Evanston ( EV-ən-stən ) is a near-in suburb of Chicago. Located in Cook County, Illinois, United States, it is situated on the North Shore along Lake Michigan. Evanston is 12 miles ( 19 kilometer ) north of Downtown Chicago, bordered by Chicago to the south, Skokie to the west, Wilmette to the north, and Lake Michigan to the east. Evanston had a population of 78,110 as of 2020. Founded by Methodist clientele leaders in 1857, the city was incorporated in 1863. Evanston is home to Northwestern University, founded before the city ‘s incorporation in 1851, one of the populace ‘s lead research universities. nowadays known for its socially broad politics and ethnically diverse population, Evanston was historically a dry city, until 1972. The city uses a council-manager system of government and is a democratic stronghold. The city is heavily shaped by the influence of Chicago, externally, and Northwestern, internally. The city and the university share a historically complex long-standing kinship .
history [edit ]
Downtown Evanston as seen in October 2005
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prior to the 1830s, the sphere immediately occupied by Evanston was chiefly uninhabited, consisting largely of wetlands and boggy forest. however, Potawatomi Native Americans used trails along higher lie down ridges that ran in a general north–south commission through the area, and had at least some semi-permanent settlements along the trails. french explorers referred to the general area as “ Grosse Pointe ” after a point of land jutting into Lake Michigan about 13 miles ( 21 kilometer ) north of the mouth of the Chicago River. After the beginning non-Native Americans settled in the area in 1836, the names “ Grosse Point Territory ” and “ Gross Point voting zone ” were used through the 1830s and 1840s, although the territory had no defined boundaries. [ 7 ] [ 8 ] The area remained only sparsely settled, supporting some farm and log bodily process on some of the higher grind, angstrom well as a number of taverns or “ hotels ” along the ridge roads. Grosse Pointe itself steadily eroded into the lake during this period. In 1850, a township called Ridgeville was organized, extending from Graceland Cemetery in Chicago to the southerly border of the Ouilmette Reservation, along what is now Central Street, and from Lake Michigan to Western Avenue in Chicago. The 1850 census shows a few hundred settlers in this township, [ 8 ] and a post office with the list of Ridgeville was established at one of the taverns. however, no municipality so far existed. In 1851, a group of Methodist business leaders founded Northwestern University and Garrett Biblical Institute. ineffective to find available state on the north shore up to Lake Forest, the committee was ready to purchase farmland to the west of the city when Orrington Lunt insisted on one final examination visit to the present location. [ 9 ] They chose a bluff and wooded web site along the lake as Northwestern ‘s home, purchasing respective hundred acres of land from Dr. John Foster, a Chicago farm owner. In 1854, the founders of Northwestern submitted to the county judge their plans for a city to be named Evanston after John Evans, [ 10 ] one of their leaders. In 1857, the request was granted. [ 11 ] The township of Evanston was split off from Ridgeville Township ; at approximately the lapp fourth dimension, that parcel of Ridgeville confederacy of Devon Avenue was organized as Lake View Township. [ 12 ] Evanston was formally incorporated as a town on December 29, 1863, but declined in 1869 to become a city despite the Illinois legislature passing a placard for that purpose. Evanston expanded after the Civil War with the annexation of the village of North Evanston. ultimately, in early 1892, following the annexation of the village of South Evanston, voters elected to organize as a city. [ 13 ] The 1892 boundaries are largely those that exist today. During the 1960s, Northwestern University changed the city ‘s shoreline by adding a 74-acre ( 30 hour angle ) lakefill. [ 14 ] In 1939, Evanston hosted the beginning NCAA basketball backing final examination at Northwestern University ‘s Patten Gymnasium. [ 15 ] In August 1954, Evanston hosted the second gear assembly of the World Council of Churches, however the only WCC assembly to have been held in the United States. President Dwight Eisenhower welcomed the delegates, and Dag Hammarskjöld, secretary-general of the United Nations, delivered an significant address entitled “ An musical instrument of religion ”. [ 16 ] Evanston first received power in April 1893. many people lined the streets on Emerson St. where the beginning appearance of street lights were lined and turned on. today, the city is home to Northwestern University, Music Institute of Chicago, and early educational institutions, adenine well as headquarters of Alpha Phi International women ‘s brotherhood, Rotary International, the National Merit Scholarship Corporation, the National Lekotek Center, the Sigma Alpha Epsilon brotherhood, the Sigma Chi fraternity and the Woman ‘s Christian Temperance Union. Evanston is the birthplace of Tinkertoys, and is the one of the locations claiming to have originated the frost cream ice-cream sundae. [ 17 ] Evanston was the family of the Clayton Mark and Company, which for many years supplied the most jobs. [ 18 ] Evanston was a dry community from 1858 until 1972, when the City Council voted to allow restaurants and hotels to serve liquor on their premises. In 1984, the Council voted to allow retail liquor outlets within the city limits. [ 19 ] In March 2021, Evanston became the first city in the United States to pay reparations to african american residents ( or their descendants ) who were victims of unfair housing practices. The city council of the city voted 8 to 1 to approve the reparations which consisted of a $ 25,000 payment to african american households that can be used as down payments on their homes, house payments or for home repairs. This was the initial payment, with plans to distribute 10 million dollars in reparations payments to black residents over the next 10 years. [ 20 ] [ 21 ] [ 22 ] In August 2021, Evanston became one of the first base cities to approve a pilot program plan providing a guarantee income to select residents, drawing upon a combination of public funds and a partnership with Northwestern University. [ 23 ]
geography [edit ]
According to the 2010 census, Evanston has a sum area of 7.802 squarely miles ( 20.21 km2 ), of which 7.78 square miles ( 20.15 km2 ) ( or 99.72 % ) is land and 0.022 public square miles ( 0.06 km2 ) ( or 0.28 % ) is water. [ 24 ]
Demographics [edit ]
|U.S. Decennial Census|
As of the census of 2010, there were 74,486 people ( up from 74,239 at the 2000 census ), 30,047 households, and 15,621 families residing in the city. The population density was 9,574.0 people per squarely mile ( 3,687.4/km2 ). There were 33,181 caparison units at an average density of 4,264.9 per square mile ( 1,642.6/km2 ). The 2010 census showed that Evanston is ethnically mix with the following breakdown in population : 65.6 % White, 18.1 % Black or african American, 0.2 % american Indian or Alaska Native, 8.6 % asian, 0.02 % native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander, 3.6 % some other slipstream, and 3.8 % from two or more races. 9.0 % were Hispanic or Latino of any subspecies. [ 6 ] There were 30,047 households, out of which 26.1 % had children under the historic period of 18 support with them, 39.8 % were headed by married couples living together, 9.7 % had a female homeowner with no conserve give, and 48.0 % were non-families. 37.5 % of all households were made up of individuals, and 10.5 % were person living alone who was 65 years of long time or older. The average family size was 2.25, and the average class size was 3.05. [ 6 ] The medial senesce was 34.3 years, with 19.3 % under the age of 18, 16.8 % from 18 to 24, 27.8 % from 25 to 44, 24.0 % from 45 to 64, and 12.2 % who were 65 years of historic period or older. For every 100 females, there were 91.0 males. For every 100 females senesce 18 and over, there were 88.0 males. [ 6 ] As of 2011, the calculate median income for a family in the city was $ 60,033, and the median income for a family was $ 102,706. male full-time workers had a medial income of $ 66,106 versus $ 52,727 for females. The per caput income for the city was $ 40,732. About 6.4 % of families and 12.1 % of the population were below the poverty trace, including 14.1 % of those under old age 18 and 6.5 % of those age 65 or all over. [ 4 ] 12.3 % of Evanston ‘s 9,259 businesses are black owned. [ 26 ]
Government and politics [edit ]
The City of Evanston became sister cities with the Dnieprovsky District of the City of Kyiv, Ukraine in 1988, and baby cities with Belize City, Belize in 1992. [ citation needed ] Evanston has a council-manager system of government and is divided into nine wards, each of which is represented by an Alderman, or penis of the Evanston City Council. [ citation needed ] Evanston was heavily Republican in voter identification from the time of the Civil War up to the 1960s. Nixon carried Evanston in the 1968 presidential election. [ 27 ] The city began trending democratic in the 1960s, though it did not elect a democratic mayor until 1993. The city dangle particularly heavily to the Democrats in the 1990s, along with many early Chicago suburb, and immediately about entirely identifies with Democrats in elections on all levels of government. [ citation needed ]
Mayors [edit ]
late election results [edit ]
In the 2012 presidential election, democratic incumbent Barack Obama won 85 % of Evanston ‘s vote, compared to 13 % for Republican rival Mitt Romney. [ 43 ] In the 2016 democratic elementary, Hillary Clinton received 54 % of the votes of Evanston Democrats to Bernie Sanders ‘ 45 %. [ 44 ] During that year ‘s general election, Clinton won 87 % of the vote in Evanston, while republican Donald Trump received equitable 7 %. [ 45 ] Evanston ‘s turnout for presidential elections has grown steadily since 2004, with 80 % of registered voters voting in the 2016 general election. [ 46 ] In the 2020 Presidential election Democrat Joe Biden received 90 % of the vote while Republican Donald Trump received lone 7 %. [ 47 ]
Nicknames [edit ]
- Early after its founding, because of its strong Methodist influence, and its attempt to impose moral rigor, Evanston was called “Heavenston”.
- In the early 20th century Evanston was called “The City of Churches”.
- The varied works of numerous prominent architects, and many prominent mansions, especially near the lakefront, gave the town by the 1920s the sobriquet “The City of Homes”, a fact often touted by local real estate agents. Use of the phrase has been attributed to a 1924 speech at the local Kiwanis club.
- Since the late 20th century, because of Evanston’s activism and often left-of-center politics, it is sometimes humorously (or sarcastically) referred to as “The People’s Republic of Evanston”.
- The eastern border of the adjacent village of Skokie that falls within Evanston township schools and 60203 ZIP Code is called “Skevanston”, a portmanteau of both names.[ quotation needed]
education [edit ]
Public schools [edit ]
senior high school school [edit ]
Most of Evanston ( and a modest character of the village of Skokie ) is within the boundaries of Evanston Township High School District 202. [ 56 ] The school district has a individual high school, Evanston Township High School, with an registration of just over 4,000, covering grades 9 through 12 .
primary schools [edit ]
Evanston-Skokie Community Consolidated School District 65, covering all of Evanston and a small character of Skokie, provides primary department of education from pre- kindergarten through grade 8. The zone has ten elementary schools ( kindergarten through one-fifth degree ), three middle schools ( grades 6 through 8 ), two magnet schools ( K through 8 ), two limited schools or centers, and an early childhood school. Dr. Devon Horton is the Superintendent of Schools .
private schools [edit ]
secret schools located in Evanston, Illinois include :
- Beacon Academy, a Montessori high school
- Chiaravalle Montessori School, a Montessori school for children ages 2–14
- Midwest Montessori School
- Pope John XXIII School, a Catholic school serving children pre-kindergarten through eighth grade. The school dates back to 1886 with the establishment of separate schools serving St. Nicholas and St. Mary’s parishes in Evanston. The original St. Nicholas School was in the building now called the Annex. The main school building was built in 1954. In 1986 the two parish schools consolidated and the new school was renamed Pope John XXIII School.
- Roycemore School
- St. Athanasius School, a Catholic school for children from junior kindergarten through eighth grade. “St. A’s” is a popular shortened nickname for the school and it is part of the St. Athanasius parish in Northwest Evanston. The mascot is RedHawks. The school focuses on three key themes; Love, Learn, Lead.
library [edit ]
Main Evanston Public Library
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The Evanston Public Library was established in 1873, [ 58 ] and has a satellite outgrowth at the Robert Crown Community Center. Karen Danczak Lyons is the Library Director. The North Branch of the Evanston Library was closed in 2021 .
tertiary [edit ]
In 2006, National-Louis University closed its former independent site, which had 6.5 acres ( 2.6 hour angle ) of state, with about 33 % in Evanston ; the majority of the kingdom was in Wilmette. [ 59 ]
Universities [edit ]
Founded in 1855, Evanston is home to Northwestern University, one of the nation ‘s moderate research universities. Located along Lake Michigan, Northwestern ‘s campus spans 240 acres with an estimated 250 buildings. Since 1908, Kellogg School of Management adenine well as Garrett-Evangelical Theological Seminary ( 1853 ) have institutions, of which both parcel the campus with Northwestern .
exile [edit ]
Shops along Davis Street, looking west, August 2006. The Davis Street Metra stop is visible in the lower half of the photograph. Evanston ‘s growth occurred largely because of its handiness from Chicago by rail. The northwestern founders did not finalize their commitment to siting the university there until they were assured the Chicago & Milwaukee Railway lineage would run there. C & M trains began stopping in Evanston in 1855. [ 60 ] Evanston late experienced rapid growth as one of the inaugural streetcar suburb. The North Shore Line, the interurban dragoon that gave the area its dub, ran through Evanston and continued to Waukegan and Milwaukee. The city is calm connected to Chicago by rail transit. The CTA ‘s Purple Line, part of the Chicago ‘L ‘ system, runs through Evanston. From its concluding at Howard in Chicago, the occupation heads north to the South Boulevard, Main, Dempster, Davis, Foster, Noyes, and Central stations, before terminating at the Linden post in Wilmette, Illinois. Metra ‘s Union Pacific/North Line besides serves Evanston, with stations at Main Street, Davis Street and Central Street, the foremost two being adjacent to Purple Line stations. The CTA ‘s Yellow Line besides runs through the city, though it does not stop there. Evanston is served by six CTA bus routes american samoa well as four Pace bus routes. car routes from Chicago to Evanston include Lake Shore Drive, the Edens Expressway ( I-94 ), and McCormick Boulevard, although the first two of those do not extend to Evanston itself and require driving through Rogers Park ( via Sheridan Road or Ridge Avenue ) and Skokie, respectively. The chief routes from the north are the Edens, Green Bay Road, and Sheridan Road. Active modes of transportation system include miles of sidewalks and bicycle lanes .
economy [edit ]
Companies based in Evanston include ZS Associates .
top employers [edit ]
As of 2015, according to the State of Illinois Dept Commerce and Economic Opportunity and Individual Employers, [ 61 ] the top employers in the city are :
commercial districts [edit ]
once the home of one of the first gear Marshall Field ‘s [ 62 ] [ 63 ] and Sears stores in suburb, Evanston has several shopping areas :
- Downtown – centered around the Davis Street Metra and “L” stops, Evanston’s downtown adjoins Northwestern University. There are over 300 businesses, several high-rise office and residential buildings, three traditional low-rise shopping areas and over 85 restaurants. It is roughly bordered by Emerson Street to the north, Dempster Street to the south, Ridge Avenue to the west, and the Lake to the east.
- Central Street – actually several shopping districts linked along the northernmost of the city’s principal east–west arteries, with the most active clustered around the Central Street Metra station and characterized by specialty shops and restaurants.
- Dempster Street – just off the Dempster “L” stop; over 60 shops.
- Main Street – approximately 3 blocks of mostly independent boutiques and restaurants abutting both a CTA and Metra stop. The neighborhood is also home to the Evanston Arts Depot.
- Howard Street – Howard Street forms the southern border between Evanston and the City of Chicago. The Howard Street CTA station is a transfer point between the Red, Purple, and Yellow line trains as well as several CTA and PACE bus routes.
- Chicago Avenue – not a separate shopping district per se, this extension of what is called Clark Street in Chicago runs parallel to the rail lines and is the principal north–south artery in Evanston from Howard Street north to its terminus at Northwestern University. Chicago Avenue connects the Main Street, Dempster Street, and Downtown shopping districts.
- Noyes – Bordering the Noyes “L” stop with around a dozen restaurants, dry-cleaners and convenience stores.
finance [edit ]
- Magnetar Capital, a hedge fund based in Evanston, was ranked #4 among hedge funds worldwide by Institutional Investor/Alpha magazine in 2015.
Health worry [edit ]
Two hospitals are located within Evanston ‘s city limits :
University-city relations [edit ]
“ The Arch ”, the independent entrance to the Evanston campus of Northwestern University A perennial consider in Evanston is the return of Northwestern University ‘s status as a tax-exempt security institution. [ 76 ] In the establish lease of Northwestern University, signed in 1851, the state granted the school an exemption from paying place taxes, and unlike other well-off private universities with statutory exemptions, [ 77 ] it provides its own patrol services, but not firefighter/paramedic services. It pays water, gutter, communications, substantial property transfer taxes, and building let fees, but not property taxes. Northwestern does not make Payments in Lieu of Taxes for the real estate it removes from property tax rolls. Its backers, like former Evanston mayor and Northwestern alumna Lorraine H. Morton, contend that the benefits of having an elect inquiry institution justify Northwestern ‘s tax condition. [ 78 ] These supporters highlight the fact that Northwestern University is the largest employer in Evanston, [ 79 ] and that its students and faculty constitute a big consumer base for Evanston businesses. This controversy was revived in 2003 when the university purchased an eight-story office build downtown, removing it from the tax rolls. An advisory referendum put on the April elections ballot, dubbed by supporters as a “ Fair Share Initiative ”, received a majority, but was not passed into regulation by the City Council. [ citation needed ] During the tenure of Elizabeth Tisdahl as mayor, relationships between the University and Evanston improved. Upon arriving at Northwestern in 2009 president Morton O. Schapiro forged a strong work relationship with Tisdahl ; [ 80 ] in 2015, two announced that Northwestern would begin to donate $ 1 million per annum to benefit city services and programs. [ 81 ]
celebrated people [edit ]
local anesthetic media [edit ]
- The Daily Northwestern, the student newspaper at Northwestern University
- The Evanston Review, subscription weekly newspaper, part of Pioneer Press
- The Evanston Roundtable, free biweekly newspaper
- The Evanston Sentinel, a free weekly African-American newspaper
- Evanston Now, an online newspaper and community website
Use as film location [edit ]
Evanston ‘s diverseness of housing and commercial districts, combined with easy access to Chicago, make it a popular film localization. Evanston as of December 2008 is listed as a film location for 65 different films, notably those of John Hughes. [ 82 ] a lot of the 1984 film Sixteen Candles was filmed in and around Evanston, [ 83 ] the 1988 movie She’s Having a Baby, as was the 1989 film Uncle Buck, [ 84 ] the 1993 film Dennis the Menace, [ 85 ] and the 1997 film Home Alone 3. [ 86 ] A number of scenes from the 1986 Garry Marshall film Nothing in Common were filmed on the Northwestern University campus and Evanston ‘s lakeside. [ 87 ] Although not filmed there, the 2004 film Mean Girls is set in the Chicago suburb, and makes respective references to the area. The movie ‘s screenwriter and co-star, Tina Fey, had worked at the Evanston YMCA when starting her comedy career. In the 2003 film Cheaper by the Dozen, the class moves to Evanston. [ 88 ] Additionally, the baseball movie Rookie of the Year, featuring Gary Busey and Thomas Ian Nicholas, was partially shot at Haven Middle School. [ 89 ] The 2015 ABC Family world series Becoming Us was filmed in Evanston. In The Princess Bride, according to IMDb, the screenplay says that the male child and his grandfather live in Evanston. [ 90 ] This was besides stated by Mandy Patinkin in a sub-rosa interview. [ 91 ] The report ‘s writer, William Goldman, was born in Chicago and grew up in Highland Park a little more than ten miles north of Evanston .
sustainability [edit ]
Evanston has gained recognition and repute for efforts related to sustainability, including those by government, citizens, and institutions. In 2015, the city was named the World Wildlife Fund ‘s Earth Hour Capital after competing against cities including Seattle and Cleveland. In 2016, Evanston was again a finalist in the competition. [ 92 ]
Climate Action Plan [edit ]
In October 2006, the city voted to sign the United States Conference of Mayors Climate Protection Agreement, [ 93 ] and a number of citizen task forces convened to develop a plan to reduce the city ‘s carbon paper footprint. [ 94 ] The Evanston Climate Action Plan ( “ ECAP ” ), accepted by the City Council in November 2008, suggested over 200 strategies to make Evanston more sustainable, chiefly by reducing carbon emissions associated with transportation system, buildings, energy sources, waste, and food production. [ 95 ] [ 96 ] In June 2011, the United States Conference of Mayors awarded Evanston first place in the little city class of the Mayors ‘ Climate Protection Awards, based largely on the city ‘s manipulation of the ECAP, which the city asserts has reduced emissions by 24,000 measured tons per year. [ 97 ] [ 98 ] On September 15, 2011, Wal-Mart presented Mayor Tisdahl with a $ 15,000 award in recognition of the award, which the mayor donated to Citizens ‘ Greener Evanston. [ 99 ]
Points of interest [edit ]
See besides [edit ]
References [edit ]
further interpretation [edit ]
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