of the busiest gathering spots in the city. other squares include Harbourfront Square, on the Toronto waterfront, and the civic squares at the erstwhile city halls of the defunct Metropolitan Toronto, most notably Mel Lastman Square in North York. The Toronto Public Space Committee is an advocacy group concerned with the city ‘s populace spaces. In recent years, Nathan Phillips Square has been refurbished with new facilities, and the cardinal waterfront along Queen ‘s Quay West has been updated recently with a new street architecture and a new square future to Harbourfront Centre. In the winter, Nathan Phillips Square, Harbourfront Centre, and Mel Lastman Square feature popular rinks for populace ice-skating. Etobicoke ‘s Colonel Sam Smith Trail opened in 2011 and is Toronto ‘s foremost skating trail. Centennial Park and Earl Bales Park offer outdoor skiing and snowboarding slopes with a chairlift, rental facilities, and lessons. several parks have marked cross-country ski trails. There are many large business district parks, which include Allan Gardens, Christie Pits, Grange Park, Little Norway Park, Moss Park, Queen ‘s Park, Riverdale Park and Trinity Bellwoods Park. An about concealed park is the compress Cloud Gardens, [ 139 ] which has both receptive areas and a glassed-in greenhouse, near Queen and Yonge. South of downtown are two boastfully parks on the waterfront : Tommy Thompson Park on the Leslie Street Spit, which has a nature keep, is open on weekends ; and the Toronto Islands, accessible from downtown by ferry .
large parks in the out areas managed by the city include High Park, Humber Bay Park, Centennial Park, Downsview Park, Guild Park and Gardens, Sunnybrook Park and Morningside Park. [ 140 ] Toronto besides operates several public golf courses. Most ravine lands and river bank floodplains in Toronto are populace parklands. After Hurricane Hazel in 1954, construction of buildings on floodplains was outlawed, and private lands were bought for conservation. In 1999, Downsview Park, a erstwhile military base in North York, initiated an international design competition to realize its sight of creating Canada ‘s first urban park. The achiever, “ Tree City ”, was announced in May 2000. approximately 8,000 hectares ( 20,000 acres ), or 12.5 percentage of Toronto ‘s land foundation is maintained park. [ 141 ] Morningside Park is the largest ballpark managed by the city, which is 241.46 hectares ( 596.7 acres ) in size. [ 141 ] In addition to public parks managed by the municipal politics, parts of Rouge National Urban Park, the largest urban park in North America, is in the easterly assign of Toronto. Managed by Parks Canada, the national parking lot is centred around the Rouge River and encompasses several municipalities in the Greater Toronto Area. [ 142 ]

acculturation and contemporaneous life

Toronto is the global ‘s third base largest concentrate for English-language dramaturgy, home to venues like the Royal Alexandra Theatre, the oldest endlessly operating dramaturgy in North America. Toronto ‘s field and performing arts view has more than fifty dollar bill ballet and dance companies, six opera companies, two symphony orchestras and a host of theatres. The city is home to the National Ballet of Canada, the canadian Opera Company, the Toronto Symphony Orchestra, the Canadian Electronic Ensemble, and the canadian Stage Company. celebrated operation venues include the Four Seasons Centre for the Performing Arts, Roy Thomson Hall, the Princess of Wales Theatre, the Royal Alexandra Theatre, Massey Hall, the meridian Arts Centre ( once the Toronto Centre for the Arts ), the Elgin and Winter Garden Theatres and the Meridian Hall ( in the first place the “ O’Keefe Centre ” and once the “ Hummingbird Centre ” and the “ Sony Centre for the Performing Arts ” ). Ontario Place features the world ‘s inaugural permanent IMAX movie dramaturgy, the Cinesphere, [ 143 ] arsenic well as the Budweiser Stage ( once Molson Amphitheatre ), an alfresco venue for music concerts. In spring 2012, Ontario Place closed after a decline in attendance over the years. Although the Budweiser Stage and harbour still operate, the park and Cinesphere are nobelium long in use. There are ongoing plans to revitalise Ontario Place. [ 144 ] Each summer, the canadian Stage Company presents an outdoor Shakespeare production in Toronto ‘s High Park called “ Dream in High Park ”. Canada ‘s Walk of Fame acknowledges the achievements of successful Canadians, with a series of stars on intend blocks of sidewalks along King Street and Simcoe Street .
Caribana is a festival celebrating Caribbean culture and traditions. Held each summer in the city, it is North America’s largest street festival. The product of domestic and extraneous film and television is a major local industry. As of 2011, Toronto ranks as the third gear largest production center for film and television after Los Angeles and New York City, [ 145 ] sharing the nickname “ Hollywood North “ with Vancouver. [ 146 ] [ 147 ] [ 148 ] The Toronto International Film Festival is an annual event celebrating the external film industry. Another esteemed film festival is the Take 21 ( once the Toronto Student Film Festival ), which screens the works of students 12–18 years of long time from many different countries across the earth. Toronto ‘s Caribana ( once known as Scotiabank Caribbean Carnival ) takes place from mid-july to early August of every summer. [ 149 ] primarily based on the Trinidad and Tobago Carnival, the first Caribana took place in 1967 when the city ‘s Caribbean community celebrated Canada ‘s Centennial. More than forty years late, it has grown to attract one million people to Toronto ‘s Lake Shore Boulevard annually. tourism for the festival is in the hundred thousands, and each year, the consequence generates over $ 400 million in gross into Ontario ‘s economy. [ 150 ] One of the largest events in the city, Pride Week takes place in recently June, and is one of the largest LGBT festivals in the world. [ 151 ]

Media

Toronto is Canada ‘s largest media market, [ 152 ] and has four conventional dailies, two alt-weeklies, and three free commuter papers in a greater metropolitan area of about 6 million inhabitants. The Toronto Star and the Toronto Sun are the outstanding day by day city newspapers, while national dailies The Globe and Mail and the National Post are besides headquartered in the city. The Toronto Star, The Globe and Mail, and National Post are circular newspapers. StarMetro is distributed as barren commuter newspapers. respective magazines and local newspapers cover Toronto, including Now and Toronto Life, while numerous magazines are produced in Toronto, such as Canadian Business, Chatelaine, Flare and Maclean’s. Daily Hive, Western Canada ‘s largest online-only publication, opened their Toronto office in 2016. [ 153 ] Toronto contains the headquarters of the major English-language canadian television receiver networks CBC, CTV, Citytv, Global, The Sports Network ( TSN ) and Sportsnet. much ( once MuchMusic ), M3 ( once MuchMore ) and MTV Canada are the main music television receiver channels based in the city, though they no longer primarily show music video as a consequence of channel drift .

tourism

The Royal Ontario Museum is a museum of global culture and natural history. The Toronto Zoo [ 154 ] [ 155 ] is home to over 5,000 animals representing over 460 distinct species. The Art Gallery of Ontario contains a large solicitation of Canadian, European, African and contemporary artwork, and besides plays host to exhibits from museums and galleries all over the world. The Gardiner Museum of ceramic art is the lone museum in Canada wholly devoted to ceramics, and the Museum ‘s collection contains more than 2,900 ceramic works from Asia, the Americas, and Europe. The city besides hosts the Ontario Science Centre, the Bata Shoe Museum, and Textile Museum of Canada. other big art galleries and museums include the Design Exchange, the Museum of Inuit Art, the TIFF Bell Lightbox, the Museum of Contemporary Art Toronto Canada, the Institute for Contemporary Culture, the Toronto Sculpture Garden, the CBC Museum, the Redpath Sugar Museum, the University of Toronto Art Centre, Hart House, the TD Gallery of Inuit Art and the Aga Khan Museum. The city besides runs its own museums, which include the Spadina House .
The Don Valley Brick Works is a erstwhile industrial web site that opened in 1889 and was partially restored as a park and inheritance web site in 1996, with farther restoration being completed in stages since then. The canadian National Exhibition ( “ The Ex ” ) is held per annum at Exhibition Place, and is the oldest annual fair in the world. The Ex has an average attendance of 1.25 million. [ 156 ] City shopping areas include the Yorkville vicinity, Queen West, Harbourfront, the Entertainment District, the Financial District, and the St. Lawrence Market vicinity. The Eaton Centre is Toronto ‘s most popular tourist attraction with over 52 million visitors annually. [ 157 ] Greektown on the Danforth is home to the annual “ taste of the Danforth “ festival which attracts over one million people in 2½ days. [ 158 ] Toronto is besides home to Casa Loma, the early estate of Sir Henry Pellatt, a big Toronto financier, industrialist and military man. other noteworthy neighbourhoods and attractions in Toronto include The Beaches, the Toronto Islands, Kensington Market, Fort York, and the Hockey Hall of Fame .

Sports

Toronto is represented in five major league sports, with teams in the National Hockey League ( NHL ), Major League Baseball ( MLB ), National Basketball Association ( NBA ), canadian Football League ( CFL ), and Major League Soccer ( MLS ). It was once represented in a one-sixth and one-seventh ; the USL W-League that announced on November 6, 2015, that it would cease mathematical process ahead of 2016 season and the Canadian Women ‘s Hockey League ceased operations in May 2019. [ 159 ] [ 160 ] [ 161 ] The city ‘s major sports venues include the Scotiabank Arena ( once Air Canada Centre ), Rogers Centre ( once SkyDome ), Coca-Cola Coliseum ( once Ricoh Coliseum ), and BMO Field. Toronto is one of four north american cities ( aboard Chicago, Los Angeles, & Washington, D.C. ) to have won titles in its five major leagues ( MLB, NHL, NBA, MLS and either NFL or CFL ), and the lone one to have done indeed in the Canadian Football League .

professional sports

Toronto is home to the Toronto Maple Leafs, one of the NHL ‘s Original Six clubs, and has besides served as home to the Hockey Hall of Fame since 1958. The city had a rich history of methamphetamine field hockey championships. Along with the Maple Leafs ‘ 13 Stanley Cup titles, the Toronto Marlboros and St. Michael ‘s College School -based Ontario Hockey League teams, combined, have won a record 12 Memorial Cup titles. The Toronto Marlies of the American Hockey League besides play in Toronto at Coca-Cola Coliseum and are the farm team for the Maple Leafs. The Toronto Six, the first canadian franchise in the National Women ‘s Hockey League, began play with the 2020–21 season .
The city is home to the Toronto Blue Jays MLB baseball team. The team has won two World Series titles ( 1992, 1993 ). The Blue Jays play their home games at the Rogers Centre in the downtown core. Toronto has a long history of minor-league professional baseball dating back to the 1800s, culminating in the Toronto Maple Leafs baseball team, whose owner first gear proposed an MLB team for Toronto. [ 162 ]
The Toronto Raptors basketball team entered the NBA in 1995, and have since earned eleven playoff spots and five Atlantic Division titles in 24 seasons. They won their first base NBA title in 2019. [ 163 ] The Raptors are the only NBA team with their own television channel, NBA TV Canada. They play their home games at Scotiabank Arena, which is shared with the Maple Leafs. In 2016, Toronto hosted the sixty-fifth NBA All-Star game, the first to be held outside the United States. [ 164 ] The city is represented in football by the CFL ‘s Toronto Argonauts, which was founded in 1873. The club has won 17 Grey Cup Canadian backing titles. The club ‘s home games are played at BMO Field. Toronto is represented in soccer by the Toronto FC MLS team, who have won seven canadian Championship titles, a well as the MLS Cup in 2017 and the Supporters ‘ Shield for best regular season read, besides in 2017. [ 165 ] They share BMO Field with the Toronto Argonauts. Toronto has a high level of engagement in soccer across the city at several smaller stadiums and fields. Toronto FC had entered the league as an expansion team in 2007. [ 166 ] [ 167 ]
The Toronto Rock is the city ‘s National Lacrosse League team. They won five National Lacrosse League Cup titles in seven years in the late 1990s and the foremost decade of the twenty-first century, appearing in an NLL-record five straight backing games from 1999 to 2003, and are beginning all-time in the act of Champion ‘s Cups won. The Rock share the Scotiabank Arena with the Maple Leafs and the Raptors. Toronto has hosted several National Football League exhibition games at the Rogers Centre. Ted Rogers leased the Buffalo Bills from Ralph Wilson for the purposes of having the Bills play eight home games in the city between 2008 and 2013. The Toronto Wolfpack became Canada ‘s first gear professional rugby league team and the world ‘s first transatlantic professional sports team when they began play in the Rugby Football League ‘s League One competition in 2017. [ 168 ] due to COVID-19 restrictions on international travel the team withdrew from the Super League in 2020 with its future uncertain. [ 169 ] The rugby club ‘s ownership changed in 2021, immediately ‘Team Wolfpack ‘ will play in the newly formed north american Rugby League tournament. [ 170 ] Toronto is home to the Toronto Rush, a semi-professional ultimate team that competes in the american english Ultimate Disc League ( AUDL ). [ 171 ] [ 172 ] Ultimate ( magnetic disk ), in Canada, has its beginning roots in Toronto, with 3300 players competing per annum in the Toronto Ultimate Club ( League ). [ 173 ]

Collegiate sports

The University of Toronto in downtown Toronto was where the beginning recorded college football game was held in November 1861. [ citation needed ] Many post-secondary institutions in Toronto are members of U Sports or the canadian Collegiate Athletic Association, the erstwhile for universities and the latter for colleges. Toronto was home to the International Bowl, an NCAA sanctioned post-season college football game that pitted a Mid-American Conference team against a Big East Conference team. From 2007 to 2010, the crippled was played at Rogers Centre annually in January .

Events

Toronto, along with Montreal, hosts an annual tennis tournament called the Canadian Open ( not to be confused with the identically named golf tournament ) between the months of July and August. In odd-numbered years, the men ‘s tournament is held in Montreal, while the women ‘s tournament is held in Toronto, and frailty versa in even-numbered years .
The city hosts the annual Honda Indy Toronto car subspecies, part of the IndyCar Series schedule, held on a street racing circuit at Exhibition Place. It was known previously as the Champ Car ‘s Molson Indy Toronto from 1986 to 2007. Both pedigree and standardbred cavalry racing events are conducted at Woodbine Racetrack in Rexdale. Toronto hosted the 2015 Pan american english Games in July 2015, and the 2015 Parapan american Games in August 2015. It beat the cities of Lima, Peru and Bogotá, Colombia, to win the rights to stage the games. [ 174 ] The games were the largest multi-sport event ever to be held in Canada ( in terms of athletes competing ), doubling the size of the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver, British Columbia. [ 175 ] Toronto was a candidate city for the 1996 and 2008 Summer Olympics, which were awarded to Atlanta and Beijing respectively. [ 176 ] historic sports clubs of Toronto include the Granite Club ( established in 1836 ), the Royal Canadian Yacht Club ( established in 1852 ), the Toronto Cricket Skating and Curling Club ( established before 1827 ), the Argonaut Rowing Club ( established in 1872 ), the Toronto Lawn Tennis Club ( established in 1881 ), and the Badminton and Racquet Club ( established in 1924 ) .

economy

Toronto is an international concentrate for business and finance. broadly considered the fiscal and industrial capital of Canada, Toronto has a high concentration of banks and brokerage firms on Bay Street in the Financial District. The Toronto Stock Exchange is the world ‘s seventh-largest stock certificate switch over by commercialize capitalization. [ 177 ] The five largest fiscal institutions of Canada, jointly known as the Big Five, have national offices in Toronto. The city is an authoritative center for the media, publication, telecommunication, information engineering and film production industries ; it is home to Bell Media, Rogers Communications, and Torstar. other big canadian corporations in the Greater Toronto Area include Magna International, Celestica, Manulife, Sun Life Financial, the Hudson ‘s Bay Company, and major hotel companies and operators, such as Four Seasons Hotels and Fairmont Hotels and Resorts. Although much of the region ‘s fabrication activities take place outside the city limits, Toronto continues to be a wholesale and distribution point for the industrial sector. The city ‘s strategic position along the Quebec City–Windsor Corridor and its road and rail connections help support the nearby output of motor vehicles, iron, steel, food, machinery, chemicals and newspaper. The completion of the Saint Lawrence Seaway in 1959 gave ships access to the Great Lakes from the Atlantic Ocean. Toronto ‘s unemployment rate was 6.7 % as of July 2016. [ 178 ] According to the web site Numbeo, Toronto ‘s monetary value of living plus rent index was second highest in Canada ( of 31 cities ). [ 179 ] The local buying power was the sixth low in Canada, mid-2017. [ 180 ] The average monthly social aid caseload for January to October 2014 was 92,771. The number of seniors living in poverty increased from 10.5 % in 2011 to 12.1 % in 2014. Toronto ‘s 2013 child poverty rate was 28.6 %, the highest among big canadian cities of 500,000 or more residents. [ 181 ]

Bay Street

The Financial District in Toronto centers on Bay Street, the equivalent to Wall Street in New York. The city hosts the headquarters of all five of Canada ‘s largest banks, Royal Bank of Canada, Toronto-Dominion Bank, Scotiabank, Bank of Montreal and Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce, and was ranked as the safest bank organization in the world between 2007 and 2014 the World Economic Forum. [ 126 ] Toronto ‘s economy has seen a steady boom in growth thanks to a large number of corporations relocating their canadian headquarters into the city, and Canada ‘s growing cultural meaning. Resulting in a number of companies setting up shop in Toronto .

Hollywood North

Toronto is one of the centres of Canada ‘s movie and television receiver industry, due in part to the lower cost of production in Canada. The city ‘s streets and landmarks are seen in a diverseness of films, mimicking the scenes of american cities such as Chicago and New York. The city provides a diversity of settings and neighbourhoods to shoot films, with production facilitated by Toronto ‘s Film and Television Office. Toronto ‘s film industry has extended beyond the Toronto CMA into adjoining cities such as Hamilton and Oshawa .

engineering

Toronto is a large hub of the Canadian and global technology industry, generating $ 52 billion in revenues annually. In 2017, Toronto technical school firms offered about 30,000 jobs which is higher than the combination of San Francisco Bay area, Seattle and Washington, D.C. [ 182 ] The area bound between the Greater Toronto Area, the Kitchener-Waterloo region and the City of Hamilton was termed a “ digital corridor ” by the Branham Group, [ 183 ] a region highly concentrated with technology companies and jobs alike to Silicon Valley in California. It is the third base largest center for information and communications technology in North America, coming in behind New York City and Silicon Valley, [ 184 ] with over 168,000 people and 15,000 companies working in the Toronto engineering sector alone. [ 185 ] Toronto is besides home to a big startup ecosystem. In 2013, the city was ranked as the 8th best inauguration scene in the world and 3rd when it came to operation and support. [ 186 ]

tourism

tourism is a vital industry for Toronto. The Toronto Eaton Centre is the chief tourist attraction in Toronto, with over 47 million visitors per class. [ 187 ] other commercial areas that receives many tourists include the PATH network, which is the world ‘s largest [ 188 ] underground patronize building complex and the eclectic Kensington and St. Lawrence Market. [ 189 ] The Toronto Islands are a major tourist draw, attracting people for the beauty of the scenery, the ban of private drive vehicles on the islands outside of the airport, and proximity to downtown Toronto. As well, the CN Tower, Casa Loma, Toronto ‘s theater and musicals vitamin a good as Yonge-Dundas Square, Ripley ‘s Aquarium of Canada are magnets for tourists .

veridical estate of the realm

real estate is a major coerce in the city ‘s economy, Toronto is home to some of the nation’s—and the world’s—most expensive real estate of the realm. The Toronto Regional Real Estate Board ( TRREB ), once the Toronto Real Estate Board, is a non-profit professional association of record real estate brokers and salesperson in Toronto, and parts of the Greater Toronto Area. [ 190 ] TRREB was formed in 1920. [ 190 ] Many large Real estate of the realm investment trusts are based in Toronto .

Demographics

population

Historical Populations[191][192][193][194][195][196]
Year Pop. ±%
1834 9,252 —    
1841 14,249 +54.0%
1851 30,776 +116.0%
1861 44,821 +45.6%
1871 56,092 +25.1%
1881 86,415 +54.1%
1891 144,023 +66.7%
1901 238,080 +65.3%
1911 381,383 +60.2%
1921 521,893 +36.8%
1931 856,955 +64.2%
1941 951,549 +11.0%
1951 1,176,622 +23.7%
1961 1,824,481 +55.1%
1971 2,089,729 +14.5%
1976 2,124,291 +1.7%
1981 2,137,395 +0.6%
1986 2,192,721 +2.6%
1991 2,275,771 +3.8%
1996 2,385,421 +4.8%
2001 2,481,494 +4.0%
2006 2,503,281 +0.9%
2011 2,615,060 +4.5%
2016 2,731,571 +4.5%

The city ‘s population grew by 4 per penny ( 96,073 residents ) between 1996 and 2001, 1 per penny ( 21,787 residents ) between 2001 and 2006, 4.3 per cent ( 111,779 residents ) between 2006 and 2011, and 4.5 per penny ( 116,511 ) between 2011 and 2016. [ 197 ] In 2016, persons aged 14 years and under made up 14.5 per cent of the population, and those aged 65 years and complete made up 15.6 per cent. [ 197 ] The median old age was 39.3 years. [ 197 ] The city ‘s sex population is 48 per cent male and 52 per penny female. [ 197 ] Women outnumber men in all age groups 15 and older. [ 197 ] In 2016, Toronto ‘s city proper had a population of 2,731,571 ; the urban area had a population of 5,429,524 ; the census metropolitan area had a population of 5,928,040 ; and the Greater Toronto Area metropolitan area had a population of 6,417,516. [ 198 ] [ 199 ] The city ‘s foreign-born persons made up 47 per penny of the population, [ 28 ] compared to 49.9 per cent in 2006. [ 200 ] According to the United Nations Development Programme, Toronto has the second-highest share of changeless foreign-born population among worldly concern cities, after Miami, Florida. While Miami ‘s foreign-born population has traditionally consisted chiefly of Cubans and early latin Americans, no single nationality or polish dominates Toronto ‘s immigrant population, placing it among the most diverse cities in the world. [ 200 ] In 2010, it was estimated over 100,000 immigrants arrive in the Greater Toronto Area each year. [ 201 ]

ethnicity

In 2016, the three most normally reported heathen origins overall were Chinese ( 332,830 or 12.5 per penny ), English ( 331,890 or 12.3 per cent ) and Canadian ( 323,175 or 12.0 per penny ). [ 28 ] Common regions of cultural beginning were European ( 47.9 per penny ), asian ( including Middle-Eastern – 40.1 per penny ), African ( 5.5 per penny ), Latin/Central/South American ( 4.2 per penny ), and north american native ( 1.2 per penny ). [ 28 ] In 2016, 51.5 per penny of the residents of the city proper belonged to a visible minority group, compared to 49.1 per cent in 2011, [ 28 ] [ 202 ] and 13.6 per penny in 1981. [ 203 ] The largest visible minority groups were South Asian ( indian, Pakistani, Sri Lankan at 338,960 or 12.6 per cent ), East Asian ( Chinese at 332,830 or 12.5 per penny ), and Black ( 239,850 or 8.9 per penny ). [ 28 ] visible minorities are projected to increase to 63 per penny of the city ‘s population by 2031. [ 204 ] This diverseness is reflected in Toronto ‘s ethnic neighbourhoods, which include Chinatown, Corso Italia, Greektown, Kensington Market, Koreatown, Little India, Little Italy, Little Jamaica, Little Portugal and Roncesvalles ( Polish community ). [ 205 ]

religion

Questions on religion are conducted in every early canadian census, with the latest census to include them being the 2011 canadian Census. [ 206 ] In 2011, the most normally reported religion in Toronto was Christianity, adhered to by 54.1 per cent of the population. A plurality, 28.2 per cent, of the city ‘s population was Catholic, followed by Protestants ( 11.9 per cent ), christian Orthodox ( 4.3 per cent ), and members of other christian denominations ( 9.7 per penny ). other religions significantly practised in the city are Islam ( 8.2 per penny ), Hinduism ( 5.6 per penny ), Judaism ( 3.8 per cent ), Buddhism ( 2.7 per penny ), and Sikhism ( 0.8 per cent ). Those with no religious affiliation made up 24.2 per cent of Toronto ‘s population. [ 202 ]

language

English is the prevailing lyric spoken by Torontonians with approximately 95 per penny of residents having proficiency in the terminology, although merely 54.7 per penny of Torontonians reported English as their mother tongue. [ 207 ] English is one of two official languages of Canada, with the early being french. approximately 1.6 per cent of Torontonians reported french as their mother spit, although 9.1 per penny reported being bilingual in both official languages. [ 207 ] In summation to services provided by the federal government, provincial services in Toronto are available in both official languages as a leave of the French Language Services Act. [ 208 ] approximately 4.9 per penny of Torontonians reported having no cognition in either official languages of the area. [ 207 ] Because the city is besides home to many other languages, municipal services, most notably its 9-1-1 emergency telephone avail, [ five hundred ] is equipped to respond in over 150 languages. [ 209 ] [ 210 ] In the 2001 canadian Census, the corporate varieties of Chinese, and italian are the most widely spoken languages at function after English. [ 211 ] [ 212 ] approximately 55 per cent of respondents who reported proficiency in a chinese lyric reported cognition in Mandarin in the 2016 census. [ 207 ]

politics

Toronto is a single-tier municipality governed by a mayor–council system. The structure of the municipal government is stipulated by the City of Toronto Act. The mayor of Toronto is elected by direct popular vote to serve as the head executive of the city. The Toronto City Council is a unicameral legislative body, comprising 25 councillors, since the 2018 municipal election, representing geographic wards throughout the city. [ 213 ] The mayor and members of the city council serve four-year terms without term limits. ( Until the 2006 municipal election, the mayor and city councillors served three-year terms. ) As of 2016, the city council has twelve standing committees, each consist of a moderate ( some have a vice-chair ), and a phone number of councillors. [ 214 ] The mayor names the committee chairs and the remaining members of the committees are appointed by city council. An executive committee is formed by the chairs of each of standing committee, along with the mayor, the deputy mayor and four other councillors. Councillors are besides appointed to oversee the Toronto Transit Commission and the Toronto Police Services Board .
The city has four residential district councils that consider local matters. City council has delegated concluding decision-making authority on local anesthetic, everyday matters, while others—like plan and zoning issues—are recommended to the city council. Each city council member serves as a extremity of a residential district council. [ 214 ] There are about 40 subcommittees and advisory committees appointed by the city council. These bodies are made up of city councillors and secret citizen volunteers. Examples include the pedestrian Committee, Waste Diversion Task Force 2010, and the Task Force to Bring Back the Don. [ 215 ] The City of Toronto had an approved operate budget of CA $ 13.53 billion in 2020 and a ten-year capital budget and plan of CA $ 43.5 billion. [ 216 ] The city ‘s revenues include subsidies from the Government of Canada and the Government of Ontario ( for programs mandated by those governments ), 33 % from property tax, 6 % from the land transfer tax and the remainder from other tax revenues and user fees. [ 217 ] The city ‘s largest engage expenditures are the Toronto Transit Commission at CA $ 2.14 billion, [ 218 ] and the Toronto Police Service, CA $ 1.22 billion. [ 219 ]

crime

The historically broken crime rate in Toronto has resulted in the city having a repute as one of the safest major cities in North America. [ 220 ] [ 221 ] [ 222 ] For case, in 2007, the homicide rate for Toronto was 3.3 per 100,000 people, compared with Atlanta ( 19.7 ), Boston ( 10.3 ), Los Angeles ( 10.0 ), New York City ( 6.3 ), Vancouver ( 3.1 ), and Montreal ( 2.6 ). Toronto ‘s looting rate besides ranks low, with 207.1 robberies per 100,000 people, compared with Los Angeles ( 348.5 ), Vancouver ( 266.2 ), New York City ( 265.9 ), and Montreal ( 235.3 ). [ 223 ] [ 224 ] [ 225 ] [ 226 ] [ 227 ] [ 228 ] Toronto has a comparable rate of car larceny to respective U.S. cities, although it is not among the highest in Canada. [ 220 ] In 2005, Toronto media coined the term “ year of the Gun ”, because of a record act of gun-related homicides, 52, out of 80 homicides in full. [ 222 ] [ 229 ] The total total of homicides dropped to 70 in 2006 ; that year, closely 2,000 people in Toronto were victims of a violent gun-related crime, about one-fourth of the national entire. [ 230 ] 84 homicides were committed in 2007, roughly one-half of which imply guns. Gang-related incidents have besides been on the rise ; between the years of 1997 and 2005, over 300 gang-related homicides have occurred. As a solution, the Ontario government developed an anti-gun scheme. [ 231 ] In 2011, Toronto ‘s murder rate plummeted to 51 murders—nearly a 26 % drop from the previous year. The 51 homicides were the lowest numeral the city has recorded since 1999 when there were 47. [ 232 ] While subsequent years did see a return to higher rates, it remained closely flat credit line of 57–59 homicides in from 2012 to 2015. 2016 went to 75 for the first clock in over 8 years. 2017 had a drop off of 10 murders to close the year at 65, with a homicide rate of 1.47 per 100,000 population. [ 233 ] [ 234 ] The full number of homicides in Toronto reached a record 96 in 2018 ; the numeral included fatalities from the Toronto avant-garde assail and the Danforth inject. The record year for per head murders was previously 1991, with 3.9 murders per 100,000 people. [ 235 ] The 2018 homicide rate was higher than in Winnipeg, Calgary, Edmonton, Vancouver, Ottawa, Montreal, Hamilton, New York City, San Diego, and Austin. [ 236 ]

education

There are four public school boards that provide elementary and secondary department of education in Toronto, the Conseil scolaire catholique MonAvenir, the Conseil scolaire Viamonde ( CSV ), the Toronto Catholic District School Board ( TCDSB ), and the Toronto District School Board ( TDSB ). CSV and TDSB are profane public school boards, whereas MonAvenir and TCDSB are classify public school boards. CSV and MonAvenir are french first lyric school boards, whereas TCDSB and TDSB are English first lyric school boards. TDSB operates the most schools among the four Toronto-based school boards, with 451 elementary schools, 105 secondary schools, and five adult determine centres. [ 237 ] TCDSB operates 163 elementary schools, 29 junior-grade schools, three combined institutions, and one adult learning center. CSV operates 11 elementary schools, and three secondary schools in the city. [ 238 ] MonAvenir operates nine elementary schools, [ 239 ] and three secondary schools in Toronto. [ 240 ]
Five public universities are based in Toronto. Four of these universities are based in downtown Toronto : OCAD, Ryerson, the Université de l’Ontario français, and the University of Toronto. The University of Toronto besides operates two satellite campuses, one of which is in the city ‘s easterly zone of Scarborough, while the other is in the neighbor city of Mississauga. York University is the only Toronto-based university not situated in business district Toronto, operating a campus in the northwestern share of North York, and a secondary campus in midtown Toronto. The University of Guelph-Humber is besides based in northwestern Toronto, although it is not an freelancer public university adequate to of issuing its own degrees. Guelph-Humber is jointly managed by the University of Guelph, based in Guelph, Ontario, and Humber College in Toronto. There are four diploma and degree granting colleges based in Toronto. These four colleges, Centennial College, George Brown College, Humber College, and Seneca College, operate several campuses throughout the city. The city is besides base to a satellite campus of Collège Boréal, a french first terminology college. The city is besides home to several auxiliary schools, seminaries, and vocational schools. Examples of such institutions include The Royal Conservatory of Music, which includes the Glenn Gould School ; the Canadian Film Centre, a media training institute founded by film maker Norman Jewison ; and Tyndale University, a christian post-secondary institution and Canada ‘s largest seminary. The Toronto Public Library [ 241 ] consists of 100 [ 242 ] branches with more than 11 million items in its collection. [ 243 ]

infrastructure

Health and music

Toronto is home to twenty public hospitals, including The hospital for Sick Children, Mount Sinai Hospital, St. Michael ‘s Hospital, North York General Hospital, Toronto General Hospital, Toronto Western Hospital, Etobicoke General Hospital, St. Joseph ‘s Health Centre, Scarborough General Hospital, Birchmount Hospital, Centenary Hospital, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health ( CAMH ), and Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, many of which are affiliated with the University of Toronto Faculty of Medicine. In 2007, Toronto was reported as having some of the longer average emergency board waiting times in Ontario. Toronto hospitals at the time employed a system of triage to ensure dangerous injuries receive rapid discussion. [ 244 ] After initial screening, initial assessments by physicians were completed within the waiting rooms themselves for greater efficiency, within a median of 1.2 hours. Tests, consultations, and initial treatments were besides provided within waiting rooms. 50 % of patients waited 4 hours before being transferred from the emergency room to another board. [ 244 ] The least-urgent 10 % of cases wait over 12 hours. [ 244 ] The extended waiting-room times experienced by some patients were attributed to an overall deficit of acute concern beds. [ 244 ]
Toronto ‘s Discovery District [ 245 ] is a center of research in biomedicine. It is on a 2.5-square-kilometre ( 620-acre ) research park that is integrated into Toronto ‘s business district core. It is besides home to the MaRS Discovery District, [ 246 ] which was created in 2000 to capitalize on the research and invention forte of the Province of Ontario. Another establish is the McLaughlin Centre for Molecular Medicine ( MCMM ). [ 247 ] speciate hospitals are besides outside of the business district effect. These hospitals include the Baycrest Health Sciences geriatric hospital and the Holland Bloorview Kids Rehabilitation Hospital for children with disabilities. Toronto is besides host to a wide variety of health-focused non-profit organizations that work to address specific illnesses for Toronto, Ontario and canadian residents. Organizations include Crohn ‘s and Colitis Canada, the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, the canadian Cancer Society, the Alzheimer Society of Canada, Alzheimer Society of Ontario and Alzheimer Society of Toronto, all located in the like office at Yonge–Eglinton, the Leukemia & Lymphoma Society of Canada, the Canadian Breast Cancer Foundation, the Canadian Foundation for AIDS Research, Cystic Fibrosis Canada, the Canadian Mental Health Association, the ALS Society of Canada, and many others. These organizations work to help people within the Greater Toronto Area, Ontario, or Canada who are affected by these illnesses. Toronto is besides home to the Geneva Centre for Autism. As well, most of these organizations engage in fundraising to promote inquiry, services, and populace awareness .

transportation

Toronto is a central exile hub for road, rail and air networks in Southern Ontario. There are many forms of conveyance in the city of Toronto, including highways and public transit. Toronto besides has an extensive network of bicycle lanes and multi-use trails and paths .

public transportation

Toronto ‘s main public transportation system is operated by the Toronto Transit Commission ( TTC ). [ 68 ] The backbone of its populace conveyance network is the Toronto underpass system, which includes three heavy-rail rapid transit lines spanning the city, including the u-shaped Line 1 and east–west line 2. Line 3 is a alight metro line that entirely serves the city ‘s easterly zone of Scarborough .
The TTC besides operates an extensive network of buses and streetcars, with the latter serving the downtown core, and buses providing service to many parts of the city not served by the sparse metro network. TTC buses and streetcars use the same fare system as the underpass, and many metro stations offer a fare-paid area for transfers between rail and open vehicles. There have been numerous plans to extend the underpass and follow through light-rail lines, but many efforts have been thwarted by budgetary concerns. Since July 2011, the alone subway-related bring is the Line 1 extension north of Sheppard West station ( once named Downsview ) to Vaughan Metropolitan Centre in Vaughan, a suburb north of Toronto. By November 2011, construction on Line 5 Eglinton began. Line 5 is scheduled to finish construction by 2022. [ 248 ] [ 249 ] In 2015, the Ontario politics promised to fund Line 6 Finch West which is to be completed by 2023. In 2019, the Government of Ontario released a transportation system design for the Greater Toronto Area which includes a newfangled 16-kilometres Ontario Line, [ 250 ] Line 1 extension to Richmond Hill Centre [ 251 ] and an extension for Line 5 Eglinton to Toronto Pearson Airport. [ 252 ] [ 253 ] Toronto ‘s century-old Union Station is besides getting a major renovation and ascent which would be able to accommodate more rail traffic from GO Transit, Via Rail, UP Express and Amtrak. [ 254 ] structure on a newfangled Union Station Bus Terminal is besides in the works with an ask completion in 2020. [ 255 ] Toronto ‘s populace transit network besides connects to early municipal networks such as York Region Transit, Viva, Durham Region Transit, and MiWay. The Government of Ontario operates a regional rail and bus transit arrangement called GO Transit in the Greater Toronto Area. GO Transit carries over 250,000 passengers every weekday ( 2013 ) and 57 million annually, with a majority of them travelling to or from Union Station. [ 256 ] [ 257 ] Metrolinx is presently implementing Regional Express Rail into its GO Transit network and plans to electrify many of its vilify lines by 2030. [ 258 ]

Airports

Canada ‘s busiest airport, Toronto Pearson International Airport ( IATA : YYZ ), straddles the city ‘s western boundary with the suburban city of Mississauga. The Union Pearson Express ( UP Express ) train serve provides a calculate yoke between Pearson International and Union Station. It began carrying passengers in June 2015. Limited commercial and passenger service to nearby destinations in Canada and the USA is offered from the Billy Bishop Toronto City Airport ( IATA : YTZ ) on the Toronto Islands, southwest of business district. Buttonville Municipal Airport ( IATA : YKZ ) in Markham provides general air travel facilities. Downsview Airport ( IATA : YZD ), near the city ‘s north end, is owned by de Havilland Canada and serves the Bombardier Aviation aircraft factory. Within a few hours ‘ drive, Hamilton ‘s John C. Munro International Airport ( IATA : YHM ) and Buffalo ‘s Buffalo Niagara International Airport ( IATA : BUF ) serve as interchange airports for the Toronto area in addition to serving their respective cities. A secondary external airport, to be located northeast of Toronto in Pickering, has been planned by the Government of Canada .

Intercity department of transportation

Toronto Union Station serves as a hub for VIA Rail ‘s intercity services in Central Canada and includes services to versatile parts of Ontario, Corridor services to Montreal and national capital Ottawa, and long-distance services to Vancouver and New York City. The Toronto Coach Terminal in business district Toronto besides serves as a hub for intercity busbar services in Southern Ontario, served by multiple companies and providing a comprehensive examination network of services in Ontario and neighbor provinces and states. GO Transit provides intercity bus services from the Union Station Bus Terminal and early bus terminals in the city to destinations within the greater Toronto area .

road system

The grid of major city streets was laid out by a concession road system, in which major arterial roads are 6,600 ft ( 2.0 kilometer ) apart ( with some exceptions, particularly in Scarborough and Etobicoke, as they used a different view ). major east-west arterial roads are by and large parallel with the Lake Ontario shoreline, and major north–south arterial roads are roughly perpendicular to the shoreline, though slightly angle north of Eglinton Avenue. This arrangement is sometimes broken by geographic accidents, most notably the Don River ravines. Toronto ‘s power system north is approximately 18.5° to the west of true north. many arterials, peculiarly north–south ones, due to the city originally being within the early York County, continue beyond the city into the 905 suburbs and further into the rural countryside. There are a number of municipal expressways and provincial highways that serve Toronto and the Greater Toronto Area. In particular, Highway 401 bisects the city from west to east, bypassing the downtown core. It is the busiest road in North America, [ 259 ] and one of the busiest highways in the world. [ 260 ] [ 261 ] other provincial highways include Highway 400 which connects the city with Northern Ontario and beyond and Highway 404, an extension of the Don Valley Parkway into the northern suburbs. The Queen Elizabeth Way ( QEW ), North America ‘s first divided intercity highway, terminates at Toronto ‘s western boundary and connects Toronto to Niagara Falls and Buffalo. The independent municipal expressways in Toronto include the Gardiner Expressway, the Don Valley Parkway, and to some extent, Allen Road. Toronto ‘s traffic congestion is one of the highest in North America, and is the moment highest in Canada after Vancouver. [ 262 ]

Public library system

Toronto Public Library is the largest public library system in Canada, and in 2008 had averaged a higher circulation per head than any other populace library system internationally, making it the largest neighbourhood-based library arrangement in the world. [ 263 ] Within North America, it besides had the highest circulation and visitors when compared to other large urban systems. [ 264 ] Established as the library of the Mechanics ‘ Institute in 1830, the Toronto Public Library now consists of 100 branch libraries [ 265 ] and has over 12 million items in its solicitation. [ 264 ] [ 266 ] [ 267 ] [ 268 ]

luminary people

baby cities

partnership cities

  • Chicago, Illinois, United States (1991)[269]
  • Chongqing, China (1986)[269]
  • Frankfurt, Germany (1989)[269]
  • Milan, Italy (2003)[269]

friendship cities

See besides

Notes

References

bibliography

promote reading

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