Rhythm and blues – Wikipedia

music genre that originated in african-american communities in the 1940s
“ R & B ” and “ RnB ” redirect hera. For the modern stylus of R & B music, see Contemporary R & B. For the japanese television station that uses the abbreviation RNB, see Nankai Broadcasting
Rhythm and blues, much abbreviated as R&B or R’n’B, [ 1 ] is a genre of popular music that originated in african-american communities in the 1940s. [ 2 ] The term was primitively used by record companies to describe recordings marketed predominantly to urban african Americans, at a clock time when “ polished, rocking, sleep together based music with a heavy, clamant beat ” was becoming more democratic. [ 3 ] In the commercial rhythm and blues music typical of the 1950s through the 1970s, the bands normally consisted of piano, one or two guitars, bass, drums, one or more saxophones, and sometimes setting vocalists. R & B lyrical themes often encapsulate the african-american experience of pain and the quest for freedom and rejoice, [ 4 ] deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as wallow and failures in terms of relationships, economics, and aspirations.

The condition “ rhythm method of birth control and blues ” has undergo a numeral of shifts in mean. In the early 1950s, it was frequently applied to blues records. [ 5 ] Starting in the mid-1950s, after this dash of music contributed to the development of rock ‘n’ roll and wheel, the term “ R & B ” became used to refer to music styles that developed from and incorporated electric blues, ampere well as gospel and soul music. From 1960s to 1970s, several British R & B musicians such as Jimmy James and the Vagabonds, Geno Washington, Carl Douglas, and Hot Chocolate gained hits. [ 6 ] Rock bands such as the Rolling Stones, the Who and the Animals were referred to and promoted as being R & B bands ; posters for the Who ‘s residency at the Marquee Club in 1964 contained the motto, “ Maximum R & B ”. [ 7 ] By the end of the 1970s, the condition “ cycle and blues ” had changed again and was used as a blanket condition for person and funk. In the former 1980s, a newer vogue of R & B developed, becoming known as “ contemporary R & B “. It combines rhythm and blues with elements of pop, person, funk, disco, hip hop, and electronic music .

Etymology, definitions and description [edit ]

Although Jerry Wexler of Billboard magazine is credited with coining the term “ rhythm and blues ” as a musical term in the United States in 1948, [ 8 ] the condition was used in Billboard angstrom early as 1943. [ 9 ] [ 10 ] It replaced the term “ race music “, which originally came from within the black residential district, but was deemed offense in the postwar world. [ 11 ] [ 12 ] The term “ cycle and blues ” was used by Billboard in its graph listings from June 1949 until August 1969, when its “ Hot Rhythm & Blues Singles ” graph was renamed as “ Best Selling Soul Singles ”. [ 13 ] Before the “ Rhythm and Blues ” name was instated, versatile record companies had already begun replacing the terminus “ slipstream music ” with “ sepia series ”. [ 14 ] Writer and producer Robert Palmer defined rhythm & blues as “ a catchall term referring to any music that was made by and for black Americans ”. [ 15 ] He has used the condition “ R & B ” as a synonym for jump blues. [ 16 ] however, AllMusic separates it from jump blues because of R & B ‘s stronger gospel influences. [ 17 ] Lawrence Cohn, writer of Nothing but the Blues, writes that “ rhythm method of birth control and blues ” was an umbrella term invented for industry public toilet. According to him, the term embraced all black music except classical music and religious music, unless a gospel song sold enough to break into the charts. [ 11 ] Well into the twenty-first century, the term R & B continues in use ( in some context ) to categorize music made by black musicians, as distinct from styles of music made by other musicians. In the commercial rhythm and blues music typical of the 1950s through the 1970s, the bands normally consisted of piano, one or two guitars, bass, drums, and sax. Arrangements were rehearsed to the point of effortlessness and were sometimes accompanied by backdrop vocalists. Simple insistent parts mesh topology, creating momentum and rhythmical interplay producing mellow, lilt, and often soporific textures while calling care to no individual audio. While singers are emotionally engaged with the lyrics, often intensely so, they remain cool, loosen, and in control. The bands dressed in suits, and even uniforms, a practice associated with the modern democratic music that rhythm and blues performers aspired to dominate. Lyrics often seemed fatalist, and the music typically followed predictable patterns of chords and social organization. [ 18 ] One publication of the Smithsonian Institution provided this compendious of the origins of the music genre in 2016 .

“ A distinctly african american music drawing from the deep tributaries of african American expressive polish, it is an amalgam of jump blues, big band swing, gospel, boogie, and blues that was initially developed during a thirty-year period that bridges the era of legally sanctioned racial segregation, international conflicts, and the conflict for civil rights ”. [ 19 ]

The condition “ rock ‘n’ roll and roll ” had a firm sexual connotation in jump blues and R & B, but when DJ Alan Freed referred to rock and roll on mainstream radio in the mid-1950s, “ the sexual component had been dialled down enough that it plainly became an acceptable term for dancing ”. [ 20 ]

history [edit ]

Precursors [edit ]

The capital migration of Black Americans to the urban industrial centers of Chicago, Detroit, New York City, Los Angeles and elsewhere in the 1920s and 1930s created a new market for wind, blues, and relate genres of music. These genres of music were much performed by full-time musicians, either working alone or in small groups. The precursors of rhythm and blues came from sleep together and blues, which overlapped in the late-1920s and 1930s through the work of musicians such as the Harlem Hamfats, with their 1936 hit “ Oh Red ”, ampere well as Lonnie Johnson, Leroy Carr, Cab Calloway, Count Basie, and T-Bone Walker. There was besides increasing vehemence on the electric guitar as a lead instrument, ampere well as the piano and sax. [ 21 ]

late 1940s [edit ]

In 1948, RCA Victor was marketing black music under the name “ Blues and Rhythm ”. In that year, Louis Jordan dominated the top five listings of the R & B charts with three songs, and two of the peak five songs were based on the boogie rhythm that had come to prominence during the 1940s. [ 22 ] Jordan ‘s band, the Tympany Five ( formed in 1938 ), consisted of him on sax and vocals, along with musicians on trumpet, tenor sax, piano, bass and drums. [ 23 ] [ 24 ] Lawrence Cohn described the music as “ grittier than his boogie-era jazz-tinged blues ”. [ 11 ] : 173 Robert Palmer described it as “ polished, rocking, jazz-based music with a heavy, insistent beat ”. [ 3 ] Jordan ‘s music, along with that of Big Joe Turner, Roy Brown, Billy Wright, and Wynonie Harris, is now besides referred to as leap blues. already Paul Gayten, Roy Brown, and others had had hits in the style now referred to as cycle and blues. In 1948, Wynonie Harris ‘s remake of Brown ‘s 1947 recording “ good Rockin ‘ Tonight “ reached number two on the charts, following ring drawing card Sonny Thompson ‘s “ Long die ” at number one. [ 25 ] [ 26 ] In 1949, the term “ Rhythm and Blues ” ( R & B ) replaced the Billboard category Harlem Hit Parade. [ 11 ] besides in that year, “ The Huckle-Buck “, recorded by band drawing card and saxophonist Paul Williams, was the count one R & B tune, remaining on top of the charts for about the stallion year. Written by musician and organizer Andy Gibson, the birdcall was described as a “ dirty boogie ” because it was blue and begrimed. [ 27 ] Paul Williams and His Hucklebuckers ‘ concerts were sweaty exuberant affairs that got shut down on more than one occasion. Their lyrics, by Roy Alfred ( who late co-wrote the 1955 hit “ ( The ) Rock and Roll Waltz “ ), were mildly sexually indicative, and one adolescent from Philadelphia said “ That Hucklebuck was a very filthy dance ”. [ 28 ] [ 29 ] besides in 1949, a new version of a 1920s blues birdcall, “ Ai n’t Nobody ‘s Business “ was a issue four strike for Jimmy Witherspoon, and Louis Jordan and the Tympany Five once again made the top five with “ Saturday Night Fish Fry “. [ 30 ] Many of these strike records were issued on new mugwump record labels, such as Savoy ( establish 1942 ), King ( establish 1943 ), Imperial ( establish 1945 ), Specialty ( establish 1946 ), Chess ( establish 1947 ), and Atlantic ( establish 1948 ). [ 21 ]

Afro-Cuban rhythmical determine [edit ]

african American music began incorporating Afro-Cuban rhythmical motifs in the 1800s with the popularity of the Cuban contradanza ( known outside of Cuba as the habanera ). [ 31 ] The habanera rhythm can be thought of as a combination of tresillo and the backbeat .
The habanera rhythm shown as tresillo ( lower notes ) with the backbeat ( upper berth note ). For the more than a quarter-century in which the cakewalk, ragtime and proto-jazz were forming and developing, the Cuban genre habanera exerted a changeless presence in african american popular music. [ 32 ] Jazz initiate Jelly Roll Morton considered the tresillo/habanera rhythm ( which he called the spanish tinge ) to be an essential ingredient of sleep together. [ 33 ] There are examples of tresillo-like rhythm in some african american family music such as the hand-clapping and foot-stomping patterns in ring shout, post-Civil War drum and fife music, and New Orleans irregular pipeline music. [ 34 ] Wynton Marsalis considers tresillo to be the New Orleans “ clave ” ( although technically, the blueprint is only half a clave ). [ 35 ] Tresillo is the most basic duple-pulse rhythmical cell in sub-saharan african music traditions, and its use in african american english music is one of the clearest examples of african rhythmical retentiveness in the United States. [ 36 ] The manipulation of tresillo was endlessly reinforced by the consecutive waves of Cuban music, which were adopted into north american popular polish. In 1940 Bob Zurke released “ Rhumboogie, ” a boogie with a tresillo bass occupation, and lyrics proudly declaring the adoption of Cuban cycle :

Harlem ‘s got a new rhythm, man it ‘s burning up the dance floors because it ‘s so hot ! They took a small rhumba rhythm and added boogie and nowadays look what they got ! Rhumboogie, it ‘s Harlem ‘s modern creation with the Cuban syncopation, it ‘s the cause of death ! Just plant your both feet on each side. Let both your hips and shoulder glide. then throw your body back and ride. There ‘s nothing like rhumbaoogie, rhumboogie, boogie. In Harlem or Havana, you can kiss the previous Savannah. It ‘s a cause of death ! [ 37 ]

Although originating in the city at the mouth of the Mississippi River, New Orleans blues, with its Afro-Caribbean rhythmical traits, is discrete from the sound of the Mississippi Delta blues. [ 38 ] In the deep 1940s, New Orleans musicians were particularly receptive to Cuban influences precisely at the time when R & B was first form. [ 39 ] The first base use of tresillo in R & B occurred in New Orleans. Robert Palmer recalls :

New Orleans producer-bandleader Dave Bartholomew first employed this figure ( as a saxophone-section flick ) on his own 1949 disc “ Country Boy ” and subsequently helped make it the most over-used rhythmical pattern in 1950s rock ‘n’ roll ‘n ‘ hustle. On numerous recordings by Fats Domino, Little Richard and others, Bartholomew assigned this repeating three-note convention not precisely to the bowed stringed instrument bass, but besides to electric guitars and even baritone sax, making for a very grave bottom. He recalls first hearing the name – as a sea bass pattern on a Cuban disk. [ 40 ]

In a 1988 interview with Palmer, Bartholomew ( who had the first R & B studio band ), [ 41 ] revealed how he initially superimposed tresillo over swing rhythm :

I heard the bass dally that separate on a ‘rumba ‘ record. On ‘Country Boy ‘ I had my bass and drums playing a straight swing cycle and wrote out that ‘rumba ‘ bass part for the saxes to play on top of the baseball swing cycle. Later, particularly after rock ‘n ‘ roll came along, I made the ‘rumba ‘ bass function heavy and heavier. I ‘d have the string bass, an electric guitar and a baritone all in unison. [ 42 ]

Bartholomew referred to the Cuban son by the misnomer rumba, a common rehearse of that time. Fats Domino ‘s “ Blue Monday, ” produced by Bartholomew, is another case of this now authoritative habit of tresillo in R & B. Bartholomew ‘s 1949 tresillo-based “ Oh Cubanas ” is an attack to blend african american english and Afro-Cuban music. The password mambo, larger than any of the early text, is placed prominently on the record label. In his musical composition “ Misery, ” New Orleans pianist Professor Longhair plays a habanera-like name in his bequeath hand. [ citation needed ] The deft practice of triplets is a characteristic of Longhair ‘s stylus .

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” height=”116″ src=”http://upload.wikimedia.org/score/m/z/mzdnmhsoqpzdvv5a9hy6j6x6mbefxhz/mzdnmhso.png” width=”718″/> Audio playback is not supported in your browser. You can download the audio file   Gerhard Kubik notes that with the exception of New Orleans, early blues lacked complex polyrhythms, and there was a “ very specific absence of asymmetrical time-line patterns ( keystone patterns ) in about all early-twentieth-century african american music … only in some New Orleans genres does a hint of simple time line patterns occasionally appear in the form of transient alleged ‘stomp ‘ patterns or stop-time chorus. These do not function in the lapp way as african timelines. ” [ 43 ] In the former 1940s, this changed reasonably when the two-celled time line structure was brought into the blues. New Orleans musicians such as Bartholomew and Longhair incorporated Cuban instruments, deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as the clave practice and associate two-celled figures in songs such as “ Carnival Day, ” ( Bartholomew 1949 ) and “ Mardi Gras In New Orleans ” ( Longhair 1949 ). While some of these early experiments were awkward fusions, the Afro-Cuban elements were finally integrated in full into the New Orleans voice. Robert Palmer reports that, in the 1940s, Professor Longhair listened to and played with musicians from the islands and “ fell under the spell of Perez Prado ‘s mambo records. ” [ 44 ] He was specially enamored with Afro-Cuban music. Michael Campbell states : “ Professor Longhair ‘s influence was … far-reaching. In several of his early recordings, Professor Longhair blended Afro-Cuban rhythm method of birth control with rhythm and blues. The most explicit is ‘Longhair ‘s Blues Rhumba, ‘ where he overlays a square blues with a clave cycle. ” [ 45 ] Longhair ‘s particular style was known locally as <i>rumba-boogie</i>. [ 46 ] In his “ Mardi Gras in New Orleans, ” the pianist employs the 2–3 clave onbeat/offbeat motif in a rhumba boogie “ guajeo “. [ 47 ]<br />
<img loading= Piano excerpt from the rumba boogie “ Mardi Gras in New Orleans ” ( 1949 ) by Professor Longhair. 2–3 claves are written above for rhythmical citation. The syncopate, but straight subdivision feel of Cuban music ( as opposed to swung subdivisions ) took root in New Orleans R & B during this clock time. Alexander Stewart states that the democratic palpate was passed along from “ New Orleans—through James Brown ‘s music, to the popular music of the 1970s, ” adding : “ The singular style of rhythm & blues that emerged from New Orleans in the years after World War II played an crucial role in the development of funk. In a relate development, the underlying cycle of american popular music undergo a basic, yet the broadly unacknowledged transition from three or shuffle tactile property to even or uncoiled eighth notes. [ 48 ] Concerning the assorted funk motifs, Stewart states that this model “ … is different from a time trace ( such as clave and tresillo ) in that it is not an demand pattern, but more of a unaffixed organizing principle. ” [ 49 ] Johnny Otis released the R & B mambo “ Mambo Boogie ” in January 1951, featuring conga, maraca, claves, and mambo sax guajeos in a blues progress. [ 50 ] Ike Turner recorded “ Cubano Jump ” ( 1954 ) an electric guitar instrumental, which is built around several 2–3 clave figures, adopted from the mambo. The Hawketts, in “ Mardi Gras Mambo “ ( 1955 ) ( featuring the vocals of a young Art Neville ), make a clear mention to Perez Prado in their practice of his brand “ Unhh ! ” in the break after the introduction. [ 51 ] Ned Sublette states : “ The electric blues cats were very good mindful of Latin music, and there was decidedly such a thing as rhumba blues ; you can hear Muddy Waters and Howlin ‘ Wolf playing it. ” [ 52 ] He besides cites Otis Rush, Ike Turner and Ray Charles, as R & B artists who employed this feel. [ 52 ] The manipulation of clave in R & B coincided with the growing authority of the backbeat, and the rising popularity of Cuban music in the U.S. In a feel, clave can be distilled down to tresillo ( three-side ) answered by the backbeat ( two-side ). [ 53 ]
3–2 clave written in two measures in cut-time.

Tresillo answered by the backbeat, the perfume of clave in african american music. The “ Bo Diddley beatnik “ ( 1955 ) is possibly the first true fusion of 3–2 clave and R & B/rock ‘n ‘ roller. Bo Diddley has given different accounts of the riff ‘s origins. Sublette asserts : “ In the context of the time, and particularly those maraca [ hear on the record ], ‘Bo Diddley ‘ has to be understood as a Latin-tinged criminal record. A disapprove cut recorded at the like session was titled lone ‘Rhumba ‘ on the track sheets. ” [ 52 ] Johnny Otis ‘s “ Willie and the Hand Jive ” ( 1958 ) is another example of this successful blend of 3–2 claves and R & B. otis used the Cuban instruments claves and maraca on the sung .
Afro-Cuban music was the conduit by which african American music was “ re-Africanized, ” through the adoption of two-celled figures like clave and Afro-Cuban instruments like the conga brake drum, bongo, maraca and claves. According to John Storm Roberts, R & B became the vehicle for the return key of Cuban elements into mass popular music. [ 54 ] Ahmet Ertegun, producer for Atlantic Records, is reported to have said that “ Afro-Cuban cycle added color and excitement to the basic drive of R & B. ” [ 55 ] As Ned Sublette points out though : “ By the 1960s, with Cuba the object of a United States embargo that distillery remains in effect today, the island nation had been forgotten as a reservoir of music. By the time people began to talk about rock ‘n’ roll and roll as having a history, Cuban music had vanished from north american awareness. ”

early to mid-1950s [edit ]

At first, only african Americans were buying R & B magnetic disk. According to Jerry Wexler of Atlantic Records, sales were localized in african-american markets ; there were no white sales or ashen radio play. During the early 1950s, more blank teenagers started to become mindful of R & B and began purchasing the music. For model, 40 % of 1952 sales at Dolphin ‘s of Hollywood criminal record patronize, located in an african-american sphere of Los Angeles, were to whites. finally, white teens across the country turned their musical sample toward cycle and blues. [ 57 ] Johnny Otis, who had signed with the Newark, New Jersey-based Savoy Records, produced many R & B hits in 1951, including “ double Crossing Blues “, “ Mistrustin ‘ Blues ” and “ Cupid ‘s Boogie “, all of which hit number one that class. Otis scored ten top ten hits that year. other hits include “ Gee Baby “, “ Mambo Boogie ” and “ All Nite Long ”. [ 58 ] The Clovers, a quintet dwell of a vocal music quartet with accompanying guitarist, sang a distinctive-sounding combination of blues and gospel, had the issue five hit of the year with “ Do n’t You Know I Love You “ on Atlantic. [ 58 ] [ 60 ] [ 61 ] besides in July 1951, Cleveland, Ohio DJ Alan Freed started a late-night radio receiver display called “ The Moondog Rock Roll House Party ” on WJW ( 850 AM ). [ 62 ] [ 63 ] Freed ‘s show was sponsored by Fred Mintz, whose R & B record storehouse had a chiefly african American clientele. Freed began referring to the rhythm and blues music he played as “ rock and roll ”. In 1951, Little Richard Penniman began recording for RCA Records in the rise blues style of deep 1940s stars Roy Brown and Billy Wright. however, it was not until he recorded a show in 1954 that caught the attention of forte Records that the global would start to hear his newly uptempo fetid rhythm and blues that would catapult him to fame in 1955 and help define the sound of rock ‘n ‘ wind. A rapid succession of cycle and blues hits followed, beginning with “ Tutti Frutti “ and “ Long Tall Sally “, which would influence performers such as James Brown, [ 65 ] Elvis Presley, [ 66 ] and Otis Redding. [ 67 ]
Ruth Brown, performing on the Atlantic label, placed hits in the top five every year from 1951 through 1954 : “ Teardrops from My Eyes “, “ Five, Ten, Fifteen Hours ”, “ ( Mama ) He Treats Your Daughter Mean “ and “ What a dream “. Faye Adams ‘s “ Shake a Hand “ made it to number two in 1952. In 1953, the R & B record-buying public made Willie Mae Thornton ‘s original record of Leiber and Stoller ‘s “ Hound Dog “ the class ‘s number three hit. Ruth Brown was very big among female R & B stars ; her popularity most likely came from “ her profoundly root outspoken rescue in african american tradition ” [ 70 ] [ 71 ] That lapp year The Orioles, a doo-wop group, had the numeral four strike of the class with “ Crying in the Chapel “. [ 72 ] Fats Domino made the top 30 of the popular charts in 1952 and 1953, then the top 10 with “ Ai n’t That a Shame “. [ 74 ] Ray Charles came to national prominence in 1955 with “ I Got a Woman “. big Bill Broonzy said of Charles ‘s music : “ He ‘s mixing the blues with the spirituals … I know that ‘s wrong. ” [ 11 ] : 173 In 1954 the Chords ‘ “ Sh-Boom “ became the first hit to cross over from the R & B chart to hit the top 10 early in the year. Late in the year, and into 1955, “ Hearts of Stone “ by the Charms made the top 20. [ 77 ] At Chess Records in the leap of 1955, Bo Diddley ‘s debut record “ Bo Diddley “ / ” I ‘m a man “ climbed to number two on the R & B charts and popularized Bo Diddley ‘s own original rhythm and blues clave-based coquette that would become a anchor in rock and roll. At the recommend of Leonard Chess at Chess Records, Chuck Berry reworked a country fiddle tune with a long history, entitled “ Ida Red “. The resulting “ Maybellene “ was not only a number three shoot on the R & B charts in 1955, but besides reached into the top 30 on the pop charts. Alan Freed, who had moved to the much larger market of New York City in 1954, helped the record become popular with white teenagers. Freed had been given depart of the writing citation by Chess in render for his promotional activities, a common practice at the time. [ 80 ] R & B was besides a firm influence on rock and axial rotation according to many sources, including an article in the Wall Street Journal in 1985 titled, “ rock candy ! It ‘s still Rhythm and Blues ”. In fact, the writer stated that the “ two terms were used interchangeably ” until about 1957. The other sources quoted in the article said that rock candy and hustle combined R & B with start and country music. [ 81 ] Fats Domino was not convinced that there was any new genre. In 1957, he said, “ What they call rock ‘n ‘ roll now is rhythm and blues. I ’ ve been playing it for 15 years in New Orleans ”. [ 82 ] According to Rolling Stone, “ this is a valid statement … all Fifties rockers, black and white, area born and city bred, were basically influenced by R & B, the bootleg popular music of the recently Forties and early on Fifties ”. [ 83 ]

late 1950s [edit ]

In 1956, an R & B “ Top Stars of ’56 ” tour took set, with headliners Al Hibbler, Frankie Lymon and the Teenagers, and Carl Perkins, whose “ Blue Suede Shoes “ was identical popular with R & B music buyers. [ 84 ] Some of the performers completing the bill were Chuck Berry, Cathy Carr, Shirley & Lee, Della Reese, Sam “ T-Bird ” Jensen, the Cleftones, and the Spaniels with Illinois Jacquet ‘s big Rockin ‘ Rhythm Band. [ 85 ] Cities visited by the go included Columbia, South Carolina ; Annapolis, Maryland ; Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania ; Syracuse, Rochester and Buffalo, New York ; and other cities. [ citation needed ] In Columbia, the concert ended with a cheeseparing rioting as Perkins began his first birdcall as the close act. Perkins is quoted as saying, “ It was dangerous. Lot of kids got hurt ”. In Annapolis, 50,000 to 70,000 people tried to attend a sold-out performance with 8,000 seats. Roads were clogged for seven hours. [ 86 ] Filmmakers took advantage of the popularity of “ cycle and blues ” musicians as “ rock normality roll ” musicians beginning in 1956. little Richard, Chuck Berry, Fats Domino, Big Joe Turner, the Treniers, the Platters, and the Flamingos all made it onto the bad screen. [ 87 ] Two Elvis Presley records made the R & B top five in 1957 : “ Jailhouse Rock “ / ” Treat Me Nice “ at number one, and “ All Shook Up “ at number five, an unprecedented toleration of a non-African american artist into a music class known for being created by blacks. [ 88 ] Nat King Cole, besides a jazz pianist who had two hits on the start charts in the early 1950s ( “ Mona Lisa “ at number two in 1950 and “ Too Young “ at numeral one in 1951 ), had a phonograph record in the clear five in the R & B charts in 1958, “ Looking Back “ / ” Do I Like It ”. In 1959, two black-owned record labels, one of which would become enormously successful, made their debut : Sam Cooke ‘s Sar and Berry Gordy ‘s Motown Records. [ 90 ] Brook Benton was at the top of the R & B charts in 1959 and 1960 with one numeral one and two phone number two hits. [ 91 ] Benton had a certain warmth in his voice that attracted a wide assortment of listeners, and his ballads led to comparisons with performers such as Nat King Cole, Frank Sinatra and Tony Bennett. [ 92 ] Lloyd Price, who in 1952 had a number one reach with “ Lawdy Miss Clawdy “, regained predominance with a version of “ Stagger Lee “ at issue one and “ Personality “ at number five in 1959. [ 93 ] [ 94 ] The flannel bandleader of the Bill Black Combo, Bill Black, who had helped start Elvis Presley ‘s career and was Elvis ‘s bassist in the 1950s, was popular with black listeners. [ citation needed ] Ninety percentage of his record sales were from black people, and his “ Smokie, Part 2 “ ( 1959 ) rose to the act one place on black music charts. [ citation needed ] He was once told that “ a distribute of those stations still think you ‘re a black group because the audio feels funky and black. “ [ citation needed ] Hi Records did not feature pictures of the Combo on early records. [ 95 ]
Sam Cooke ‘s count five hit “ Chain Gang “ is indicative mood of R & B in 1960, as is pop rocker Chubby Checker ‘s number five hit “ The Twist “. [ 96 ] [ 97 ] By the early 1960s, the music industry category previously known as rhythm method of birth control and blues was being called person music, and exchangeable music by white artists was labeled blue-eyed soul. [ 99 ] Motown Records had its first million-selling one in 1960 with the Miracles ‘ “ Shop Around “, and in 1961, Stax Records had its first hit with Carla Thomas ‘s “ Gee Whiz ( Look at His Eyes ) “. [ 101 ] [ 102 ] Stax ‘s following major hit, The Mar-Keys ‘ implemental “ last Night “ ( besides released in 1961 ), introduced the raw Memphis soul good for which Stax became known. [ 103 ] In Jamaica, R & B influenced the development of ska. [ 104 ] [ 105 ] In 1969, black culture and rhythm and blues reached another great accomplishment when the Grammys added the Rhythm and Blues class, giving academician recognition to the class. [ citation needed ] By the 1970s, the term “ rhythm and blues ” was being used as a blanket term for soul, funk, and disco. [ 106 ]

1980s to present [edit ]

In the deep 1980s and early 1990s, hip-hop started to capture the resource of America ‘s youth. R & B started to become homogenize, with a group of high-profile producers responsible for most R & B hits. It was hard for R & B artists of the earned run average to sell their music or even have their music heard because of the surface of hip-hop, but some adopted a “ hip-hop ” prototype, were marketed as such, and often featured rappers on their songs. Newer artists such as Usher, R. Kelly, Janet Jackson, TLC, Aaliyah, Destiny ‘s Child, Tevin Campbell and Mary J. Blige enjoyed achiever. L.A. Reid, the CEO of LaFace Records, was creditworthy for some of R & B ‘s greatest successes in the 1990s in the form of Usher, TLC and Toni Braxton. Later, Reid successfully marketed Boyz II Men. [ 107 ] In 2004, 80 % of the songs that topped the R & B charts were besides at the top of the Hot 100. That period was the all-time peak for R & B and hip hop on the Billboard Hot 100 and on top 40 Radio. [ 108 ] From about 2005 to 2013, R & B sales declined. [ 109 ] however, since 2010, rap has started to take cues from the R & B sound, choosing to adopt a softer, smoother voice that incorporates traditional R & B with rappers such as Drake, who has opened an entire modern door for the genre. This sound has gained in popularity and created bang-up controversy for both hip-hop and R & B as to how to identify it. [ 110 ]

Jews in the business end of rhythm and blues [edit ]

According to the jewish writer, music publish executive, and songwriter Arnold Shaw, during the 1940s in the US, there was generally little opportunity for Jews in the WASP -controlled kingdom of bulk communications, but the music business was “ wide open for Jews as it was for blacks. ” [ 111 ] Jews played a key character in developing and popularizing african american music, including rhythm method of birth control and blues, and the autonomous read commercial enterprise was dominated by young jewish men who promoted the sounds of black music. [ 112 ]

british rhythm and blues [edit ]

british rhythm and blues and blues rock developed in the early on 1960s, largely as a response to the recordings of american artists, frequently brought over by african american english servicemen stationed in Britain or seamen visiting ports such as London, Liverpool, Newcastle and Belfast. [ 113 ] many bands, particularly in the originate London club scenery, tried to emulate black cycle and blues performers, resulting in a “ crude ” or “ grittier ” audio than the more democratic “ beat groups “. [ 115 ] During the 1960s, Geno Washington, the Foundations, and the Equals gained pop hits. [ 116 ] Many British black musicians helped form the british R & B scene. These included Geno Washington, an american singer stationed in England with the Air Force. He was invited to join what became Geno Washington & the Ram Jam Band by guitarist Pete Gage in 1965 and enjoyed peak 40 hit singles and two lead 10 albums before the isthmus split up in 1969. [ 117 ] Another american GI, Jimmy James, born in Jamaica, moved to London after two local number one hits in 1960 with The Vagabonds, who built a impregnable reputation as a survive act. They released a bouncy album and their studio apartment debut, The New Religion, in 1966 and achieved moderate success with a few singles before the master Vagabonds broke up in 1970. [ 118 ] White blues rock musician Alexis Korner formed new jazz rock ‘n’ roll band CCS in 1970. [ 119 ] matter to in the blues would influence major british rock musicians, including Eric Clapton, Mick Taylor, Peter Green, and John Mayall, the groups Free and Cream adopted an interest in a wide range of rhythm and blues styles. [ 115 ] The Rolling Stones became the moment most popular UK band ( after The Beatles ) and led the “ british Invasion “ of the US popular charts. [ 115 ] The Rolling Stones covered Bobby Womack & the Valentinos ‘ [ 121 ] song It ‘s All over now “, giving them their foremost UK phone number one in 1964. [ 122 ] Under the influence of blues and R & B, bands such as the Rolling Stones, the Yardbirds, and the Animals, and more jazz-influenced bands like the Graham Bond Organisation and Zoot Money, had blue-eyed soul albums. [ 115 ] White R & B musicians popular in the UK included Steve Winwood, Frankie Miller, Scott Walker & the Walker Brothers, the Animals from Newcastle, the Spencer Davis Group, and Van Morrison & Them from Belfast. [ 115 ] none of these bands entirely played rhythm method of birth control and blues, but it remained at the core of their early on albums. [ 115 ] Champion Jack Dupree was a New Orleans blues and boogie woogie pianist who toured Europe and settled there from 1960, living in Switzerland and Denmark, then in Halifax, England in the 1970s and 1980s, before ultimately settling in Germany. [ 124 ] From the ’70s to ’80s, Carl Douglas, Hot Chocolate, Delegation, Junior, Central Line, Princess, Jacki Graham, David Grant, the Loose Ends, the Pasadenas and Soul II Soul gained hits on start or R & B chart. [ 125 ] The music of the british mod subculture grew out of rhythm method of birth control and blues and late person performed by artists who were not available to the little London clubs where the fit originated. [ 126 ] In the late ’60s, The Who performed American R & B songs such as the Motown hit “ Heat Wave ”, a song which reflected the young mod life style. [ 126 ] Many of these bands enjoyed national success in the UK, but found it unmanageable to break into the american english music market. [ 126 ] The british White R & B bands produced music which was very unlike in tone from that of african-american artists. [ 115 ]

See besides [edit ]

References [edit ]

foster read and listening [edit ]

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