Manchester – Wikipedia

City and metropolitan borough in England
Manchester ( ) [ 4 ] [ 5 ] is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England. The city has the country ‘s fifth-largest population at 547,627 ( as of 2018 ) [ 6 ] and lies within the United Kingdom ‘s second-most populous urban area, with a population of 2.7 million, [ 7 ] third most-populous county, at around 2.8 million. [ 8 ] It is fringed by the Cheshire Plain to the south, the Pennines to the north and east, and an arc of towns with which it forms a continuous conurbation. [ 9 ] The local authority for the city is Manchester City Council. The record history of Manchester began with the civilian settlement associated with the Roman fortify of Mamucium or Mancunium, which was established in about AD 79 on a sandstone bluff near the concourse of the rivers Medlock and Irwell. Although historically and traditionally a part of Lancashire, areas of Cheshire south of the River Mersey were incorporated into Manchester in the twentieth century. The first to be included, Wythenshawe, was added to the city in 1931. Throughout the Middle Ages Manchester remained a manorial township, but began to expand “ at an amaze rate ” around the flex of the nineteenth century. Manchester ‘s unplanned urbanization was brought on by a boom in fabric industry during the Industrial Revolution, [ 10 ] and resulted in it becoming the world ‘s first industrialized city. [ 11 ] Manchester achieved city status in 1853. The Manchester Ship Canal opened in 1894, creating the Port of Manchester and directly linking the city to the Irish Sea, 36 miles ( 58 kilometer ) to the west. Its fortune declined after the second World War, owing to deindustrialisation, but the IRA bombard in 1996 led to extensive investment and regeneration. [ 12 ] Following successful renovation after the IRA fail, Manchester was the host city for the 2002 Commonwealth Games.

The city is celebrated for its architecture, acculturation, melodious exports, media links, scientific and engineering output, social impact, sports clubs and transmit connections. Manchester Liverpool Road railroad track station was the world ‘s first inter-city passenger railroad track station. At the University of Manchester, Ernest Rutherford first split the atom in 1917, Frederic C. Williams, Tom Kilburn and Geoff Tootill developed the populace ‘s first stored-program calculator in 1948, and Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov isolated the foremost graphene in 2004 .


The name Manchester originates from the Latin name Mamucium or its variant Mancunio and the citizens are hush referred to as Mancunians ( ). These names are broadly thought to represent a Latinisation of an original Brittonic list. The broadly bear etymology of this appoint is that it comes from Brittonic * mamm- ( “ breast “, in reference point to a “ breast-like hill “ ). [ 13 ] [ 14 ] however, more recent work suggests that it could come from * mamma ( “ mother ”, in reference point to a local river goddess ). Both usages are preserved in Insular Celtic languages, such as mam meaning “ front ” in Irish and “ beget ” in Welsh. [ 15 ] The suffix -chester is from Old English ceaster ( “ Roman fortification ”, itself a loanword from Latin castra, “ fort ; fortified town ” ). [ 14 ] [ 13 ]


early history

The Brigantes were the major Celtic kin in what is now known as Northern England ; they had a stronghold in the vicinity at a sandstone outcrop on which Manchester Cathedral now stands, opposite the bank of the River Irwell. [ 16 ] Their district extended across the fertile lowland of what is now Salford and Stretford. Following the Roman seduction of Britain in the first hundred, General Agricola ordered the construction of a garrison named Mamucium in the year 79 to ensure that Roman interests in Deva Victrix ( Chester ) and Eboracum ( York ) were protected from the Brigantes. [ 16 ] Central Manchester has been permanently settled since this time. [ 17 ] A stabilize shard of foundations of the concluding version of the Roman fortify is visible in Castlefield. The Roman habitation of Manchester credibly ended around the third century ; its civilian settlement appears to have been abandoned by the mid-3rd century, although the fortress may have supported a small garrison until the late 3rd or early fourth century. [ 18 ] After the Roman withdrawal and Saxon conquest, the concentrate of settlement shifted to the confluence of the Irwell and Irk erstwhile before the arrival of the Normans after 1066. [ 19 ] much of the wide-eyed area was laid waste in the subsequent Harrying of the North. [ 20 ] [ 21 ]
The Peterloo slaughter of 1819 resulted in 15 deaths and several hundred hurt In the Domesday Book of 1086, Manchester is recorded as within the hundred of Salford and held as tenant in headman by a Norman named Roger of Poitou, [ 22 ] late being held by the family of Grelley, overlord of the manor and residents of Manchester Castle until 1215 before a Manor House was built. [ 23 ] By 1421 Thomas de la Warre founded and constructed a collegiate church service for the parish, now Manchester Cathedral ; the domestic premises of the college house Chetham ‘s School of Music and Chetham ‘s Library. [ 19 ] [ 24 ] The library, which opened in 1653 and is hush open to the public today, is the oldest free public address library in the United Kingdom. [ 25 ] Manchester is mentioned as having a grocery store in 1282. [ 26 ] Around the fourteenth hundred, Manchester received an inflow of flemish weavers, sometimes credited as the foundation of the region ‘s textile industry. [ 27 ] Manchester became an crucial concentrate for the manufacture and trade of woollens and linen, and by about 1540, had expanded to become, in John Leland ‘s words, “ The fairest, good builded, quickest, and most populous town of all Lancashire. ” [ 19 ] The cathedral and Chetham ‘s buildings are the only significant survivors of Leland ‘s Manchester. [ 20 ] During the English Civil War Manchester powerfully favoured the parliamentary pastime. Although not durable, Cromwell granted it the right to elect its own MP. Charles Worsley, who sat for the city for merely a year, was subsequently appointed Major General for Lancashire, Cheshire and Staffordshire during the Rule of the Major Generals. He was a diligent prude, turning out ale houses and banning the celebration of Christmas ; he died in 1656. [ 28 ] significant quantities of cotton began to be used after about 1600, first in linen/cotton fustians, but by around 1750 arrant cotton fabrics were being produced and cotton had overtaken wool in importance. [ 19 ] The Irwell and Mersey were made navigable by 1736, opening a route from Manchester to the sea docks on the Mersey. The Bridgewater Canal, Britain ‘s first wholly artificial waterway, was opened in 1761, bringing coal from mines at Worsley to cardinal Manchester. The canal was extended to the Mersey at Runcorn by 1776. The combination of competition and improved efficiency halved the price of coal and halved the ecstasy monetary value of raw cotton. [ 19 ] [ 24 ] Manchester became the dominant marketplace for textiles produced in the besiege towns. [ 19 ] A commodities exchange, opened in 1729, [ 20 ] and numerous large warehouses, aided commerce. In 1780, Richard Arkwright began structure of Manchester ‘s first cotton mill. [ 20 ] [ 24 ] In the early 1800s, John Dalton formulated his atomic theory in Manchester .

Industrial Revolution

Manchester was one of the centres of fabric fabricate during the Industrial Revolution. The capital majority of cotton spinning took set in the towns of south Lancashire and north Cheshire, and Manchester was for a time the most productive concentrate of cotton process. [ 29 ] Manchester became known as the populace ‘s largest market for cotton goods [ 19 ] [ 30 ] and was dubbed “ Cottonopolis “ and “ Warehouse City ” during the victorian era. [ 29 ] In Australia, New Zealand and South Africa, the term “ manchester ” is hush used for family linen : sheets, pillow cases, towels, etc. [ 31 ] The industrial rotation brought approximately huge deepen in Manchester and was key to the increase in Manchester ‘s population. Manchester began expanding “ at an astonishing rate ” around the turn of the nineteenth hundred as people flocked to the city for workplace from Scotland, Wales, Ireland and other areas of England as part of a process of unplanned urbanization brought on by the Industrial Revolution. [ 32 ] [ 33 ] [ 34 ] It developed a wide-eyed range of industries, so that by 1835 “ Manchester was without challenge the foremost and greatest industrial city in the world. ” [ 30 ] engineering firms initially made machines for the cotton trade, but diversified into general manufacture. similarly, the chemical industry started by producing bleaches and dyes, but expanded into other areas. Commerce was supported by fiscal service industries such as bank and policy. Trade, and feeding the growing population, required a big transportation and distribution infrastructure : the canal system was extended, and Manchester became one end of the populace ‘s first intercity passenger railway—the Liverpool and Manchester Railway. contest between the respective forms of transmit keep costs polish. [ 19 ] In 1878 the GPO ( the antecedent of British Telecom ) provided its first telephones to a firm in Manchester. [ 35 ] The Manchester Ship Canal was built between 1888 and 1894, in some sections by channelization of the Rivers Irwell and Mersey, running 36 miles ( 58 kilometer ) [ 36 ] from Salford to Eastham Locks on the tidal Mersey. This enabled oceangoing ships to sail correct into the Port of Manchester. On the duct ‘s banks, barely outside the borough, the world ‘s first industrial estate was created at Trafford Park. [ 19 ] Large quantities of machinery, including cotton work implant, were exported around the populace. A concentrate of capitalism, Manchester was once the view of bread and parturiency riots, a well as calls for greater political recognition by the city ‘s working and non-titled classes. One such gather ended with the Peterloo slaughter of 16 August 1819. The economic school of Manchester Capitalism developed there, and Manchester was the center of the Anti-Corn Law league from 1838 forth. [ 37 ] Manchester has a luminary place in the history of Marxism and leftist politics ; being the topic of Friedrich Engels ‘ work The Condition of the Working Class in England in 1844 ; Engels spent much of his life sentence in and around Manchester, [ 38 ] and when Karl Marx visited Manchester, they met at Chetham ‘s Library. The economics books Marx was reading at the time can be seen in the library, as can the windowpane seat where Marx and Engels would meet. [ 25 ] The first Trades Union Congress was held in Manchester ( at the Mechanics ‘ Institute, David Street ), from 2 to 6 June 1868. Manchester was an important cradle of the Labour Party and the Suffragette Movement. [ 39 ] At that meter, it seemed a stead in which anything could happen—new industrial processes, new ways of intend ( the Manchester School, promoting free deal and laissez-faire ), new classes or groups in society, newfangled religious sects, and modern forms of labor organization. It attracted educated visitors from all parts of Britain and Europe. A saying capturing this sense of initiation survives today : “ What Manchester does today, the remainder of the world does tomorrow. ” [ 40 ] Manchester ‘s gold age was possibly the last quarter of the nineteenth hundred. Many of the bang-up public buildings ( including Manchester Town Hall ) date from then. The city ‘s cosmopolitan standard atmosphere contributed to a vibrant culture, which included the Hallé Orchestra. In 1889, when county councils were created in England, the municipal borough became a county borough with even greater autonomy .
Although the Industrial Revolution brought wealth to the city, it besides brought poverty and sordidness to a large separate of the population. historian Simon Schama noted that “ Manchester was the very best and the very worst taken to terrifying extremes, a new kind of city in the world ; the lamp chimney of industrial suburbs greeting you with columns of smoke ”. An american english visitor taken to Manchester ‘s blackspots saw “ wretched, defrauded, oppressed, crushed human nature, lying and bleeding fragments ”. [ 41 ] The numeral of cotton mills in Manchester itself reached a peak of 108 in 1853. [ 29 ] Thereafter the issue began to decline and Manchester was surpassed as the largest concentrate of cotton spin by Bolton in the 1850s and Oldham in the 1860s. [ 29 ] however, this time period of decline coincided with the get up of the city as the fiscal kernel of the area. [ 29 ] Manchester continued to process cotton, and in 1913, 65 % of the world ‘s cotton was processed in the area. [ 19 ] The First World War interrupted entree to the export markets. Cotton process in early parts of the world increased, often on machines produced in Manchester. Manchester suffered greatly from the Great Depression and the fundamental morphologic changes that began to supplant the honest-to-god industries, including fabric manufacture .

safety blitz

Like most of the UK, the Manchester area was mobilised extensively during the second World War. For exemplar, cast and machine expertness at Beyer, Peacock & Company ‘s locomotive works in Gorton was switched to bomb making ; Dunlop ‘s rubber works in Chorlton-on-Medlock made barrage balloons ; and merely outside the city in Trafford Park, engineers Metropolitan-Vickers made Avro Manchester and Avro Lancaster bombers and Ford built the Rolls-Royce Merlin engines to might them. Manchester was thus the target of bombing by the Luftwaffe, and by belated 1940 vent raids were taking set against non-military targets. The biggest took place during the Christmas Blitz on the nights of 22/23 and 24 December 1940, when an estimated 474 tonnes ( 467 long tons ) of high explosives plus over 37,000 incendiary bombs were dropped. A large contribution of the historic city center was destroyed, including 165 warehouses, 200 business premises, and 150 offices. 376 were killed and 30,000 houses were damaged. [ 42 ] Manchester Cathedral, Royal Exchange and Free Trade Hall were among the buildings seriously damaged ; restoration of the cathedral took 20 years. [ 43 ]

Post-Second World War

Cotton process and trading continued to fall in peacetime, and the substitution closed in 1968. [ 19 ] By 1963 the port of Manchester was the UK ‘s third base largest, [ 44 ] and employed over 3,000 men, but the canal was unable to handle the increasingly large container ships. traffic declined, and the port closed in 1982. [ 45 ] Heavy industry suffered a downturn from the 1960s and was greatly reduced under the economic policies followed by Margaret Thatcher ‘s government after 1979. Manchester lost 150,000 jobs in fabrication between 1961 and 1983. [ 19 ]
re-formation began in the late 1980s, with initiatives such as the Metrolink, the Bridgewater Concert Hall, the Manchester Arena, and ( in Salford ) the rebranding of the port as Salford Quays. Two bids to host the Olympic Games were separate of a process to raise the international profile of the city. [ 47 ]
Manchester has a history of attacks attributed to Irish Republicans, including the Manchester Martyrs of 1867, arson in 1920, a serial of explosions in 1939, and two bombs in 1992. On Saturday 15 June 1996, the Provisional irish Republican Army ( IRA ) carried out the 1996 Manchester bombard, the detonation of a boastfully turkey next to a department store in the city center. The largest to be detonated on british land, the bomb injured over 200 people, heavily damaged nearby buildings, and broke windows 1⁄2 mile ( 800 thousand ) away. The monetary value of the immediate damage was initially estimated at £50 million, but this was quickly revised upwards. [ 48 ] The final policy payout was over £400 million ; many feign businesses never recovered from the loss of trade wind. [ 49 ]

Since 2000

Spurred by the investing after the 1996 fail and aided by the XVII Commonwealth Games, the city kernel has undergo across-the-board re-formation. [ 47 ] New and renovated complexes such as The Printworks and Corn Exchange have become popular denounce, eating and entertainment areas. Manchester Arndale is the UK ‘s largest city-centre denounce centre. [ 50 ] large city sections from the 1960s have been demolished, re-developed or modernised with the use of glass and steel. Old mills have been converted into apartments. Hulme has undergo across-the-board positive feedback, with million-pound loft-house apartments being developed. The 47-storey, 554-foot ( 169 megabyte ) Beetham Tower was the tallest UK build outside London and the highest residential accommodation in Europe when completed in 2006. It was surpassed in 2018 by the 659-foot ( 201 megabyte ) South Tower of the Deansgate Square project, besides in Manchester. [ 51 ] In January 2007, the independent Casino Advisory Panel licensed Manchester to build the UK ‘s only supercasino, [ 52 ] but plans were abandoned in February 2008. [ 53 ] On 22 May 2017, an Islamist terrorist carried out a bombing at an Ariana Grande concert in the Manchester Arena ; the fail killed 23, including the attacker, and injured over 800. [ 54 ] It was the deadliest terrorist attack and foremost suicide bombing in Britain since the 7 July 2005 London bombings. It caused global execration and changed the UK ‘s menace level to “ critical ” for the first time since 2007. [ 55 ] Since around the become of the twenty-first hundred, Manchester has been regarded as one of the candidates for the unofficial title of second city of the United Kingdom aboard Birmingham by sections of the international iron, [ 56 ] british public, [ 57 ] and government ministers. [ 58 ] [ 59 ] Manchester and Birmingham traditionally compete as front runners for this unofficial title. [ 59 ]


The City of Manchester is governed by the Manchester City Council. The Greater Manchester Combined Authority, with a directly elected mayor, has responsibilities for economic scheme and transport, amongst early areas, on a Greater Manchester-wide basis. Manchester has been a member of the English Core Cities Group since its origin in 1995. [ 60 ] The town of Manchester was granted a charter by Thomas Grelley in 1301, but lost its borough status in a woo case of 1359. Until the nineteenth century local politics was largely in the hands of manorial courts, the last of which was dissolved in 1846. [ 61 ] From a very early time, the township of Manchester lay within the historic or ceremony county boundaries of Lancashire. [ 61 ] Pevsner wrote “ That [ neighbouring ] Stretford and Salford are not administratively one with Manchester is one of the most curious anomalies of England ”. [ 27 ] A accident of a baron ‘s pen is said to have divorced Manchester and Salford, though it was not Salford that became separated from Manchester, it was Manchester, with its base occupation of lords, that was separated from Salford. [ 62 ] It was this legal separation that resulted in Salford becoming the judicial seat of Salfordshire, which included the ancient parish of Manchester. Manchester belated formed its own Poor Law Union using the name “ Manchester ”. [ 61 ] In 1792, Commissioners—usually known as “ Police Commissioners ” —were established for the social improvement of Manchester. Manchester regained its borough status in 1838, and comprised the townships of Beswick, Cheetham Hill, Chorlton upon Medlock and Hulme. [ 61 ] By 1846, with increasing population and greater industrialization, the Borough Council had taken over the powers of the “ Police Commissioners ”. In 1853, Manchester was granted city status. [ 61 ] In 1885, Bradford, Harpurhey, Rusholme and parts of Moss Side and Withington townships became separate of the City of Manchester. In 1889, the city became a county borough as did many larger Lancashire towns, and consequently not governed by Lancashire County Council. [ 61 ] Between 1890 and 1933, more areas were added to the city which had been administered by Lancashire County Council, including erstwhile villages such as Burnage, Chorlton-cum-Hardy, Didsbury, Fallowfield, Levenshulme, Longsight, and Withington. In 1931, the Cheshire civil parishes of Baguley, Northenden and Northen Etchells from the south of the River Mersey were added. [ 61 ] In 1974, by way of the local Government Act 1972, the City of Manchester became a metropolitan district of the metropolitan county of Greater Manchester. [ 61 ] That year, Ringway, the village where the Manchester Airport is located, was added to the city. In November 2014, it was announced that Greater Manchester would receive a new directly elected mayor. The mayor would have fiscal control over health, ecstasy, housing and police in the area. [ 63 ] Andy Burnham was elected as the first mayor of Greater Manchester in 2017 .


Climate chart (explanation)
joule degree fahrenheit meter A meter joule joule A randomness oxygen normality five hundred





































Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm

At, 160 miles ( 260 kilometer ) northwest of London, Manchester lies in a bowl-shaped kingdom area bordered to the north and east by the Pennines, an upland chain that runs the length of northern England, and to the south by the Cheshire Plain. Manchester is 35.0 miles ( 56.3 kilometer ) northeast of Liverpool and 35.0 miles ( 56.3 kilometer ) northwest of Sheffield, making the city the halfway point between the two. The city center is on the east depository financial institution of the River Irwell, near its confluences with the Rivers Medlock and Irk, and is relatively low-lying, being between 35 to 42 metres ( 115 to 138 feet ) above sea flush. [ 64 ] The River Mersey flows through the south of Manchester. Much of the inner city, specially in the south, is apartment, offering extensive views from many highrise buildings in the city of the foothills and moors of the Pennines, which can often be capped with snow in the winter months. Manchester ‘s geographic features were highly influential in its early development as the worldly concern ‘s first industrial city. These features are its climate, its proximity to a seaport at Liverpool, the handiness of urine exponent from its rivers, and its nearby coal reserves. [ 65 ]
The City of Manchester. The land use is overwhelmingly urban The name Manchester, though formally applied only to the metropolitan district within Greater Manchester, has been applied to other, wide-eyed divisions of farming, particularly across much of the Greater Manchester county and urban area. The “ Manchester City Zone ”, “ Manchester position township “ and the “ Manchester Congestion Charge “ are all examples of this. For purposes of the Office for National Statistics, Manchester forms the most populous village within the Greater Manchester Urban Area, the United Kingdom ‘s third-largest conurbation. There is a mix of high-density urban and suburban locations. The largest receptive space in the city, at around 260 hectares ( 642 acres ), [ 66 ] is Heaton Park. Manchester is contiguous on all sides with respective big settlements, except for a small section along its southern boundary with Cheshire. The M60 and M56 motorways pass through Northenden and Wythenshawe respectively in the south of Manchester. Heavy train lines enter the city from all directions, the principal destination being Manchester Piccadilly post .


Manchester experiences a temperate oceanic climate ( Köppen : Cfb ), like much of the british Isles, with quick summers and cool winters. Summer day temperatures regularly lead 20 Celsius, quite much reaching 25 Celsius on cheery days during July and August in particular. In more holocene years, temperatures have occasionally reached over 30 Celsius. There is unconstipated but broadly light precipitation throughout the year. The city ‘s average annual rain is 806.6 millimetres ( 31.76 in ) [ 67 ] compared to a UK average of 1,125.0 millimetres ( 44.29 in ), [ 68 ] and its entail rain days are 140.4 per annum, [ 67 ] compared to the UK average of 154.4. [ 68 ] Manchester has a relatively high humidity level, and this, along with abundant soft water, was one gene that led to progress of the fabric industry in the area. [ 69 ] Snowfalls are not common in the city because of the urban warming effect but the West Pennine Moors to the northwest, South Pennines to the northeast and Peak District to the east get more coke, which can close roads leading out of the city. [ 70 ] They include the A62 via Oldham and Standedge, [ 71 ] the A57, Snake Pass, towards Sheffield, [ 72 ] and the Pennine section of the M62. [ 73 ] The lowest temperature always recorded in Manchester was −17.6 °C ( 0.3 °F ) on 7 January 2010. [ 74 ]

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 14.3
Average high °C (°F) 7.3
Daily mean °C (°F) 4.5
Average low °C (°F) 1.7
Record low °C (°F) −15.0
Average precipitation mm (inches) 72.3
Average precipitation days ( ≥ 1.0 millimeter ) 13.1 9.7 12.3 11.2 10.4 11.1 10.9 12.0 11.1 13.6 14.1 13.5 142.9
Average snowy days 6 5 3 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 20
Average relative humidity (%) 87 86 85 85 85 87 88 89 89 89 88 87 88
Mean monthly sunshine hours 52.5 73.9 99.0 146.9 188.3 172.5 179.7 166.3 131.2 99.3 59.5 47.1 1,416.2
Average ultraviolet index 0 1 2 4 5 6 6 5 4 2 1 0 3
Source 1: Met Office[75] NOAA (relative humidity and snow days 1961–1990)[76]
Source 2: KNMI[77][78] Current Results – Weather and Science[79] WeatherAtlas[80] Meteo Climat[81]

green knock

manchester lies at the kernel of a park belt region extending into the across-the-board surrounding counties. This reduces urban sprawl, prevents towns in the conurbation from further convergence, protects the identity of outlying communities, and preserves nearby countryside. It is achieved by restricting inappropriate development within the intend areas and imposing hard-and-fast conditions on allow build. [ 82 ] due to being already highly urban, the city contains limited portions of protected green-belt area within greenfield throughout the borough, with minimal exploitation opportunities, [ 83 ] at Clayton Vale, Heaton Park, Chorlton Water Park along with the Chorlton Ees & Ivy Green nature reserve and the floodplain surrounding the River Mersey, a well as the southerly area around Manchester Airport. [ 84 ] The green belt out was first drawn up in 1961. [ 82 ]


racial social organization, according to the 2011 census [ 2 ]


White Groups ( 66.7 % )


Asian ( 14.4 % )


Black ( 8.6 % )


Mixed ( 4.7 % )


Chinese ( 2.7 % )


Arab ( 1.9 % )


early ( 1.2 % )

religious beliefs, according to the 2011 census [ 2 ]


Christian ( 48.7 % )


No Religion ( 25.3 % )


Muslim ( 15.8 % )


Hindu ( 1.1 % )


Buddhist ( 0.8 % )


Jewish ( 0.5 % )


early ( 0.9 % )


Religion not Stated ( 6.9 % )
historically the population of Manchester began to increase quickly during the victorian earned run average, estimated at 354,930 for Manchester and 110,833 for Salford in 1865, [ 85 ] and top out at 766,311 in 1931. From then the population began to decrease quickly, due to slum clearance and the increased building of social house overspill estates by Manchester City Council after the second World War such as Hattersley and Langley. [ 86 ] The 2012 mid-year estimate for the population of Manchester was 510,700. This was an increase of 7,900, or 1.6 per penny, since the 2011 appraisal. Since 2001, the population has grown by 87,900, or 20.8 per penny, making Manchester the third gear fastest-growing area in the 2011 census. [ 87 ] The city experienced the greatest share population increase outside London, with an increase of 19 per penny to over 500,000. [ 88 ] Manchester ‘s population is projected to reach 532,200 by 2021, an increase of 5.8 per cent from 2011. This represents a slower rate of emergence than the previous ten. [ 87 ] The Greater Manchester Built-up Area in 2011 had an estimated population of 2,553,400. In 2012 an estimated 2,702,200 people lived in Greater Manchester. An 6,547,000 people were estimated in 2012 to live within 30 miles ( 50 kilometer ) of Manchester and 11,694,000 within 50 miles ( 80 kilometer ). [ 87 ] Between the begin of July 2011 and end of June 2012 ( mid-year estimate date ), births exceeded deaths by 4,800. Migration ( internal and international ) and early changes accounted for a net increase of 3,100 people between July 2011 and June 2012. Compared with Greater Manchester and with England, Manchester has a younger population, with a particularly big 20–35 age group. [ 87 ] There were 76,095 undergraduate and graduate students at Manchester Metropolitan University, the University of Manchester and Royal Northern College of Music in the 2011/2012 academic class. Since the 2001 census, the proportion of Christians in Manchester has fallen by 22 per penny from 62.4 per cent to 48.7 per cent. The proportion of those with no religious affiliation rose by 58.1 per cent from 16 per penny to 25.3 per cent, whilst the proportion of Muslims increased by 73.6 per penny from 9.1 per penny to 15.8 per penny. The size of the jewish population in Greater Manchester is the largest in Britain external London. [ 89 ]
The population of Manchester shown with other boroughs in the Greater Manchester county from 1801 to 2011. Of all households in Manchester, 0.23 per cent were Same-Sex Civil Partnership households, compared with an english national average of 0.16 per penny in 2011. [ 90 ] In terms of cultural composition, the City of Manchester has the highest colored symmetry of any zone in Greater Manchester. Statistics from the 2011 census showed that 66.7 per penny of the population was White ( 59.3 per penny White British, 2.4 per cent White Irish, 0.1 per penny Gypsy or Irish Traveller, 4.9 per penny early White – although the size of desegregate european and british heathen groups is ill-defined, there are reportedly over 25,000 people in Greater Manchester of at least partial italian descent alone, which represents 5.5 per penny of the population of Greater Manchester [ 91 ] ). 4.7 per cent were mix race ( 1.8 per cent White and Black Caribbean, 0.9 per penny White and Black African, 1.0 per cent White and Asian, 1.0 per penny other shuffle ), 17.1 per penny Asian ( 2.3 per penny Indian, 8.5 per penny Pakistani, 1.3 per penny Bangladeshi, 2.7 per cent Chinese, 2.3 per cent other Asian ), 8.6 per cent Black ( 5.1 per penny African, 1.6 per penny other Black ), 1.9 per penny Arab and 1.2 per cent of early heathen inheritance. [ 92 ]

Ethnicity Ethnic groups in Manchester (2011 Census)
White British 298,237 (59.3%)
White Irish 11,843 (2.4%)
White Gypsy/ Irish Traveller 509 (0.1%)
Any other white background 24,520 (4.9%)
White 335,109 (66.6%)
White and Black Caribbean 8,877 (1.8%)
White and Black African 4,397 (0.9%)
White and Asian 4,791 (1.0%)
Any other mixed background 5,096 (1.0%)
Mixed 23,161 (4.6%)
Indian 11,417 (2.3%)
Pakistani 42,904 (8.5%)
Bangladeshi 6,437 (1.3%)
Chinese 13,539 (2.7%)
Any other Asian background 11,689 (2.3%)
Asian 85,986 (17.1%)
Black African 25,718 (5.1%)
Black Caribbean 9,642 (1.9%)
Any other black background 8,124 (1.6%)
Black 43,484 (8.6%)
Arab 9,503 (1.9%)
Any other background 5,884 (1.2%)
Other 15,387 (3.1%)
Total 503,127 (100.0%)

Kidd identifies Moss Side, Longsight, Cheetham Hill, Rusholme, as centres of population for cultural minorities. [ 19 ] Manchester ‘s Irish Festival, including a St Patrick ‘s Day parade, is one of Europe ‘s largest. [ 93 ] There is besides a well-established Chinatown in the city with a hearty number of oriental restaurants and chinese supermarkets. The sphere besides attracts large numbers of chinese students to the city who, in attending the local universities, [ 94 ] contribute to Manchester having the third-largest chinese population in Europe. [ 95 ] [ 96 ] The Manchester Larger Urban Zone, a Eurostat bill of the functional city-region approximated to local government districts, had a population of 2,539,100 in 2004. [ 97 ] In summation to Manchester itself, the LUZ includes the remainder of the county of Greater Manchester. [ 98 ] The Manchester LUZ is the second base largest within the United Kingdom, behind that of London .


GVA for
Greater Manchester South
Year GVA
(£ million)
Growth (%)
2002 24,011 Increase 03.8%
2003 25,063 Increase 04.4%
2004 27,862 Increase 011.2%
2005 28,579 Increase 02.6%
2006 30,384 Increase 06.3%
2007 32,011 Increase 05.4%
2008 32,081 Increase 00.2%
2009 33,186 Increase 03.4%
2010 33,751 Increase 01.7%
2011 33,468 Decrease 00.8%
2012 34,755 Increase 03.8%
2013 37,560 Increase 09.6%

The Great Jackson Street skyscraper district under construction in Central Manchester. The Office for National Statistics does not produce economic data for the City of Manchester alone, but includes four other metropolitan boroughs, Salford, Stockport, Tameside, Trafford, in an area named Greater Manchester South, which had a GVA of £34.8 billion. The economy grew relatively strongly between 2002 and 2012, when increase was 2.3 per penny above the national average. [ 100 ] The wide metropolitan economy is the moment largest in the United Kingdom. [ 101 ] It is ranked as a beta universe city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network. [ 102 ] As the UK economy continues to recover from its 2008–2010 downturn, Manchester compares favorably according to recent figures. In 2012 it showed the strongest annual growth in business stock ( 5 per penny ) of all core cities. [ 103 ] The city had a relatively shrill increase in the number of commercial enterprise deaths, the largest increase in all the core cities, but this was offset by strong growth in newfangled businesses, resulting in firm net growth. Manchester ‘s civil leadership has a repute for business acumen. [ 104 ] It owns two of the country ‘s four busy airports and uses its earnings to fund local projects. [ 105 ] meanwhile, KPMG ‘s competitive option report found that in 2012 Manchester had the 9th lowest tax cost of any industrialize city in the world, [ 106 ] and fiscal devolution has come sooner to Manchester than to any other british city : it can keep half the extra taxes it gets from tape drive investment. [ 104 ] KPMG ‘s competitive alternative report card besides found that Manchester was Europe ‘s most low-cost city featured, ranking slenderly better than the dutch cities of Rotterdam and Amsterdam, which all have a cost-of-living index of less than 95. [ 106 ] Manchester is a city of contrast, where some of the country ‘s most deprived and most feeder neighbourhoods can be found. [ 107 ] [ 108 ] According to 2010 Indices of Multiple Deprivation, Manchester is the fourth most deprive local anesthetic council in England. [ 109 ] unemployment throughout 2012–2013 averaged 11.9 per cent, which was above national average, but lower than some of the nation ‘s comparable large cities. [ 110 ] On the other hand, Greater Manchester is home to more multi-millionaires than anywhere outdoor London, with the City of Manchester taking up most of the total. [ 111 ] In 2013 Manchester was ranked 6th in the UK for quality of life, according to a rating of the UK ‘s 12 largest cities. [ 112 ] Women fare better in Manchester than the rest of the nation in relative pay with men. The per hours-worked sex yield gap is 3.3 per cent compared with 11.1 per cent for Britain. [ 113 ] 37 per penny of the working-age population in Manchester have degree-level qualifications, as opposed to an average of 33 per cent across other core cities, [ 113 ] although its schools under-perform slenderly compared with the national average. [ 114 ] Manchester has the largest united kingdom office grocery store outside London, according to GVA Grimley, with a quarterly office consumption ( averaged over 2010–2014 ) of some 250,000 square foot – equivalent to the quarterly office uptake of Leeds, Liverpool and Newcastle combined and 90,000 square feet more than the nearest rival, Birmingham. [ 115 ] The impregnable office grocery store in Manchester has been partially attributed to “ northshoring ”, ( from offshoring ) which entails the move or alternative creation of jobs away from the overheated South to areas where position space is possibly cheaper and the work force market less saturate. [ 116 ] According to 2019 property investment research, Manchester is rated as No. 2 location for “ Best Places To Invest in Property in the UK ”. This was attributed to a 5.6 per cent increase in house prices and local investment in infrastructure and in Manchester Airport. [ 117 ]
A position of the Manchester skyline, January 2020


Neo-baroque Lancaster House. Manchester is known for deluxe warehouses from the city ‘s fabric trade. Manchester ‘s buildings display a variety of architectural styles, ranging from priggish to contemporary architecture. The far-flung use of red brick characterises the city, much of the architecture of which harks binding to its days as a global center for the cotton trade. [ 24 ] Just outside the immediate city center are a big number of former cotton mills, some of which have been left virtually untouched since their closure, while many have been redeveloped as apartment buildings and office space. Manchester Town Hall, in Albert Square, was built in the Gothic revival manner and is seen as one of the most authoritative victorian buildings in England. [ 118 ] Manchester besides has a count of skyscrapers built in the 1960s and 1970s, the tallest being the CIS Tower near Manchester Victoria post until the Beetham Tower was completed in 2006. The latter exemplifies a newly scend in high-rise building. It includes a Hilton hotel, a restaurant and apartments. The largest skyscraper is now Deansgate Square South Tower, at 201 metres ( 659 feet ). The green Building, opposite Oxford Road place, is a initiate eco-friendly house stick out, while the recently completed One Angel Square, is one of the most sustainable big buildings in the world. [ 119 ] The award-winning Heaton Park in the north of the city borough is one of the largest municipal park in Europe, covering 610 acres ( 250 hour angle ) of park. [ 120 ] The city has 135 parks, gardens, and candid spaces. [ 121 ] Two big squares hold many of Manchester ‘s public monuments. Albert Square has monuments to Prince Albert, Bishop James Fraser, Oliver Heywood, William Gladstone and John Bright. Piccadilly Gardens has monuments dedicated to Queen Victoria, Robert Peel, James Watt and the Duke of Wellington. The cenotaph in St Peter ‘s Square is Manchester ‘s main memorial to its war dead. Designed by Edwin Lutyens, it echoes the original on Whitehall in London. The Alan Turing Memorial in Sackville Park commemorates his character as the church father of modern computing. A epic statue of Abraham Lincoln by George Gray Barnard in the eponymous Lincoln Square ( having stood for many years in Platt Fields ) was presented to the city by Mr and Mrs Charles Phelps Taft of Cincinnati, Ohio, to mark the separate Lancashire played in the cotton famine and American Civil War of 1861–1865. [ 122 ] A Concorde is on display near Manchester Airport. manchester has six designated local nature reserves : Chorlton Water Park, Blackley Forest, Clayton Vale and Chorlton Ees, Ivy Green, Boggart Hole Clough and Highfield Country Park. [ 123 ]


Map of tram lines, railways and main bus routes in Greater Manchester


Manchester Liverpool Road was the world ‘s first purpose-built passenger and goods railway station [ 124 ] and served as the Manchester terminal on the Liverpool & Manchester Railway – the world ‘s first gear inter-city passenger railroad track. It is distillery extant and its buildings form character of the Science & Industry Museum .
Two of the city ‘s four main production line terminal did not survive the 1960s : Manchester Central and Manchester Exchange each closed in 1969. In addition, Manchester Mayfield station closed to passenger services in 1960 ; its buildings and platforms are still extant, next to Piccadilly place, but are due to be redeveloped in the 2020s. today, the city is well served by its rail network although it is now working to capacity, [ 126 ] and is at the center of an extensive county-wide railway net, including the West Coast Main Line, with two mainline stations : Manchester Piccadilly and Manchester Victoria. The Manchester station group – comprising Manchester Piccadilly, Manchester Victoria, Manchester Oxford Road and Deansgate – is the third busy in the United Kingdom, with 44.9 million passengers recorded in 2017/2018. [ 125 ] The High Speed 2 connection to Birmingham and London is besides planned, which if built will include a 12 kilometer ( 7 mi ) burrow under Manchester on the final approach into an upgrade Piccadilly post. [ 127 ] late improvements in Manchester as part of the Northern Hub in the 2010s have been numerous electrification schemes into and through Manchester, renovation of Victoria station and construction of the Ordsall Chord directly linking Victoria and Piccadilly. [ 128 ] work on two new through platforms at Piccadilly and an extensive upgrade at Oxford Road had not commenced as of 2019. Manchester city concentrate, specifically the Castlefield Corridor, suffers from constrained railing capacity that frequently leads to delays and cancellations – a 2018 report found that all three major Manchester stations are among the acme ten worst stations in the United Kingdom for punctuality, with Oxford Road deemed the worst in the country. [ 129 ]

Metrolink ( tramway )

manchester became the first city in the UK to acquire a modern light fulminate tramcar system when the Manchester Metrolink opened in 1992. In 2016–2017, 37.8 million passenger journeys were made on the system. [ 131 ] The present system largely runs on former commuter rail lines converted for fall fulminate use, and crosses the city centre via on-street tram lines. [ 132 ] The network consists of eight lines with 99 stops. [ 133 ] A modern line to the Trafford Centre opened in 2020. [ 134 ] [ 135 ] Manchester city center is besides serviced by over a twelve heavy and clean rail-based ballpark and ride sites. [ 136 ]


free buses operate on three Manchester Metroshuttle routes around Manchester city center The city has one of the most extensive bus networks outside London, with over 50 bus topology companies operating in the Greater Manchester region radiating from the city. In 2011, 80 per cent of public transport journeys in Greater Manchester were made by bus topology, amounting to 220 million passenger journeys each year. [ 137 ] After deregulation in 1986, the busbar system was taken over by GM Buses, which after denationalization was split into GM Buses North and GM Buses South. Later these were taken over by First Greater Manchester and Stagecoach Manchester. Much of the First Greater Manchester business was sold to Diamond North West and Go North West in 2019. [ 138 ] Go North West operate a three-route zero-fare Manchester Metroshuttle, which carries 2.8 million commuters a year around Manchester ‘s business districts. [ 137 ] [ 139 ] [ 140 ] Stagecoach Manchester is the Stagecoach Group ‘s largest subsidiary company and operates around 690 buses. [ 141 ]


Manchester Airport serves Manchester, Northern England and North Wales. The airport is the third busy in the United Kingdom, with over double over the numeral of annual passengers of the next busy non-London airport. [ 142 ] Services cover many destinations in Europe, North America, the Caribbean, Africa, the Middle East, and Asia ( with more destinations from Manchester than any other airport in Britain ). [ 143 ] A second runway was opened in 2001 and there have been continued concluding improvements. The airport has the highest military rank available : “ Category 10 “, encompassing an elect group of airports able to handle “ Code F “ aircraft, including the Airbus A380 and Boeing 747-8. [ 144 ] From September 2010 the airport became one of only 17 airports in the world and the merely UK airport early than Heathrow Airport and Gatwick Airport to operate the Airbus A380. [ 145 ] A smaller City Airport Manchester exists 9.3 kilometer ( 6 nautical mile ) to the west of Manchester city center. It was Manchester ‘s first municipal airport and became the site of the first gear breeze traffic see loom in the UK, and the first municipal airfield in the UK to be licensed by the Air Ministry. [ 146 ] Today, individual charter flights and cosmopolitan aviation habit City. It besides has a flight school, [ 147 ] and both the Greater Manchester Police Air Support Unit and the North West Air Ambulance have helicopters based there .


An extensive canal network, including the Manchester Ship Canal, was built to carry freight from the Industrial Revolution forth ; the canals are calm maintained, though nowadays largely repurposed for leisure function. [ 148 ] In 2012, plans were approved to introduce a water taxi service between Manchester city center and MediaCityUK at Salford Quays. [ 149 ] This ceased to operate in June 2018, citing poor people infrastructure. [ 150 ]


Cycling for transportation system and leisure enjoys popularity in Manchester and the city besides plays a major function in british cycle racing. [ 151 ] [ 152 ]



The Gallagher brothers of Oasis Bands that have emerged from the Manchester music scene include Van five hundred Graaf Generator, Oasis, The Smiths, Joy Division and its successor group New Order, Buzzcocks, The Stone Roses, The Fall, The Durutti Column, 10cc, Godley & Creme, The Verve, Elbow, Doves, The Charlatans, M People, The 1975, Simply Red, Take That, Dutch Uncles, Everything Everything, Pale Waves and The Outfield. Manchester was credited as the independent drive push behind british indie music of the 1980s led by The Smiths, later including The Stone Roses, Happy Mondays, Inspiral Carpets, and James. The late groups came from what became known as the “ Madchester “ view that besides centred on The Haçienda cabaret developed by the founder of factory Records, Tony Wilson. Although from southerly England, The Chemical Brothers subsequently formed in Manchester. [ 153 ] Former Smiths frontman Morrissey, whose lyrics much refer to Manchester locations and culture, late found international success as a solo artist. previously, noteworthy Manchester acts of the 1960s include The Hollies, Herman ‘s Hermits, and Davy Jones of the Monkees ( famed in the mid-1960s for their albums and their american television display ), and the earlier Bee Gees, who grew up in Chorlton. [ 154 ] Another celebrated contemporary ring from near Manchester is The Courteeners consisting of Liam Fray and four near friends. Singer-songwriter Ren Harvieu is besides from Greater Manchester .
Its independent pop music venue is Manchester Arena, voted “ International Venue of the year ” in 2007 [ 155 ] With over 21,000 seats, it is the largest arena of its type in Europe. [ 155 ] In terms of concertgoers, it is the busiest indoor sphere in the populace, ahead of Madison Square Garden in New York and The O2 Arena in London, which are second and third busy. [ 156 ] other venues include Manchester Apollo, Albert Hall, Victoria Warehouse and the Manchester Academy. Smaller venues include the Band on the Wall, the Night and Day Café, [ 157 ] the Ruby Lounge, [ 158 ] and The Deaf Institute. [ 159 ] Manchester besides has the most indie and rock music events away London. [ 160 ] Manchester has two symphony orchestra orchestras, the Hallé and the BBC Philharmonic, and a chamber orchestra, the Manchester Camerata. In the 1950s, the city was home to a alleged “ Manchester School “ of classical composers, which was composed of Harrison Birtwistle, Peter Maxwell Davies, David Ellis and Alexander Goehr. Manchester is a center for musical education : the Royal Northern College of Music and Chetham ‘s School of Music. [ 161 ] Forerunners of the RNCM were the Northern School of Music ( establish 1920 ) and the Royal Manchester College of Music ( establish 1893 ), which merged in 1973. One of the earliest instructors and classical music pianists/conductors at the RNCM, shortly after its initiation, was the Russian-born Arthur Friedheim, ( 1859–1932 ), who late had the music library at the celebrated Peabody Institute conservatory of music in Baltimore, Maryland, named after him. The main classical music venue was the dislodge Trade Hall on Peter Street until the open in 1996 of the 2,500 seat Bridgewater Hall. [ 162 ] Brass isthmus music, a tradition in the north of England, is crucial to Manchester ‘s musical inheritance ; [ 163 ] some of the UK ‘s go bands, such as the CWS Manchester Band and the Fairey Band, are from Manchester and surrounding areas, and the Whit Friday brass-band contest takes plaza per annum in the neighbor areas of Saddleworth and Tameside .

Performing arts

Manchester has a boom theater, opera and dance scene, with a number of bombastic performance venues, including Manchester Opera House, which feature large-scale tour shows and West End productions ; the Palace Theatre ; and the Royal Exchange Theatre in Manchester ‘s former cotton substitute, which is the largest dramaturgy in the circle in the UK. Smaller venues include the Contact Theatre and Z-arts in Hulme. The Dancehouse on Oxford Road is dedicated to dance productions. [ 164 ] In 2014, HOME, a newfangled custom-built arts complex opened. Housing two field spaces, five film and an art exhibition space, it replaced the Cornerhouse and The Library Theatre. [ 165 ] Since 2007 the city has hosted the Manchester International Festival, a biennial international arts festival with a concenter on original work, which has included major newly commissions by artists, including Bjork. A government statement in 2014 announced a £78 million concession for a new “ large-scale, ultra-flexible arts space ” for the city. [ 166 ] Later the council stated it had secured a further £32 million. [ 167 ] The £110 million venue was confirmed in July 2016. [ 168 ] : 13–14 The dramaturgy, to be called The Factory, after Manchester ‘s factory Records, will provide a permanent wave home for the Manchester International Festival. [ 166 ] It is due to open at the end of 2019. [ 168 ] : 15

Museums and galleries

Manchester Art Gallery Manchester ‘s museums celebrate Manchester ‘s Roman history, full-bodied industrial inheritance and its function in the Industrial Revolution, the fabric diligence, the Trade Union movement, women ‘s right to vote and football. A reconstruct separate of the Roman garrison of Mamucium is open to the public in Castlefield. The Science and Industry Museum, housed in the early Liverpool Road railroad track station, has a large collection of steam locomotives, industrial machinery, aircraft and a replica of the world ‘s beginning stored computer program ( known as the Manchester Baby ). [ 169 ] The Museum of Transport displays a collection of historic buses and trams. [ 170 ] Trafford Park in the neighbor borough of Trafford is home to Imperial War Museum North. [ 171 ] The Manchester Museum opened to the public in the 1880s, has celebrated Egyptology and natural history collections. [ 172 ]
The municipally owned Manchester Art Gallery in Mosley Street houses a permanent collection of european paint and one of Britain ‘s main collections of Pre-Raphaelite paintings. [ 173 ] [ 174 ] In the south of the city, the Whitworth Art Gallery displays modern art, sculpt and textiles and was voted Museum of the class in 2015. [ 175 ] other exhibition spaces and museums in Manchester include Islington Mill in Salford, the National Football Museum at Urbis, Castlefield Gallery, the Manchester Costume Gallery at Platt Fields Park, the People ‘s History Museum and the Manchester Jewish Museum. [ 176 ] The work of Stretford -born painter L. S. Lowry, known for “ matchstick ” paintings of industrial Manchester and Salford, can be seen in the City and Whitworth Manchester galleries, and at the Lowry art center in Salford Quays ( in the neighbor borough of Salford ), which devotes a boastfully permanent exhibition to his works. [ 177 ]


Gaskell House, where Mrs Gaskell wrote most of her novels. The house is now a museum. Manchester is a UNESCO City of Literature known for a “ radical literary history ”. [ 178 ] [ 179 ] Manchester in the nineteenth century featured in works highlighting the changes that industrialization had brought. They include Elizabeth Gaskell ‘s novel Mary Barton: A Tale of Manchester Life ( 1848 ), [ 180 ] and studies such as The Condition of the Working Class in England in 1844 by Friedrich Engels, while living and working here. [ 181 ] Manchester was the touch set of Engels and Karl Marx. The two began writing The Communist Manifesto in Chetham ‘s Library [ 182 ] – founded in 1653 and claiming to be the oldest public library in the english-speaking earth. elsewhere in the city, the John Rylands Library holds an extensive collection of early impression. The Rylands Library Papyrus P52, believed to be the earliest extant New Testament textbook, is on permanent display there. [ 183 ]
Letitia Landon ‘s poem Manchester in Fisher ‘s Drawing Room Scrap Book, 1835, records the rapid growth of the city and its cultural importance. Charles Dickens is reputed to have set his fresh Hard Times in the city, and though partially modelled on Preston, it shows the influence of his supporter Mrs Gaskell. [ 184 ] Gaskell penned all her novels but Mary Barton at her home in 84 Plymouth Grove. Often her house played host to influential authors : Dickens, Charlotte Brontë, Harriet Beecher Stowe and Charles Eliot Norton, for model. [ 185 ] It is now outdoors as a literary museum. Charlotte Brontë began writing her fresh Jane Eyre in 1846, while staying at lodgings in Hulme. She was accompanying her father Patrick, who was convalescing in the city after cataract operation. [ 186 ] She probably envisioned Manchester Cathedral churchyard as the burying place for Jane ‘s parents and the birthplace of Jane herself. [ 187 ] besides associated with the city is the priggish poet and novelist Isabella Banks, famed for her 1876 fresh The Manchester Man. anglo-american generator Frances Hodgson Burnett was born in the city ‘s Cheetham Hill district in 1849, and wrote much of her classical children ‘s fresh The Secret Garden while visiting nearby Salford ‘s Buile Hill Park. [ 188 ] Anthony Burgess is among the 20th-century writers who made Manchester their home. He wrote here the dystopian sarcasm A Clockwork Orange in 1962. [ 189 ] Dame Carol Ann Duffy, Poet Laureate from 2009 to 2019, moved to the city in 1996 and lives in West Didsbury. [ 190 ]


The night-time economy of Manchester has expanded significantly since about 1993, with investment from breweries in bars, public houses and clubs, along with active accompaniment from the local authorities. [ 191 ] The more than 500 accredited premises [ 192 ] in the city center have a capacity to deal with more than 250,000 visitors, [ 193 ] with 110,000–130,000 people visiting on a typical weekend night, [ 192 ] make Manchester the most popular city for events at 79 per thousand people. [ 194 ] The night-time economy has a value of about £100 million. [ 195 ] and supports 12,000 jobs. [ 192 ] The Madchester view of the 1980s, from which groups including The Stone Roses, the Happy Mondays, Inspiral Carpets, 808 State, James and The Charlatans emerged, was based around clubs such as The Haçienda. [ 196 ] The period was the subject of the movie 24 Hour Party People. Many of the big clubs suffered problems with organize crime at that time ; Haslam describes one where staff were so wholly intimidated that unblock admission and drinks were demanded ( and given ) and drugs were openly cope. [ 196 ] Following a series of drug-related violent incidents, The Haçienda closed in 1997. [ 191 ]

Gay village

public houses in the Canal Street area have had an LGBTQ+ clientele since at least 1940, [ 191 ] and now form the center of Manchester ‘s LGBTQ+ community. Since the open of newly bars and clubs, the area attracts 20,000 visitors each weekend [ 191 ] and has hosted a democratic festival, Manchester Pride, each August since 1995. [ 197 ]


There are three universities in the City of Manchester. The University of Manchester, Manchester Metropolitan University and Royal Northern College of Music. The University of Manchester is the largest full-time non- collegiate university in the United Kingdom, created in 2004 by the amalgamation of Victoria University of Manchester, founded in 1904, and UMIST, founded in 1956 [ 198 ] having developed from the Mechanics ‘ Institute founded, as indicated in the university ‘s logo, in 1824. The University of Manchester includes the Manchester Business School, which offered the first gear MBA path in the UK in 1965. Manchester Metropolitan University was formed as Manchester Polytechnic on the fusion of three colleges in 1970. It gained university condition in 1992, and in the lapp year absorbed Crewe and Alsager College of Higher Education in South Cheshire. [ 199 ] The University of Law, the largest supplier of career legal train in Europe, has a campus in the city. [ 200 ] The three universities are grouped around Oxford Road on the southerly side of the city center, which forms Europe ‘s largest urban higher-education precinct. [ 201 ] together they have a combine population of 76,025 students in higher education as of 2015, [ 202 ] although about 6,000 of them were based at Manchester Metropolitan University ‘s campuses at Crewe and Alsager in Cheshire. [ 203 ] One of Manchester ‘s noteworthy secondary schools is Manchester Grammar School. Established in 1515, [ 204 ] as a dislodge grammar school next to what is immediately the cathedral, it moved in 1931 to Old Hall Lane in Fallowfield, south Manchester, to accommodate the growing scholar body. In the post-war period, it was a direct grant grammar school ( i.e. partially state funded ), but it reverted to freelancer condition in 1976 after abolition of the direct-grant system. [ 205 ] Its previous premises are now used by Chetham ‘s School of Music. There are three schools nearby : William Hulme ‘s Grammar School, Withington Girls ‘ School and Manchester High School for Girls. In 2010, the Manchester Local Education Authority was ranked final out of Greater Manchester ‘s ten LEAs and 147th out of 150 in the state LEAs based on the share of pupils attaining at least five A*–C grades at General Certificate of Secondary Education ( GCSE ) including maths and English ( 38.6 per cent compared with the national average of 50.7 per penny ). The LEA besides had the highest happening of absences : 11.11 per penny of “ half-day sessions missed by pupils ”, well above the home average of 5.8 per penny. [ 206 ] [ 207 ] Of the schools in the LEA with 30 or more pupils, four had 90 per cent or more pupils achieving at least five A*–C grades at GCSE including maths and english : Manchester High School for Girls, St Bede ‘s College, Manchester Islamic High School for Girls, and The King David High School. Three managed 25 per cent or less : plant Hill Arts College, North Manchester High School for Boys, Brookway High School and Sports College. [ 208 ]


manchester is well known as a city of sport. [ 209 ] Two decorated Premier League football clubs bear the city mention – Manchester United and Manchester City. [ 210 ] Manchester United play its home games at Old Trafford, in the Manchester suburb of Trafford, the largest cabaret football ground in the United Kingdom. [ 211 ] Manchester City ‘s base ground is the City of Manchester Stadium ( besides known as the Etihad Stadium for sponsorship purposes ) ; its former ground, Maine Road was demolished in 2003. The City of Manchester Stadium was initially built as the main athletics stadium for the 2002 Commonwealth Games and was then reconfigured into a football stadium before Manchester City ‘s arrival. Manchester has hosted domestic, continental and international football competitions at Fallowfield Stadium, Maine Road, Old Trafford and the City of Manchester Stadium. Competitions hosted in city include the FIFA World Cup ( 1966 ), UEFA european Football Championship ( 1996 ), Olympic Football ( 2012 ), UEFA Champions League Final ( 2003 ), UEFA Cup Final ( 2008 ), four FA Cup Finals ( 1893, 1911, 1915, 1970 ) and three League Cup Finals ( 1977, 1978, 1984 ). excellent sporting facilities were built for the 2002 Commonwealth Games, including the City of Manchester Stadium, the National Squash Centre and the Manchester Aquatics Centre. [ 212 ] Manchester has competed doubly to host the Olympic Games, beaten by Atlanta for 1996 and Sydney for 2000. The National Cycling Centre includes a velodrome, BMX Arena and Mountainbike trials, and is the home of british Cycling, UCI ProTeam Team Sky and Sky Track Cycling. The Manchester Velodrome was built as a depart of the invite for the 2000 games and has become a catalyst for british success in cycle. [ 191 ] The velodrome hosted the UCI Track Cycling World Championships for a record one-third prison term in 2008. The National Indoor BMX Arena ( 2,000 capacity ) adjacent to the velodrome opened in 2011. The Manchester Arena hosted the FINA World Swimming Championships in 2008. [ 213 ] Manchester Cricket Club evolved into Lancashire County Cricket Club and play at Old Trafford Cricket Ground, as do Manchester Originals, a newly city-based cricket team founded in 2019 which will play in the new cricket contest The Hundred, representing Lancashire and Manchester. Manchester besides hosted the World Squash Championships in 2008, [ 214 ] and besides hosted the 2010 World Lacrosse Championship in July 2010. [ 215 ] Recent sporting events hosted by Manchester include the 2013 Ashes series, 2013 Rugby League World Cup and the 2015 Rugby World Cup .


The Guardian newspaper was founded in the city in 1821 as The Manchester Guardian. Until 2008, its head agency was still in the city, though many of its management functions were moved to London in 1964. [ 19 ] [ 216 ] For many years most national newspapers had offices in Manchester : The Daily Telegraph, Daily Express, Daily Mail, Daily Mirror, The Sun. At its stature, 1,500 journalists were employed, earning the city the dub “ irregular Fleet Street “. In the 1980s the titles closed their northern offices and centred their operations in London. [ 217 ] The main regional newspaper in the city is the Manchester Evening News, which was for over 80 years the sister publication of The Manchester Guardian. [ 216 ] The Manchester Evening News has the largest circulation of a UK regional even newspaper and is distributed loose of charge in the city center on Thursdays and Fridays, but paid for in the suburb. Despite its title, it is available all day. [ 218 ] respective local weekly complimentary papers are distributed by the MEN group. The Metro North West is available free at Metrolink stops, fulminate stations and other busy locations. [ 219 ] An attempt to launch a Northern day by day newspaper, the North West Times, employing journalists made pleonastic by other titles, closed in 1988. [ 220 ] Another attempt was made with the North West Enquirer, which hoped to provide a truthful “ regional ” newspaper for the North West, much in the same vein as the Yorkshire Post does for Yorkshire or The Northern Echo does for the North East ; it folded in October 2006. [ 220 ]

television receiver

Manchester has been a center of television circulate since the 1950s. A number of television studios have been in mathematical process around the city, and have since relocated to MediaCityUK in neighbouring Salford. The ITV franchise Granada Television has been based in Manchester since 1954. now based at MediaCityUK, the company ‘s early headquarter at Granada Studios on Quay Street with its classifiable illuminated sign were a outstanding landmark on the Manchester horizon for several decades. [ 221 ] [ 222 ] [ 223 ] Granada produces Coronation Street, [ 224 ] local news and programmes for North West England. Although its influence has waned, Granada had been described as “ the best commercial television company in the earth ”. [ 225 ] [ 226 ] With the emergence in regional television in the 1950s, Manchester became one of the BBC ‘s three main centres in England. [ 222 ] In 1954, the BBC opened its first regional BBC Television studio outside London, Dickenson Road Studios, in a convert Methodist chapel in Rusholme. The first edition of Top of the Pops was broadcast here on New Year ‘s Day 1964. [ 227 ] [ 228 ] From 1975, BBC programmes including Mastermind, [ 229 ] and Real Story, [ 230 ] were made at New Broadcasting House on Oxford Road. The Cutting It series set in the city ‘s Northern Quarter and The Street were set in Manchester [ 231 ] as was Life on Mars. Manchester was the regional root for BBC One North West Region programmes before it relocated to MediaCityUK in nearby Salford Quays. [ 232 ] [ 233 ] The Manchester television channel, Channel M, owned by the defender Media Group operated from 2000, but closed in 2012. [ 222 ] [ 234 ] Manchester is besides covered by two internet television channels : Quays News and The city had a new tellurian channel from January 2014 when YourTV Manchester, which won the OFCOM license bid in February 2013. It began its first base broadcast, but in 2015, That ‘s Manchester took over to air travel on 31 May and launched the freeview duct 8 serve slot, before moving to channel 7 in April 2016 .


The city has the highest phone number of local radio stations outside London, including BBC Radio Manchester, Hits Radio Manchester, Capital Manchester, Greatest Hits Manchester, Heart North West, Smooth North West, Gold, NMFM ( North Manchester FM ) and XS Manchester. [ 235 ] [ 236 ] Student radio stations include Fuse FM at the University of Manchester and MMU Radio at the Manchester Metropolitan University. [ 237 ] A residential district radio network is coordinated by Radio Regen, with stations covering Ardwick, Longsight and Levenshulme ( All FM 96.9 ) and Wythenshawe ( Wythenshawe FM 97.2 ). [ 236 ] Defunct radio stations include Sunset 102, which became Kiss 102, then Galaxy Manchester ), and KFM which became Signal Cheshire ( now Imagine FM ). These stations and commandeer radio played a significant function in the city ‘s firm music culture, the Madchester scene .

International relations

Manchester has ball twinning arrangements ( or “ friendship agreements ” ) with respective places. [ 238 ] [ 239 ] In addition, the british Council maintains a metropolitan center in Manchester. [ 240 ]
Manchester is home to the largest group of consul in the UK outside London. The expansion of external trade links during the Industrial Revolution led to the insertion of the first consul in the 1820s and since then over 800, from all parts of the universe, have been based in Manchester. Manchester hosts consular services for most of the union of England. [ 242 ]

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